航空航天港

 找回密码
 注册会员

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

返回列表
楼主: hkhtg090201
收起左侧

[任务跟踪] NASA2011年11月发射的火星科学实验室(MSL/Curiosity好奇):向夏普山进发

[复制链接]
zhang 发表于 2011-5-21 22:55 | 显示全部楼层


在 JPL 完成分系统 spin table 平衡测试。即将在卡角组装后全系统灌满燃料后再测试。
zhang 发表于 2011-5-21 22:58 | 显示全部楼层


巡航级没有可展开的太阳能电池板
cmj9808 发表于 2011-5-21 23:33 | 显示全部楼层
NASA的四个火星车(mars pathfinder,MER兄弟和MSL)的巡航级都使用附着式的太阳能板,而两个着陆器(mars polar lander和 pheonix)的巡航级都使用展开式的太阳能板。这是巧合还是出于何种考虑?
zhang 发表于 2011-5-21 23:51 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zhang 于 2011-5-21 23:54 编辑
cmj9808 发表于 2011-5-21 23:33
NASA的四个火星车(mars pathfinder,MER兄弟和MSL)的巡航级都使用附着式的太阳能板,而两个着陆器(mars  ...

http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1999-001A

MPL 和 Phoenix lander 是三轴稳定,

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/MPF/mpf/mpfcruise.html

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/mission/spacecraft/cruiseconfig/

Rover 那一路是旋转稳定。

点评

多谢  发表于 2011-5-23 16:52
受教了  发表于 2011-5-22 00:00
bestman2010 发表于 2011-5-22 10:30 | 显示全部楼层
总参长说错了,我看落后不止20年啊。。。。。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-6-7 20:39 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-6-8 19:53 编辑

NASA将很快选定火星漫游车着陆地点(上)

新闻发布时间:2011-06-07

  [据美国飞行现在时网站2011年6月5日报道]  NASA的官员们正处于决定“好奇”号火星漫游车目的地的最后阶段。科学家们已从数十个候选着陆地点中筛选出4个最终候选地点。现在轮到项目经理与NASA的最高层官员决定“好奇”号漫游车开展研究的最终着陆地点了。“好奇”号火星车计划于2011年11月25日发射,预计最早于2012年8月6日抵达火星。
  
  四个最终候选地点为:“埃伯斯瓦尔德”(Eberswalde)环形山,“盖尔”(Gale)环形山,“霍尔顿”(Holden)环形山与“矛尔兹”(Mawrth)山谷。
  
  着陆地点筹划指导委员会联合主席格罗姆贝克(Matt Golombek)表示:“所有4个着陆地点都能为‘好奇’号提供广阔的探测前景。不同的地点适宜进行不同的科学活动。从中选择一个地点是件困难的事情。”据称,最终决定将由NASA分管科学任务的副局长韦勒(Ed Weiler)于2011年7月底公布。
  
  火星科学实验室(MSL)任务的项目经理泰辛格(Pete Theisinger)表示,着陆地点的选择将影响航天器飞行路径的设计,NASA将于2011年8月前将最终的轨道信息告知发射团队。MSL办公室将会在本周召开的会议上确定他们推荐的最终着陆地点,而该决定必须得到NASA喷气推进实验室经理们的批准,最终由韦勒决定。
  
  漫游车的精确着陆系统可使工程师们准确锁定着陆地点,避开环形山群、巨砾地区以及山脉。来自火星勘察轨道器卫星的高分辨率立体图像提供了每个着陆地点的详细地图。与NASA之前的漫游车任务不同,“好奇”号将不用气囊着陆。早前的火星漫游车在表面着陆时需要充气气囊缓冲,经过反弹与滚动,最终停下的位置与初始着地点将相差1英里(1.6千米)。“好奇”号的火箭辅助着地系统将使用空中起重器(sky crane vehicle)控制漫游车轻缓地降落在火星表面。因此,工程师们不必担心漫游车在弹跳过程中可能遇到的尖利岩石或环形山了。
  
  泰辛格表示,所有4个候选地点在工程师们看来具有相同的安全性,各方面条件差异很小。参与过之前漫游车着陆点决策过程的格罗姆贝克表示,以往的任务在决策着陆点的时候关注的是工程问题,而这次完全是考虑科学问题。
  
    泰辛格表示,漫游车的目的地是一个25千米×20千米的椭圆区域。2011年夏天即将进行更加细致的导航定位,加上发射后的实际轨迹预测,将使这个目标椭圆区域更加精确。 (中国航天工程咨询中心  张贤明  王宜晓)


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NASA将很快选定火星漫游车着陆地点(下)(图)

新闻发布时间:2011-06-07


  
上图为“火星科学实验室”任务4个最终候选着陆地点图像。从左上按顺时针方向依次为:“埃伯斯瓦尔德”环形山、“盖尔”环形山、“矛尔兹”山谷以及“霍尔顿”环形山。

    [据美国飞行现在时网站2011年6月5日报道]  所有4个着陆地点都显示出水曾经存在过的有力证据。
  
  科学家们希望那些地方今天仍然存在有机分子。这4个着陆地点中,两个着陆地点位于火星南半球,一个位于火星北半球,剩下的一个位于火星赤道附近。
  
  “埃伯斯瓦尔德”环形山是一处拥有干涸河道河床与明显粘土沉积物迹象的远古河流三角洲。这是又一个早期存在水的标志。研究人员相信这个地点56千米宽的环形山曾一度充满水,水源来自一条河流。由于“埃伯斯瓦尔德”环形山被中间高丘分隔成两个盆地,此处环境会对“好奇”号的行驶造成困难,但工程师认为漫游车能够应付。
  
  “霍尔顿”环形山直径将近160千米,是一串环形山的一部分,这串环形山看起来曾经被一条河流连接。科学家建议在一处相对平坦的高地着陆,然后驶向几个附近有岩床露出的地点,从那些岩床中可能找出当地历史的线索。此环形山可能曾经充满水,而30多亿年前一场灾难性的洪水可能使湖水流空。
  
  “盖尔”环形山是又一处曾经有水流经的地点。该环形山的中心山丘高达4800米。研究人员想让“好奇”号在高丘侧面的平坦处着陆。之后,漫游车将攀爬山丘,在行进途中停下来研究粘土层、硫黄及含氧矿物质。工程师认为具有挑战性的行驶对于“好奇”号不成问题。科学家已绘出了攀爬至垂直高度1600米处的穿行路径样图,爬到该处看到的景色将会非常壮观。
  
  “矛尔兹”山谷是火星最古老最宽的山谷之一。漫游车将直接在含有粘土物质的层状岩体上着陆,那些粘土物质可能是在一个水环境里形成的。
  
    在5月举行的第五次着陆地点研讨会上,科学家们最后一次聚集,对每个地点的最新数据进行整理消化。目前,决策权在NASA管理层手中。 (中国航天工程咨询中心  张贤明  王宜晓)

原文:
http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n1106/05mslsites/
琉璃 发表于 2011-6-10 17:10 | 显示全部楼层
NASA审计报告:火星漫游车项目还需加钱
[中国探月网6月10日消息] NASA总检察官办公室6月8日发表报告,称该局“火星科学实验室”(MSL)漫游车还需再注资4400万美元才能在年底前发射。MSL又称“好奇号”,是一辆小轿车大小的核动力漫游车。MSL项目管理人员2010年12月估计该漫游车今年需花5.37亿美元来为12月中旬前发射做准备,否则就要推迟到2013年发射。但总检察官办公室的报告称,研制队伍低估了4400万美元的所需费用;若不注入这笔经费,将会错过11月25日至12月18日的发射窗口,使发射时间再推两年,从而造成费用进一步上涨,甚至导致项目被取消。MSL计划负责人当天承认项目需更多经费,但称数额没有报告所说的那样高。
  因一些关键组件交付时间推迟,MSL已错过了2009年的最初发射窗口,导致项目研制成本(建造和发射成本)大涨86%,达到18亿美元。总检察官办公室称,若再推迟两年,研制成本将再上涨至少5.7亿美元。由于地球和火星相对位置的原因,发射火星探测器的最佳时机每26个月才有一次。MSL项目眼下的全寿命周期成本估计是25亿美元,比2006年时16亿美元的最初估计上涨了56%。(孙广勃)
  来源:中国探月网
琉璃 发表于 2011-6-10 18:24 | 显示全部楼层
好奇号向着史上最昂贵的火星探测项目又迈进了一步
suxiaolang 发表于 2011-6-10 18:30 | 显示全部楼层
琉璃 发表于 2011-6-10 18:24
好奇号向着史上最昂贵的火星探测项目又迈进了一步

你也没看看好奇号也是史上最牛B的火星车,一分钱一分货
琉璃 发表于 2011-6-10 18:32 | 显示全部楼层
suxiaolang 发表于 2011-6-10 18:30
你也没看看好奇号也是史上最牛B的火星车,一分钱一分货

呵呵。。。。。
shaolin1254 发表于 2011-6-12 15:12 | 显示全部楼层
NASA总监察长办公室(OIG)发布火星科学实验室项目管理最终报告  

新闻发布时间:2011-06-10


  [据美国航天参考网站2011年6月8日报道]  NASA监察长保罗·马丁(Paul Martin)6月8日发布了火星科学实验室(MSL)的项目管理报告。该报告检查了耗资25亿美元MSL项目中的重大技术、进度与财政挑战。NASA必须在2011年11月MSL发射之前解决这些挑战。
  
  MSL是有史以来最具技术挑战性的行星际探测巡视器,其目标是为了调查火星是否存在或是否曾经具有可支持生命的环境。提升任务复杂性的因素包括:(1)项目革新性的进入、降落与着陆系统,包括一个空中起重着陆系统,通过绳系的方式控制“好奇”号漫游车下降,并使其落在火星表面;(2)巡视器的尺寸与质量(质量是“勇气”和“机遇”号巡视器的4倍);(3)10台科学仪器的规模及其之间的相互依存性;(4)新型发电系统。
  
  2009年2月,NASA因一些关键部件与仪器的延期交付将MSL发射时间推迟了2年。此次推迟及因解决基本技术问题而另行投入的资源使项目的研发成本从9.69亿美元增至18亿美元,增加了86%;项目生命周期成本从16亿美元增至25亿美元,增加了56%。此外,由于火星任务的最佳发射窗为每26个月一次,如果MSL任务被再度推迟,那么还将需要花费至少5.7亿美元对项目进行重新设计。
     NASA OIG的评审发现,MSL任务已经攻克了绝大多数导致两年前发射推迟的关键技术问题。2011年3月,所有关键部件和仪器已安装在了巡视器上,现正在为6月晚些时候运往肯尼迪航天中心做最后准备。
  
  然而,潜在的岩石与土壤样本污染、飞行软件开发、故障保护等问题还没有解决。评审中发现,由于项目进度拖延,在发射前剩下的几个月时间里需要完成的关键任务量将近是初始计划量的3倍。截至2011年2月,还有1200项由项目成员观察到的问题与失败报告没有得到处理。如果这些报告在发射之前得不到处理,项目将会受到未知风险的威胁。此外,尽管MSL项目自2009年发射延迟以来已经获得了3次预算追加,但从评审结果看,项目可能还需投入更多经费,以满足2011年11月份发射的需要。
  
    项目成员要在最后集成阶段解决这些问题及其它问题,这很可能会将原本有限的空余时间(为防范未预测到的拖延)更加紧张。为了降低错过发射窗所带来的风险,OIG建议NASA应重新评估项目资金是否充裕,并将更多的资源配置到解决最可能影响任务成败的工作中去。
(中国航天工程咨询中心  张贤明  陈菲)  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_陈菲

cmj9808 发表于 2011-6-19 21:40 | 显示全部楼层
MSL的PICA热护盾内部,注意承力点并不是均匀分布的,一侧多而另一侧少。


cmj9808 发表于 2011-6-23 22:25 | 显示全部楼层
MSL已经装箱启程前往KSC,JPL的测试厂房里现在空空如也,只剩一块白板正对全球观众:“MSL WAS HERE”


zhang 发表于 2011-6-24 02:10 | 显示全部楼层


MSL 飞抵卡角
zhang 发表于 2011-6-24 02:30 | 显示全部楼层


打包过程。里面只有 rover, 而且肚皮朝上

cmj9808 发表于 2011-6-24 19:31 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-6-24 19:36 编辑

Nature News:Gale陨坑目前名列MSL着陆点第一顺位,NASA将在今天作出最终决定并在下周公布。

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110623/full/news.2011.380.html

四个候选着陆点的位置如下图所示,均位于南北纬30°之间的低海拔地区


zhang 发表于 2011-6-25 05:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zhang 于 2011-6-25 05:48 编辑



http://www.planetary.org/blog/article/00003076/

http://martianchronicles.wordpre ... gy-paper-published/

"Gale Crater is a large (155 km diameter) crater that sits just south of the martian equator on the boundary between the rugged, cratered highlands to the south and the smooth plains of the northern hemisphere. Gale is special because it’s not just a big hole in the ground: in the middle of the crater is a vast mountain of layered rocks that towers nearly 6 kilometers above the crater floor. "



这家伙写了一堆关于 Gale 的论文,现在一定高兴得睡不着觉了吧。希望这个落点不虚此行。上次 Spirit 的落点几乎就是一场灾难。以为那个地方会很有意思,到地方一看,到处都是一样的,除了火山岩还是火山岩,没有任何变化。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-7-9 12:05 | 显示全部楼层
着陆地点集中到2个:Gale or Eberswalde
Choices for Mars rover landing site down to 2
NASA narrows possible locations for Curiosity's trip to investigate Red Planet

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4366 ... _and_science-space/


     Out of more than 30 sites considered as possible landing targets for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission, by November 2008 four of the most intriguing places on Mars rose to the final round of the site-selection process. NASA cut the choices Wednesday to two: Gale or Eberswalde.By Mike Wall
Space.com  
updated 7/6/2011 6:31:23 PM ET 2011-07-06T22:31:23
Share Print Font: + - CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. — NASA has whittled the possible landing sites for its next Mars rover down to two, scientists announced Wednesday.

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will drop a car-size rover named Curiosity down to the Red Planet's surface at one of two craters: Gale or Eberswalde. Both sites have a lot going for them, and picking a winner will be tough, scientists said.

"We are thrilled to go to either one of these landing sites," John Grotzinger, MSL project scientist at Caltech in Pasadena, Calif., said after a press conference here at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. "It's like two different flavors of ice cream — do you like chocolate or vanilla on Mars? So we go back and forth a lot."

A final decision on Curiosity's destination will likely be made by the end of the month, Grotzinger added.

From four to two
Last year, NASA announced that it had chosen four possible landing sites for Curiosity. In addition to Gale and Eberswalde, the options included another crater named Holden and an apparent flood channel known as Mawrth Vallis.

All four were intriguing, presenting lots of evidence of ancient water activity on Mars, Grotzinger said. Curiosity's main task is to assess whether Mars is — or ever was — capable of supporting microbial life, so it needs to look in spots where liquid water once flowed (Mars' surface appears to be bone-dry today).

Scientists think Eberswalde is an ancient river delta. While Holden is similar in many ways, containing gullies and other features carved by running water long ago, it lost out by a hair.

More space news from MSNBC Tech & Science  
NASA / Roberto Beltramini / Space 3D See the ultimate space shot in 3-D
Science editor Alan Boyle's Weblog: Stereo imagery adds a new dimension to the first — and almost certainly last — orbital view of a space shuttle docked to International Space Station.
App tracks space shuttle and station Weather worsens for final shuttle launch Probe nears target: Asteroid the size of Arizona Advertise | AdChoicesAdvertise | AdChoicesAdvertise | AdChoices"Eberswalde has one or two extra attributes that set it apart," Grotzinger said.

Mawrth Vallis was ultimately axed in part because researchers don't think they understand its geologic history as well as they know Gale's.

"It's really hard to understand the context of what's going on there," Grotzinger said of Mawrth Vallis. "There were just a lot more question marks."

Gale Crater is a standout choice on its own merits. A mountain nearly 3 miles high rises from its center. If Curiosity ultimately goes to Gale, the rover will chug partway up this mountain, analyzing the many different rock layers it encounters along the way.

"Those are chapters in the history of the environmental evolution of Mars," Grotzinger said.

The sky crane
Curiosity is much larger than any previous Mars rover; it's the size of a Mini Cooper and weighs about a ton. The rover's heft necessitated the development of an entirely new system to deliver it to the Martian surface.

The solution NASA engineers came up with is a rocket-powered sky crane that will hover over the Red Planet, then lower Curiosity down to the surface with cables. This system is entirely novel, but mission engineers have said they are confident it will work.

The sky crane will allow Curiosity to make a much more precise landing than previous Mars rovers could pull off. Curiosity's landing ellipse should be about 12 miles by 14 miles, Grotzinger said. When the twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars in 2004, by contrast, their landing ellipses were about 93 by 50 miles.

The sky crane's increased precision is a big asset, Grotzinger said. It allows MSL mission planners to choose a landing site based entirely on the science they want to perform, rather than go for a spot that is safe and flat (and thus probably relatively boring geologically).
.....

You can follow Space.com senior writer Mike Wall on Twitter: @
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-7-19 09:52 | 显示全部楼层
NASA to Announce Landing Site for New Mars Rover
NASA and the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum will host a news conference 10 a.m. EDT, Friday, July 22 to announce the selected landing site for the next Mars rover
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-7-23 12:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2011-7-23 16:14 编辑

MSL的着陆地点正式确定:盖尔陨坑(Gale crater)
Curiosity rover will explore 'scenic' Gale crater on Mars
SPACEFLIGHT NOW  Posted: July 22, 2011

The next Mars rover will make a pinpoint landing inside Gale crater, a scenic impact site adorned with ragged rock formations and a colossal mountain rising more than 15,000 feet high, NASA announced Friday.

This oblique, southward-looking view of Gale crater shows the landing site and the mound of layered rocks that NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will investigate. The landing site is in the smooth area in front of the mound, labeled by the yellow ellipse measuring 15.5 miles long and 12.4 miles wide. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU/UA

Scientists will dispatch the $2.5 billion Curiosity rover to Mars as early as Nov. 25. The robot is outfitted with 17 cameras and nearly a dozen instruments to determine whether Mars was ever habitable for life.
    这个机器人装备了17个摄象机和几乎一打的仪器,来测定火星是否曾经有过适合生命的环境。

After considering 60 landing site candidates, scientists recommended Gale crater as Curiosity's destination because it offered the widest array of geologic research opportunities, giving the rover a window into a large period of Martian history.
  科学家选择这里,因为它提供最广泛的地质研究的机会..,
If it launches on time, Curiosity will arrive at Mars on Aug. 6, 2012.

Michael Meyer, the lead researcher for NASA's Mars program, said there was a "slight preference" for Gale among the four landing site finalists. It was likely once home to a deep lake.
    这里曾经可能是一一个深湖。

"There was a preference for Gale in that it's not a one-trick pony," Meyer said. "There are several different environmental settings that can be explored, any one of which might have the possibility of [holding] organic compounds."
    这里有一些不同的环境能被探测到,任何一处都有可能存在有机混合物(的可能性).

"In the end, we picked the one that felt best," said John Grotzinger, the Mars Science Laboratory mission's chief scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

Geologists do not expect Curiosity to find a fossil on Mars, but it could uncover the chemical fingerprint of past life amid organic compounds.
地质学家不期待能找到化石,但它可能揭示过去有机化合物(曾经)生活的化学指纹图谱。

If Curiosity can find elusive carbon-based organic material inside Gale's rocks, scientists will obtain evidence that the ingredients for life were once plentiful on Mars.
如果好奇号能够找到难以捉摸的碳基有机材料..,科学家们将获得证据表明火星上曾经存在过丰富的生命成分。

Previous NASA missions already confirmed water was once common on the surface of Mars. After retreating during a period of climate change, the water is now held in ice caps at the Martian poles and embedded inside mineral compounds in some soils.
   以前NASA的火星任务已经证实,火星表面曾经存在水...。

The exploration of the scenic 96-mile-wide crater will also return thousands of images from Curiosity's cameras.
   
"It's also going to be an incredibly beautiful place," said Dawn Sumner, a geologist at the University of California, Davis. "It will be a lot like areas in the Southwest [United States], places like Monument Valley where we'll have these big cliffs with the rover going between them."

Positioned just south of the Martian equator, the crater's central peak is taller than any mountain in the continental United States.
  (盖尔陨坑)坐落在火星赤道稍南的位置,陨坑中央的山峰比任何美国大陆的(山)都高。

After touching down on relatively flat terrain a few miles from the base of the mound, Curiosity will drive south toward the peak and begin to climb thousands of feet up its flank, pausing to examine clay and sulfate salt minerals along the way, Grotzinger said.
   着陆到一块平坦区域后,(好奇号)将会朝着山峰向南走,并开始爬上了数千英尺的侧翼山腰,不时暂停下来检查一下路上粘土和硫酸盐矿物。

Dried-up stream channels along the edge of the mound will allow access up the mountain.
  好奇号将沿着干涸的河道边缘上山。

Curiosity's mission is supposed to last two years after landing, but scientists are hopeful the rover will continue the climb up Gale's lofty mountain for years more. Scientists say the most attractive scientific targets are near the base of the central mountain, ensuring the rover will produce quality results early in the mission.
   好奇的任务寿命为登陆后2年,但科学家们对它 继续攀登gale's山充满希望。科学家们说,最有吸引力的科学目标是中部山区的基地附近,(要?)确保漫游车在任务初期产生高质量的成果。

As the rover ascends the mountain, it will encounter rocks and soil left behind as waters receded when Mars transitioned from a warm, wet planet into the cold and desolate world known today.
   随着漫游车向上攀登,它遇到岩石和土壤,(将)留下作为水退去时的(证据?)?,(因为)火星(曾经)从温暖潮湿的星球转变到今天的寒冷和荒凉的世界。

Curiosity's analysis of clays and sulfates will tell scientists how much water was once present at Gale, the characteristics of the water and how it evaporated, according to Sumner.
  好奇号的粘土和硫酸盐的分析会告诉科学家们曾经有多少水在陨石坑里,水的性质,以及如何蒸发。

"What we've learned is if you start at the bottom of the layers and you work your way to the top, it's like reading a novel," Grotzinger said. "And we think Gale is going to be a great novel."

Using high-resolution imagery from a sharp-eyed camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the landing site selection committee mapped hazards and plotted driving paths for the rover at each of the four finalist locations.

Spectrometers on orbiting satellites at Mars indicated Gale had the widest variety of environments of all the sites, harboring both relatively fresh and ancient material inside the crater, which scientists believe is about 3 billion years old.

Curiosity is NASA's first mobile Mars surface station since the Spirit and Opportunity rovers arrived at the Red Planet in 2004.

The rover is five times as massive as the previous generation of Mars robots, and its scientific gear is 10 times heavier.

After braving the hot temperatures of entry into the Martian atmosphere in a blunt heat shield, Curiosity will descend to a hover with a rocket-powered descent stage. A state-of-the-art "sky crane" will lower the nearly 2,000-pound rover on a bridle to the surface directly on its wheels.

The futuristic descent and landing system replaces air bags, a tried-and-true but rudimentary touchdown technique. With the new system, engineers expect to guide Curiosity to a precise landing inside a narrow error corridor.

"We've done our homework," Meyer said. "The engineers have designed a spacecraft to get us to where we want to go."

The rover's mobility system has the ability to climb a 20-degree incline. It's designed to drive at least 12 miles, according to Michael Watkins, an MSL project engineer at JPL.
  漫游车移动系统有能力爬20度的倾斜。它的设计,驱动器至少有12个英里,...

"Geologists like climbing up cliffs, and we get to go to those places with this rover for the first time on Mars," Sumner said.
   萨姆纳说:“地质学家喜欢爬上悬崖,我们得到这个漫游车是第一次 到那些地方(在火星上)"






您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册会员

本版积分规则

QQ|申请友链|旗下论坛|小黑屋|手机版|航空航天港 ( 豫ICP备12024513号 )

GMT+8, 2018-6-22 19:00 , Processed in 0.367452 second(s), 20 queries , Gzip On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表