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[任务跟踪] NASA火星着陆器任务InSight(洞察): 2018年5月5日成功发射

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hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-21 07:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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  这是欧洲2016年的帖子:
     ESA的火星生命探测计划(ExoMars)跟踪:NASA out, Roscosmos in.  http://www.9ifly.cn/thread-8375-1-1.html

  
  
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-21 07:06 | 显示全部楼层

下面的,没时间仔细翻译修正了,凑合看吧。
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NASA启动新的机器人钻入火星的任务
NASA starts new robotic mission to drill into Mars
BY STEPHEN CLARK -- SPACEFLIGHT NOW -- Posted: August 20, 2012
           
   
Two weeks after the Curiosity rover descended to a rocket-assisted touchdown on Mars, NASA announced on Monday its next robot lander will launch in 2016 with a French seismometer and German drill to find out what is going beneath the red planet's dusty surface.
在好奇号漫游器在着陆火箭助推下降到火星表面后两个星期,NASA周一宣布,其 下一个机器人着陆器将 2016年发射,与法国的地震仪和德国的演练一起,找出这颗红色行星表面尘土飞扬的下方是怎么回事。
     
An artist's concept of InSight. Credit: NASA/JPL
一个艺术概念图的洞察力。来源: NASA / JPL
            
The InSight lander will measure the Martian geologic activity, quakes, wobbles, and internal temperature, revealing data on the evolution of Mars and allowing scientists to compare its history with Earth's own geologic past.
敏锐的洞察力,着陆器将测量火星的地质活动,地震,摆动,和内部温度,揭示火星的演变,使科学家能够比较其历史与地球的地质历史数据。
     
"This is the first time we're seriously looking at the interior of Mars, and there are many science questions we are just dying to know the answers to," said John Grunsfeld, head of NASA's science mission directorate.
“这是我们第一次认真地研究火星的内部,我们只是很想知道答案的问题,有许多科学问题“
约翰·格伦斯菲尔德说,负责人 NASA的科学 任务高级理事会。
     
Scheduled for launch in March 2016, InSight will reach Mars six months later, parachute into the atmosphere and fire braking rockets before settling on the Martian surface.
定于 发射20163月,Insight6个月后到达火星,跳伞到大气中,火制动火箭前定居在火星表面。
     
InSight's cost to NASA is capped at $425 million in 2010 dollars, excluding launch services and international contributions.
Insight的成本 NASA上限为425亿/ 100美元,在2010年的美元,不包括 发射服务和国际贡献。
     
The mission will reuse the design of the Phoenix lander which successfully touched down on Mars in May 2008, reducing the cost of InSight. Like Phoenix, the InSight lander will be built by Lockheed Martin Corp. in Denver.
这项任务将重用凤凰着陆器的设计,成功降落在火星于20085月,降低成本的洞察力。像凤凰,顿悟的着陆器将在丹佛的洛克希德·马丁公司建造的。
     
During its two-year mission, InSight will deploy a German-built drill to bore up to 16 feet underground. A sensor package placed on the penetrator will detect the heat coming from the Martian interior, revealing information about the planet's thermal mechanics.
A seismometer provided by CNES, the French space agency, and other research institutions will record the tremble of quakes and other internal activity, giving scientists clues about the planet's structure and ongoing geologic changes.
Researchers will employ InSight's communications system for an experiment to track the wobble of the planet's rotation, and the lander will be outfitted with a robotic arm and two black-and-white cameras.
"Its purpose is to get a look deep within the Mars interior to see how it might be the same or different from Earth," said Lindley Johnson, Discovery program executive at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "We're interested in whether Mars has fault lines like the Earth does. How many Mars quakes are there? How big is the core of Mars, and does it have any semblance of a molten core like the Earth?"
NASA selected InSight as the winner in a competition for the next Discovery-class science mission, a series of cost-constrained projects tailored for exploration of the solar system.
"Our Discovery program enables scientists to use innovative approaches to answering fundamental questions about our solar system in the lowest cost mission category," Grunsfeld said. "InSight will get to the core of the nature of the interior and structure of Mars, well below the observations we've been able to make from orbit or the surface."
The space agency selected InSight over an instrumented raft designed to splash down into a hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan and a probe aimed at visiting a comet.
Grunsfeld said the Titan and comet missions carried more cost and schedule risk than InSight, which is based on proven technology.
"Heritage is important, and the Phoenix mission does provide some of that heritage, giving us the confidence necessary for us to understand [InSight's] cost implications," said Jim Green, director of NASA's planetary science division.
NASA touts the Discovery program as accepting of more risk than the agency's costliest flagship missions, such as the $2.5 billion Curiosity rover, an SUV-sized robot with broad research objectives.
"The exploration of Mars is a top priority for NASA, and the selection of InSight ensures we will continue to unlock the mysteries of the red planet and lay the groundwork for a future human mission there," said NASA Administrator Charles Bolden. "The recent successful landing of the Curiosity rover has galvanized public interest in space exploration and today's announcement makes clear there are more exciting Mars missions to come."
The Discovery program is separate from NASA's dedicated line of Mars missions, which will continue with the 2013 launch of the MAVEN orbiter to study the red planet's upper atmosphere.
NASA's next step in Mars exploration beyond MAVEN and InSight is unclear.
Agency leaders chartered a panel to review possibilities for a lander or orbiter to launch in 2018 or 2020. The committee was formed after NASA pulled out of a partnership with the European Space Agency's ExoMars mission, a combined orbiter and rover project launching in 2016 and 2018.
NASA withdrew from ExoMars because its projected budget would not cover U.S. responsibilities on the mission, which included launch vehicles, descent and landing hardware, and scientific instruments.
NASA tasked the Mars program planning group with finding proposals which would merge the scientific priorities of the robotic exploration program with goals leading to human missions, including technology demonstrations such as optical communications and precision landing.
The planning committee is scheduled to brief its findings and recommendations to NASA managers later this month.
   
在两年的任务,Insight将部署一个德国制造的钻钻至16英尺的地下。的穿透包放在传感器将检测到来自火星内部的热,揭示地球上的热力学的信息。
     
法国国家空间研究中心提供的地震仪,法国人 太空机构,和其他研究机构将记录的地震颤动和其他内部活动,让科学家行星的结构和正在进行的地质变化的线索。
     
研究人员将利用Insight的通信系统做了一个试验,跟踪地球的自转的摆动,着陆器将配备一个机械臂和两个黑色和白色的摄像头。
     
“它的目的是看看在火星内部深处,看看它是如何可能从地球上相同或不同的,” 林德利·约翰逊说,发现计划执行NASA总部设在华盛顿。
他说:“我们有兴趣在火星上是否有像地球上的断层线。有多少火星地震吗?火星的核心是多大,和它有任何类似地球的熔融核心的假象?“
NASA选定的洞察力,竞争中的胜出者下一个发现一流的科学任务,探索太阳系量身定制了一系列的成本约束项目。
“我们的发现使科学家使用创新的接近es的回答的基本问题太阳系中成本最低的任务类别, 格伦斯菲尔德说。“洞察火星内部结构的性质的核心,下面的意见,我们已经能够使轨道或表面。“
太空机构选定的了解超过设计的仪表筏降落在土星的卫星土卫六与成烃海探测器目的是在访问一颗彗星。
格伦斯菲尔德说,土卫六,彗星任务进行更多的成本和进度风险比的InSight,这是基于成熟的技术。
“文化是很重要的,凤凰号任务确实提供了一些该遗产,让我们有信心,我们有必要了解Insight的成本的影响,“
吉姆说绿,NASA的行星科学部主任。
NASA吹捧的“探索”,接受更多的风险比该机构的最昂贵的旗舰任务,如$ 2.5 十亿好奇心漫游器,SUV大小的机器人具有广泛的研究目标。
“火星的探索是一个顶优先为NASA,和选择的洞察力确保我们将继续解除对这颗红色行星的奥秘,为未来的人类任务奠定了基础。” NASA局长查尔斯•博尔登。“最近成功登陆的好奇心漫游器镀锌公共利益在太空探索和今天的公告,显​​然还有更令人兴奋的火星任务中来。”
发现计划是分开NASA火星探测任务的专用线,这将继续对2013年发射的Maven 轨道器研究这颗红色行星的大气层上部。
NASA的下一个步骤火星探索超越MAVEN和洞察力目前还不清楚。
机构领导人包车小组,以审查可能的着陆器或轨道器到发射在2018年或2020年。该委员会成立后NASA拉出的合作伙伴关系欧洲航天局的ExoMars火星任务,一个组合轨道器和月球车项目启动于2016年和2018年。
NASA退出ExoMars“漫游者”,因为它的预计预算将不包括美国的任务责任,,包括运载火箭小号的,下降和降落硬件的,和科学仪器。
NASA火星计划规划组负责寻找建议,将合并载人任务与目标的机器人探索计划的科学重点,包括技术演示S如光通信和精确着陆。
规划委员会定于本月晚些时候介绍其调查结果和建议NASA管理者


点评

类似EJSM这样的看来得推迟到2025年后去了  发表于 2012-8-21 11:38
看来2020年的取样返回计划不太现实了  发表于 2012-8-21 11:25
黑与白 发表于 2012-8-21 11:37 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-21 07:06
下面的,没时间仔细翻译修正了,凑合看吧。 --------------------------------------------------------- ...

类似EJSM这样的看来得推迟到2025年后去了
琉璃 发表于 2012-8-21 19:02 | 显示全部楼层
InSight Key Dates

Launch: March 8 - March 27, 2016

Landing: September 20, 2016

Surface operations: 720 days / 700 sols

First science return: October 2016

Instrument deployment: 60 sols (including 20 sols margin)

Data volume over 1 Martian year: More than 29 Gb (processed seismic data posted to the web in 2 weeks; remaining science data less than 3 months, no proprietary period)

End of Mission: September 18, 2018
琉璃 发表于 2012-8-21 19:04 | 显示全部楼层
inSight全称(Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport)
zhang 发表于 2012-8-21 20:28 | 显示全部楼层
SEIS, 地震仪

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zhang 发表于 2012-8-21 20:30 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 zhang 于 2012-8-21 20:31 编辑

HP3, 温度计

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zhang 发表于 2012-8-21 20:34 | 显示全部楼层
SEIS 和 HP3 分别由类似 Phoenix 的机械臂的装置放在地面上,SEIS 似乎还有个盖子。

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F-117 发表于 2012-8-21 21:05 | 显示全部楼层
不知道这回资金总额会超预算不。。
yy1129 发表于 2012-8-22 10:07 | 显示全部楼层
美国计划2016年再向火星发送探测车
       【环球网报道 记者 谭利娅】“好奇号”探测车两周前才登陆火星,美国太空总署(NASA)又宣布了另一项火星任务。据台湾“中广网”8月21日报道,NASA计划在2016年再送一辆探测车上火星,这次它们把目标放在火星的地核方面,计划探索火星地心与地球为何有很大不同的原因。
  太阳系里,隐藏着许多奥秘。虽然NASA手上有许多研究备案,包括发射土星卫星等,但NASA选择把资源集中投入到火星探测。到目前为止,已经有四艘无人探测船登陆过火星。
  下一个预定2016年上路的火星任务,代号“洞察”,该计划预计花费不到4.25亿美元,大概只有“好奇号”的1/6,计划挖掘火星深层的真相,包括火星地核的规模,成份、温度以及状态等
  报道说,火星的内在对人类而言是个谜团,它没有磁场,科学家也不确定它是固态还是液态的。“洞察”任务和好奇号一样,将由太空总署喷射推进实验室负责。
(中国科技网)
http://www.stdaily.com/stdaily/c ... /content_509696.htm


yy1129 发表于 2012-8-22 11:14 | 显示全部楼层
美将发射“洞察”号火星探测器
       新华社洛杉矶8月21日电(记者郭爽)“好奇”号火星车刚开始在红色星球上展示才艺,“洞察”号着陆探测器就已准备登台亮相。美国航天局宣布,计划在2016年发射“洞察”号,它将首次尝试探索这颗红色星球的内核状况。
       据美国航天局介绍,“洞察”号着陆探测器计划在2016年9月抵达火星,设计任务时间约为两年。一旦成功登上火星,它将利用所配备的4套精密仪器对火星内核状况展开详细探测,其中有两套仪器将分别由德国和法国的航天部门研制。
       科学家希望通过“洞察”号了解火星内核大小、组成及物理状态、地质构造和火星内部地震活动等情况。
       与“好奇”号火星探测项目的25亿美元投入相比,“洞察”号项目的预算仅有4.25亿美元。这一项目仍由负责“好奇”号项目的美国航天局喷气推进实验室负责。
yy1129 发表于 2012-8-23 11:46 | 显示全部楼层
NASA选择新深空任务探测火星内部
       [本站2012年8月21日综合报道] 火星内部依然是神秘的,火星本身没有磁场,科学家们不确定火星内核是固体还是液体,还是像地球内部一样充满岩浆。 在向火星发射了四辆巡视探测器之后,NASA决定勘察火星的内核,8月21日NASA宣布将在2016年发射低成本机器人着陆器,检查是何原因使得火星的内核与地球内核相差如此之大。
       NASA的“Discovery计划”选择的这项计划名为“洞悉”(Insight),InSight将被送往火星赤道地区,于2016年9月抵达火星,执行为期两年的科学任务。项目成本预计不超过4.25亿美元。
       Insight项目旨在检查火星深处的地质状况,探测火星内核的大小、构成、温度和振颤。将携带的主要仪器包括将被置于火星表面的SEIS地震仪;HP3探测器,将钻入火星表面以下5米,记录来自火星内部的热流;RISE将通过测量与地球无线通信的多普勒频移,来测量火星受太阳引力影响形成的绕火星轴摆动。将这些测量结果放在一起,应该能够更好了解火星的形成和演化,揭示其内部结构的当下行为。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 侯丹 许红英)

http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/77344

        另外两项遭到淘汰的提议分别是:约翰斯·霍普金斯大学应用物理实验室泰坦海探测器(TiME)项目,旨在首次地外海洋环境直接探测,探测器将降落并漂浮在泰坦(土卫六)的甲烷-乙烷海上;戈达德航天飞行中心彗星跳跃者(Comet Hopper)项目,旨在通过在彗星上多次降落并观测彗星与太阳相互作用时的变化,来研究彗星的演变。NASA首席科学家认为三项提案都很出色,但Insight任务更符合NASA的预算和进度。
        InSight 任务是NASA探索任务系列的第12项任务。Discovery始于1992年,为高度关注科学目标的太阳系探索任务提供赞助。 此前通过Discovery计划实施的任务包括“拂晓”航天器,该航天器与Vesta小行星交会后,正在向谷神星进发。2009年入轨的“开普勒”天文望远镜也是Discovery计划中的一项任务。
        Insight项目将由NASA喷气推进实验室领导,喷气推进实验室也负责“好奇”号火星巡视探测器任务。2012年初,NASA退出了与欧空局合作的两项火星任务,原因是无力为2016年和2018年执行的任务提供14亿美元经费。NASA还在致力于另一项可能的火星任务以替换两项遭到取消的任务,最终决定将在8月底之前出台。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 侯丹 许红英)

http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/77345

点评

这也是nasa预算紧张的无奈之举,另两项一看就知道这点钱肯定不够,特别是time,真心希望nasa能获得充足经费,因为这关系到全人类  发表于 2012-8-23 12:13
delta4heavy 发表于 2012-8-23 13:23 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 delta4heavy 于 2012-8-23 13:26 编辑

这也是nasa预算紧张的无奈之举,另两项一看就知道这点钱肯定不够,特别是time,真心希望nasa能获得充足经费,因为这关系到全人类
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TiME从技术角度上讲单独立项根本不现实的,土卫六的地表及气候特征没完全弄清楚,目前推测表面烷湖可能有季节性的,而TiME从发射到着陆土卫六需花费7年旅途,这7年间烷湖会发生何等变化谁也预料不到,出发前就预定着陆点有很大风险,而2017年后卡西尼探测器将退役,届时将无法再监测土卫六的全球变化,因此也不可能在临近着陆时更改着陆点。目前来看只有将其加入Titan Saturn System Mission,与其它探测器协同才用可能获得成功。
DF21 发表于 2012-8-24 06:50 | 显示全部楼层
delta4heavy 发表于 2012-8-23 13:23
这也是nasa预算紧张的无奈之举,另两项一看就知道这点钱肯定不够,特别是time,真心希望nasa能获得充足经费 ...

一个土星年要29年,要收集土卫六完整的气象和地形数据太困难了,卡西尼到现在也就过了一个季节多
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-12-12 09:12 | 显示全部楼层
法国人为  InSight 研制仪器 --地震检波仪,价值4200万$,(PS:价格不菲啊)

CNES To Build Seismometer for NASA’s Mars InSight Mission
Dec. 11, 2012
The French space agency's board of directors approves a $42 million investment to provide a seismometer for NASA’s InSight probe, to be launched to the surface of Mars in 2016.
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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-4-7 20:47 | 显示全部楼层
只连接
--------------------------------
洞察号将发现火星表面以下的情况
  http://www.astron.ac.cn/bencandy-3-8687-1.htm


InSight的任务是寻找火星表面之下隐藏的东西
InSight mission to find what lies beneathMartian surface
BYSTEPHEN CLARK -- SPACEFLIGHT NOW --Posted: March 30, 2013
http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n1303/30insight/#.UVi8DW_Mi70

gnss 发表于 2013-9-5 03:48 | 显示全部楼层
NASA于9月4日确定了4个火星备选降落地点(从22个候选地址中选出)。

NASA Evaluates Four Candidate Sites for 2016 Mars Mission
NASA has narrowed to four the number of potential landing sites for the agency's next mission to the surface of Mars, a 2016 lander to study the planet's interior.
The stationary Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) lander is scheduled to launch in March 2016 and land on Mars six months later. It will touch down at one of four sites selected in August from a field of 22 candidates. All four semi-finalist spots lie near each other on an equatorial plain in an area of Mars called Elysium Planitia.
"We picked four sites that look safest," said geologist Matt Golombek of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. Golombek is leading the site-selection process for InSight. "They have mostly smooth terrain, few rocks and very little slope."
Scientists will focus two of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter cameras on the semi-finalists in the coming months to gain data they will use to select the best of the four sites well before InSight is launched.
The mission will investigate processes that formed and shaped Mars and will help scientists better understand the evolution of our inner solar system's rocky planets, including Earth. Unlike previous Mars landings, what is on the surface in the area matters little in the choice of a site except for safety considerations.
"This mission's science goals are not related to any specific location on Mars because we're studying the planet as a whole, down to its core," said Bruce Banerdt, InSight principal investigator at JPL. "Mission safety and survival are what drive our criteria for a landing site."
Each semifinalist site is an ellipse measuring 81 miles (130 kilometers) from east to west and 17 miles (27 kilometers) from north to south. Engineers calculate the spacecraft will have a 99-percent chance of landing within that ellipse, if targeted for the center.
Elysium is one of three areas on Mars that meet two basic engineering constraints for InSight. One requirement is being close enough to the equator for the lander's solar array to have adequate power at all times of the year. Also, the elevation must be low enough to have sufficient atmosphere above the site for a safe landing.  The spacecraft will use the atmosphere for deceleration during descent.
All four semifinalist sites, as well as the rest of the 22 of the candidate sites studied, are in Elysium Planitia. The only other two areas of Mars meeting the requirements of being near the equator at low elevation, Isidis Planitia and Valles Marineris, are too rocky and windy. Valles Marineris also lacks any swath of flat ground large enough for a safe landing.
InSight also needs penetrable ground, so it can deploy a heat-flow probe that will hammer itself 3 yards to 5 yards into the surface to monitor heat coming from the planet's interior. This tool can penetrate through broken-up surface material or soil, but could be foiled by solid bedrock or large rocks.
"For this mission, we needed to look below the surface to evaluate candidate landing sites,"Golombek said.
InSight's heat probe must penetrate the ground to the needed depth, so scientists studied Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter images of large rocks near Martian craters formed by asteroid impacts. Impacts excavate rocks from the subsurface, so by looking in the area surrounding craters, the scientists could tell if the subsurface would have probe-blocking rocks lurking beneath the soil surface.
InSight also will deploy a seismometer on the surface and will use its radio for scientific measurements.
JPL manages InSight for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, and the German Aerospace Center are contributing instruments to the mission. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is building the spacecraft.
InSight is part of NASA's Discovery Program, which NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages. InSight's team includes U.S. and international co-investigators from universities, industry and government agencies.
For more information about InSight, visit:
http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov

gnss 发表于 2013-9-5 04:03 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2013-12-20 12:59 | 显示全部楼层
Insight将于2016年由AtlasV 401SLC-3E,VAFB发射。
没记错的话,这应该是自Clementine后第二个自VAFB发射的深空任务

http://www.ulalaunch.com/site/pages/News.shtml#/164/
cmj9808 发表于 2013-12-21 18:24 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2013-12-20 12:59
Insight将于2016年由AtlasV 401自SLC-3E,VAFB发射。
没记错的话,这应该是自Clementine后第二个自VAFB发射 ...

16年3月发射,与发射相关的费用1.6亿 USD,法国提供地震仪,德国提供地下量热计。
According to NASA, the total cost for the launch of InSight is approximately $160 million, including spacecraft processing, payload integration, tracking, data and telemetry and other launch support requirements.
The French space agency, CNES, is providing InSight's $42 million seismometer. Germany is funding the lander's underground heat probe.

http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1312/19insight/#.UrVrHBEaySM
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