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[机型] 美四代战机F35“闪电2”专题讨论贴

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 楼主| speed 发表于 2009-12-25 20:58 | 显示全部楼层
英国宣布批准采购第三架F - 35B联合攻击战斗机

    【据防务与航空航天网站2009年12月23日报道】得克萨斯州沃思堡---联合作战飞机(JCA)项目日前宣布,英国已获得财政批准购买第三架洛克希德·马丁公司的F - 35B的闪电II作战试验机,以加强英国继续致力于联合战斗机计划即将推出的作战试验和评估(OT&E)。

    “这周,英国收到财政批准继续购买第三架计划低速初始生产4的英国STOVL型OT&E飞机,。考虑到英国政府和整个公共开支造成的影响,特别是国防中资金极其紧张的气氛,这是一个重大成就。”英国的联合作战飞机组组长,空军准将Graham Farnell说。 “我认为这很好地反映了JSF项目,它是对英国在F - 35闪电II和项目上来提供这种能力的信心的度量。”

    此项获准紧随最近由澳大利亚,挪威,荷兰,意大利和美国对F – 35选择和采购的承诺之后。F - 35商业案例力量使项目的供应商获取工业基地资本结构调整和在未来30年F - 35高量生产所需资金。

    英国在F - 35的开发中投资20亿美元-该计划中的8个伙伴国家的最大贡献国。 100多家英国公司参与该计划,包括BAE系统公司,生产飞机的后机身和尾巴,罗尔斯罗伊斯公司,轴驱动升力风扇和其他的F - 35B的STOVL型变异推进组件开发和制造商;贝克和马丁,飞机的弹射座椅制造商。

    这架F - 35是一种超音速,多用途,第五代隐形战斗机。从共同开发并使用相同的维持全球的基础设施的共同设计中产生的三个变体将最初为9个国家取代至少13项服务,使闪电II成为历史上最具成本效益的战斗机计划。(工业和信息化部电子科学技术情报研究所 宋文文)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2009-12-25 21:01 | 显示全部楼层
美总统签署2010财年国防拨款法案


      [据英国《简氏防务周刊》网站2009年12月23日报道]美国总统奥巴马已签署总额6360亿美元的2010财年国防拨款法案成为法律。法案中为在伊拉克和阿富汗的作战拨款1280亿美元。

      在法案中,美国陆军和海军陆战队将获得总额33.4亿美元的经费,以提高和改善直升机机队。保留下来的美空军项目的拨款情况也相对较好。

      国会满足了政府采购30架F-35“联合攻击战斗机”(JSF)的预算申请,拨款总额为68亿美元;其中20架由美海军和海军陆战队采购。

      对美海军来说,飞机采购项目是经费大项,总经费达到180亿美元,其中包括15亿美元用于采购18架F/A-18E/F“超大黄蜂”战斗机,16亿美元用于采购22架EA-18G电子战飞机。

      国会为建造7艘舰艇提供了150亿美元的拨款。(中国航空工业发展研究中心 姜曙光)
belldany 发表于 2010-1-4 16:20 | 显示全部楼层
吹捧看的太多了。能否分析一下美国是基于什么原因决定采用这种鸡肋战机?
F35的垂直起降系统在激烈的战场上可以增加机动性?还是只能用在起落上,在空中是累赘?
毫无疑问这套系统让飞机变的复杂更难维护。这种后果值不值得。
它是一个有大型航母的国家。为何要学小国让战机做这种牺牲?
42503149 发表于 2010-1-4 16:32 | 显示全部楼层
F35不是所有型号都有垂直起降能力,只有F35B有。F35B的定购客户是米国海军陆战队,阴国海军,意大利海军陆战队
belldany 发表于 2010-1-4 16:47 | 显示全部楼层
其实垂短起降能力也是不必的。不如砍了去。既然作战中无法使用。这套东西降低了F135的推重比。
如果按常规F22缩水搞。F35性能一定会更好。真的实现和F22的搭配。
既然硬件那么好,实在想不通他们海军是想要小航母,还是空军想要短跑道。
42503149 发表于 2010-1-4 16:55 | 显示全部楼层
嗯,你跟USMC说去吧,F35垂直起降型的始作俑者之一
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-4 18:48 | 显示全部楼层
先搞明白F35的型号划分,再把各型号的客户需求情况搞明白就没这种某型号是废柴的疑问了。
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-5 20:41 | 显示全部楼层
英国即将订购第3架F-35B测试机
2010-01-05

      [据美国《空军杂志》网站2009年12月30日报道] 洛克西德·马丁公司近日宣布,英国国防部即将订购第3架F-35B测试机。

      洛·马公司在近期的一份声明中表示,英国订购的第3架F-35B测试机将由洛·马公司在第4批次(Lot 4)F-35战斗机生产期间完成组装,并将用于即将开始的F-35项目作战测试与评估。负责领导英国国防部F-35项目团队的Graham Farnell空军准将对此表示,此次订购显示出F-35项目进展良好,并且表明英国对F-35项目及其飞机本身充满信心。

      作为第3批次(Lot 3)F-35飞机的一部分,英国订购的首批两架F-35测试机目前正在制造中。预计英国将会为皇家空军和海军订购138架F-35战斗机。(中国航空工业发展研究中心  陈黎)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-7 21:34 | 显示全部楼层
美空军发布关于F-35A候选基地的意向声明

2010-01-07

      [据美国《兰利空军基地网站》2010年1月4日报道]  美国空军于2009年12月30日已发布了环境影响声明的意向通知,评估F-35A战斗机在可能的美国本土的空军和空中国民警卫队的现有基地使用的潜在环境影响。

      F-35A(联合攻击战斗机的空军型)是下一代隐身空对地战斗机,将用于补充F-22“猛禽”战斗机和取代老旧飞机。

      拟定的候选基地包括:爱达荷州霍姆山空军基地(Mountain Home AFB),犹他州希尔空军基地(Hill AFB),南卡罗来纳州的肖空军基地(Shaw AFB)/麦克恩泰联合国家警卫队基地(McEntire Joint National Guard Base),以及佛罗里达州杰克森威尔国际机场(Jacksonville)。环境影响分析将研究同路基使用、空域与安全、空气与水质、噪声、社会经济学、生物与文化资源和累计作用相关的问题。

      空军期望用1年左右的时间完成环境影响分析过程,公众的参与是该过程必不可少的一部分。公众会议将于1月12日在公开场合正式启动。空军代表将提供方案方面的信息,回答公众提出的任何问题,接收所有问题的意见或关于方案的顾虑。这些回忆的准确时间和地点将在当地的报纸上公布。(中国航空工业发展研究中心 苏海军)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-7 21:34 | 显示全部楼层
美空军发布关于F-35A候选基地的意向声明

2010-01-07

      [据美国《兰利空军基地网站》2010年1月4日报道]  美国空军于2009年12月30日已发布了环境影响声明的意向通知,评估F-35A战斗机在可能的美国本土的空军和空中国民警卫队的现有基地使用的潜在环境影响。

      F-35A(联合攻击战斗机的空军型)是下一代隐身空对地战斗机,将用于补充F-22“猛禽”战斗机和取代老旧飞机。

      拟定的候选基地包括:爱达荷州霍姆山空军基地(Mountain Home AFB),犹他州希尔空军基地(Hill AFB),南卡罗来纳州的肖空军基地(Shaw AFB)/麦克恩泰联合国家警卫队基地(McEntire Joint National Guard Base),以及佛罗里达州杰克森威尔国际机场(Jacksonville)。环境影响分析将研究同路基使用、空域与安全、空气与水质、噪声、社会经济学、生物与文化资源和累计作用相关的问题。

      空军期望用1年左右的时间完成环境影响分析过程,公众的参与是该过程必不可少的一部分。公众会议将于1月12日在公开场合正式启动。空军代表将提供方案方面的信息,回答公众提出的任何问题,接收所有问题的意见或关于方案的顾虑。这些回忆的准确时间和地点将在当地的报纸上公布。(中国航空工业发展研究中心 苏海军)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-11 10:10 | 显示全部楼层
洛克希德•马丁公司的F-35B飞机开始飞行中的STOVL操作试验
2010-01-11

[据美国《洛马公司网站》2010年1月7日报道]  今天洛克希德•马丁公司的F-35B“闪电”II在飞行中首次启用了STOVL(短距起飞/垂直降落)推进系统,F-35B STOVL的一系列飞行试验包括短距起飞、悬停和垂直降落。洛克希德•马丁公司的执行副总裁和F-35项目的总经理Dan Crowley称:“在拓展的地面试验期间,F-35的工业部门和军方联合工作组证明了STOVL推进系统工作良好,数千小时的部件试验验证了它的耐久性,现在我们看到了STOVL推进系统在飞行中的操作和我们的预测一样。”

  F-35B配备普惠公司的F135发动机和罗•罗公司的升力风扇,升力系统可产生超过41000磅的垂直升力。美国东部时间下午1:53,F-35B的首席试飞员、BAE系统公司的Graham Tomlinson驾机起飞,爬升到5000英尺的高度,在飞行速度288千米/小时时打开升力风扇推进系统,然后缓慢减速到207千米/小时,在加速到288千米/小时时再转到常规飞行模式。在飞行中,升力风扇推进系统运行了14分钟,下午2:41 Tomlinson驾机着陆。

  F-35B的STOVL模式飞行试验将继续进行,飞机的飞行速度逐渐减小、空中悬停直至垂直降落。大多数的STOVL飞行模式试验将在帕特森河海军航空站进行。(中国航空工业发展研究中心  陈宣友)
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lyman2003 发表于 2010-1-12 21:24 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-12 22:01 | 显示全部楼层
普惠F135发动机为F-35战机首次历史性的短距起飞/垂直降落飞行转换提供动力

2010-01-12
    【据航空防务网2010年01月11日报道】 普惠(Pratt & Whitney)F135发动机和劳斯莱斯升力风扇成功地为洛·马公司的F-35B闪电II STOVL(短距起飞/垂直降落)战机的第一次短距起飞/垂直降落飞行中提供推动力系统。

    F135项目副总裁Warren Boley说:“Pratt & Whitney非常荣幸地和我们的合作伙伴洛·马、F-35项目办公司、劳斯莱斯一起庆祝这个伟大的项目的里程碑,在经过8年多的开发和测试以及超过12850个小时的地面组合和飞行测试,这次的成功是F135所有人共同努力的结果。”

    F135系统开发和演示(SDD)项目拥有超过12850小时的发动机测试时间并成功完成了164小时的飞行。其中包括增强起飞、超音速飞行、飞行中武器舱门循环、空对空补给、飞行中发动机重启以及往返于从埃格林和爱德华兹空军基地和帕塔克森特河海军航空站的越野飞行(cross-country flight)。

    Pratt & Whitney已经设计、开发并测试F135引擎,用以为美空军、海军陆战队、海军以及8个国际合作伙伴的第五代战机提供最先进的发动机,F135源于已经过证实的第五代战机引擎Pratt & Whitney发动机技术,它在一些空军和海军的科技项目开发的技术中得到进一步的增强。(工业和信息化部电子科学技术情报研究所 李亦豪)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-14 17:31 | 显示全部楼层
英国国防部削减JSF战机订单
2010-01-14

  【据航空防务网2010年01月13日报道】英国国防部计划大幅削减皇家空军和皇家海军新战舰所提出列载的美国JSF隐形战机。
  在英部长、大臣和军事顾问的军费开支考虑中,由于现有的鹞式和旋风式战斗机,订单中JSF战机将成为被削减的对象。
  在面对二战中最大、最惨痛的经历时,在高级官员中形成了一个普遍的共识,他们无法负担起已经寻觅到的140架美国JSF战机。现在被称为F35的JSF战机由于昂贵的消耗和延期,估价已从四年前的单价3700万英镑飙升至今天的超过6200万英镑。
  根据国防部的一个折中方案,订单将从140架减为70架。还有一个逐渐流行的观点认为英国无法担负起建造两个大型航母,一位身居高位的军方人士说:“航母计划已经收到阻碍,JSF的减少也是理所当然的了。”(工业和信息化部电子科学技术情报研究所 李亦豪)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-18 19:27 | 显示全部楼层
USN officials raise concern about F-35 affordability
By Stephen Trimble

DATE:14/01/10
SOURCE:Flight International

The US Naval Air Systems Command's top cost estimator has warned in a new internal briefing obtained by Flight International that the Lockheed Martin F-35B/C variants are getting harder to afford.

Lockheed continues to insist, however, that cost estimates within the programme have not changed since 2007, which it says is supported by its recent contractual performance.

But the NAVAIR briefing, presented to US Navy officials on 4 January, adds fuel to a series of recent reports that the Department of Defense is taking a more conservative approach to estimating the F-35's overall costs, with potential production unit cuts likely in the fiscal year 2011 budget request scheduled for release in February.

According to NAVAIR's cost department, the F-35's total ownership costs, including development, production and sustainment, has doubled to $704 billion since Lockheed won the contract eight years ago.

© Lockheed Martin



Moreover, NAVAIR estimates the total of 680 short take-off and vertical landing F-35Bs and carrier-variant F-35Cs, ordered by the US Marine Corps and USN, respectively, will cost $30,700 to fly each hour. This compares to $18,900 for the Boeing AV-8B Harrier II and Boeing F/A-18A-D, the aircraft types the Joint Strike Fighter will replace.

Although NAVAIR projects the F-35 will fly 12% fewer flight hours than the AV-8B and F/A-18A-D fleets, the agency expects the modern aircraft to cost as much as about 25% more to operate at peak rates, the briefing says.

The unexpected cost increases mean the F-35 "will have a significant impact on naval aviation affordability", the NAVAIR document concludes.

Dan Crowley, Lockheed executive vice-president for the F-35, says the presentation reflects an ongoing dispute between the programme and the Joint Estimating Team (JET). The NAVAIR presentation bases its cost assumptions on the latest JET study.

The programme uses a "bottom-up" approach to estimate costs, while the JET and NAVAIR estimates use a parametric model, Crowley says.

But the dispute is not a trivial matter. If the DoD decides to submit a budget request based on the JET's higher estimate, Lockheed's orders for production aircraft could decline. Such a reduction sets the stage for the so-called "acquisition death spiral", as fewer orders lead to higher unit production costs, which in turn cause further cuts.

But Crowley says that a production cut next year would not necessarily trigger a death spiral. Under Lockheed's interpretation of recent acquisition reform laws, the company could deliver more aircraft to the government than are put under contract.

The first test of this theory could arrive during negotiations for the fifth annual lot of low rate production. "The government will be monitoring our prices for LRIP-5," Crowley says.

Meanwhile, Lockheed will continue to develop its capacity planning based on the assumption that it will deliver one jet every working day by 2015 or 2016, says Crowley.
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-18 23:47 | 显示全部楼层
航母数量减了,飞机数量也减了,干脆把皇家海军规模也减下来吧,这样省钱。。。。。。
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-21 21:35 | 显示全部楼层
F-35联合攻击战斗机在2009年只完成原定试验飞行计划的10%
2010-01-21
    [据法法国航宇防务网2010年1月19日报道]  美国国防部表示,由于试验飞机生产的延迟,2009年洛·马公司只完成了F-35联合攻击战斗机试验飞行原定计划的10%。美国国防部武器测试负责人迈克尔•吉尔摩称,2009财年(即F-35飞行试验的第二年)只进行了16次飞行试验,而原计划是168次。尽管后来又进行了几次试验飞行,但总体来说仍旧远低于原计划。

    飞行试验未能如期开展是国防部长罗伯特·盖茨延迟F-35项目的重要原因,盖茨也将2011财年至2015财年的F-35采购数量削减了122架。根据2011财年预算案,原本用于购买F-35的28多亿美元的预算将继续用于该飞机的研发。吉尔摩表示,如今F-35的研发阶段至少要延长1年,直至2015年10月。

     F-35的评估将附在2010年1月22日提交国会的主要系统测试年度报告里,并将在1月24日之前公布。吉尔摩表示,因为未能实现目标,F-35项目进入2009财年时是“重大风险”项目;照目前看来,因为试验飞机未能按时交付从而导致飞行试验未能跟上步伐,直到2012年该风险程度将一直增加。即使假定剩下的大约4970次飞行测试全部取得成功,洛·马公司也至少需要比原计划推迟1年完成研发工作。   (中国船舶信息中心 焦春坤)
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-22 11:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 speed 于 2010-1-22 11:51 编辑

All Eyes On JSF In 2010

Jan 5, 2010

By Bill Sweetman
Washington


http://www.aviationweek.com

After a year of broken promises and blown deadlines, and failure to make progress in flight testing that not even the harshest critics predicted, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter program is on the defensive.

The obvious problem is that flight-testing continues at a snail’s pace. In January, program leaders were promising that 10 test aircraft would fly in 2009, and even in the spring they were forecasting that the first vertical landing would take place in late summer or early fall. By September, only one new jet was flying, but they still promised five more aircraft by year-end, and a vertical landing in October or November. By early December, one of those five aircraft had flown; BF-1, tasked with the vertical-landing tests, made it to the NAS Patuxent River, Md., flight-test center but had not flown again by mid-December.

The team blames manufacturing issues in general, and former program leadership in particular, saying too much emphasis was placed on visible milestones, so that aircraft rolled out were not ready to fly and aircraft that flew were not ready for sustained testing. In September, program leadership made a prediction, identified as 12-12-12: Within 12 months the team would have 12 aircraft in test and they would each be flying 12 sorties per month.

That prediction has been put in doubt by two developments: the small-to-zero likelihood that the end-of-2009 goals will be achieved; and a negative report by the reconvened Joint Estimating Team, which first reported on JSF in the fall of 2008. That report, predicting that testing would be completed two years late, was dismissed by JSF leaders as based on obsolete concepts of flight testing. The second report, indicating that the picture had not improved, persuaded new Pentagon procurement chief Ashton Carter to start looking at ways to reduce risk and mitigate delays.

A development stretch—today, development testing is supposed to be completed in 2013 and operational testing a year later—will raise costs. The program cannot legally move to a multiyear contract until operational testing is completed. The Pentagon and Congress will both rule in 2010 on whether to inject more money into the program or pay for development overruns by cutting early production numbers. Congress may fret about concurrency: in current plans, every year’s delay means 230 more aircraft ordered before development is complete.

One consequence of the delays and cost uncertainties is that plans for a 368-aircraft, five-year consortium buy for eight international partners (the U.K., Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Italy, Turkey, Australia and Canada) have still not resulted in a firm offer. In October, Australian Defense Management Organization Chief Executive Stephen Gumley said he believed the idea was dead. In 2010, defense ministers in Norway and the Netherlands may have to explain to their parliaments that the JSF will cost more than they promised.

The big issue in 2010, however, will be program performance on three tracks. First, the JSF team has to get the remainder of the systems development and demonstration (SDD) aircraft in the air—this was supposed to happen by May-June, with the last of them leaving Fort Worth for the customer’s flight-test center by September. Meeting these deadlines will be essential to reaching the “12-12-12” flight-test target.

The second track is training. The three F-35A SDD aircraft have to stay in Fort Worth until May-June to clear the training envelope, so the first two low-rate initial production (LRIP) F-35As can be delivered in mid-year to Eglin AFB, Fla. The first cadre of Marine Corps instructors needs to start work on the F-35A in 2010, moving to training that is specific to the short-takeoff-and-vertical-landing variant in 2011 to ready the first operational crews for the Marines’ 2012 initial operational capability date.

Third, the F-35B needs to clear its vertical landing envelope for two reasons: that has to be completed before the vertical-landing training syllabus can be finalized, and the F-35B test and LRIP aircraft are needed to make a contribution to mission-system testing.

Meanwhile, competitors are taking aim at the JSF’s costs and program performance, and whether the fighter’s stealth will prevail against the non-stealthy, but faster and better-armed Sukhoi Su-35S and other contemporaries.
 楼主| speed 发表于 2010-1-22 11:50 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 speed 于 2010-1-22 11:51 编辑

USAF Chief Downplays JSF Testing Delay

Jan 21, 2010

By Amy Butler



http://www.aviationweek.com

A testing delay for the F-35 program will prompt an increase in the per-unit cost of the stealthy single-engine fighter “for a period,” says the U.S. Air Force chief of staff, Gen. Norton Schwartz.

Schwartz says the boost will not, however, be enough to breach requirements under the Nunn-McCurdy reporting law, which triggers a mandatory Pentagon review of alternatives and notification of Congress in cases of a significant cost and schedule overrun.

The chief says the delay, which he only described as not lasting “multiple years,” was necessary. Government officials have indicated that completing testing could take up to 30 months more than planned; the current timeline is to wrap up testing in 2014. (See related story p. 3.) Schwartz declined to outline the specific duration of the delay, and said it would be revealed in the fiscal 2011 budget, which will be released Feb. 1.

“The path we were on was too aggressive,” Schwartz told reporters Jan. 20 during the 38th IFPA-Fletcher Conference on National Security, Strategy and Policy. He said the restructuring was needed to reduce the concurrency of development and production, lengthen the testing period and boost the number of test assets available. It also will result in a “less ambitious” production ramp-up, he says.

The F-35 program is “far better off than the F-22 at a similar time” in its development, Schwartz said. Both aircraft are manufactured by teams led by Lockheed Martin.

Schwartz acknowledges that the international partners in the Joint Strike Fighter development, as well as would-be foreign customers, “have an interest” in the outcome of the program. Some customers are still considering alternatives to the fighter, and a slip may push them away from immediate purchases.

However, he says that the initial operational capability of the first training unit is still on schedule for this year.

The slip will create what Schwartz calls a “nose-to-tail” handoff for the Air Force from the F-16, which is currently in operation. It will eliminate the overlap, or margin, between the drawdown of the legacy fleet and introduction of the stealthy single-engine fighter into the inventory, he said.
belldany 发表于 2010-1-23 11:16 | 显示全部楼层
f-35a机敏性优于f16,隐身能力仅次于f22,应付将来的威胁绰绰有余。

  f35三军通用确实使空军和海军型付 ...
costrave 发表于 2010-1-10 07:35



    F35的推重比要高于F16.它在机动性上超过F16完全可信,但F16只是三代机的标准.F35并不具备F22那种超音速巡航能力.而且隐身能力又大打折扣.这些都不符合四代机的标准.
所以我们是不是可以认为,F35只不过是三代半机.或是三代半机里配置较高的一种.但要卡上四代机标准,就比较废柴呢?
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