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[专题专项] SpaceX的Falcon 9运载火箭和Merlin引擎:Falcon 9的进化

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cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-5 17:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2017-1-22 14:57 编辑

NSF网友的消息,参加AIAA的Joint Propulsion Conference的SpaceX推进系统分部主任Tom Mueller 在发言中提到,前段时间在Texas进行的点火测试结果显示Merlin 1D引擎的T/W>160,Isp(vac)>309s,尚未得到其他途经证实

本帖被以下淘专辑推荐:

 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-7 10:24 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-5 17:41
NSF网友的消息,参加AIAA的Joint Propulsion Conference的SpaceX推进系统分部主任Tom Mueller 在发言中提到 ...


更多关于Merlin 1D的信息
Revealing several new details of the 1D, Tom Mueller, propulsion engineering vice president, says the engine is designed to produce 155,000 lb. vacuum thrust and have a chamber pressure at “the sweet spot” of roughly 1,410 psia. “We’ve also increased the nozzle expansion ratio to 16 [compared with 14.5 on the Merlin 1C],” says Mueller, who adds that the initial engine “is doing better than we hoped.” The engine is designed for an Isp (specific impulse) of 310 sec. and has a thrust-to-weight ratio of 160:1. “We took structure off the engine to make it lighter. The engine we shipped [for test] to Texas was a development engine and hopefully the production engines will be even better,” he says.


Mueller also said that they have used lessons from the previous versions to go with a simpler design for the 1D and a longer fatigue life.

The 1D will allow for throttling between 70-100%. Currently they shut off two of the nine engines on the first stage during ascent. With the 1D they will instead be able to throttle all of the engines.

There will be a vacuum version of the 1D for the Falcon Heavy second stage.

http://hobbyspace.com/nucleus/?itemid=31499
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-7 10:41 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-8-7 10:52 编辑

NSF网友oldAtlas_Eguybaldusi做的Merlin 1C Block I/II和Merlin 1D(测试版)的对比,略作修改

Merlin 1C (block I)指的是目前正被Falcon 9助推级使用的简化版Merlin 1C

EngineMerlin 1C (block I)Merlin 1D
SL Thrust94.8klbf140klbf
Vac Thrust108.3klbf155klbf
SL isp266s273s?(modeled using Aximer)
Vac isp303.8s310s
T/W75160
Chamber Pressure1000psi ?1420psi
Expansion14.516
Throttle range100%70%-100%


Merlin 1C (block II)指的是之前计划中的Merlin1 C升级版(SpaceX公开的关于Merlin 1C的数据实际都是block II),实际的升级版已被赋予Merlin 1D 的代号,性能也有所提升

EngineMerlin 1C (block II)Merlin 1D
SL Thrust125klbf140klbf
Vac Thrust138klbf155klbf
SL isp275s285s?
Vac isp304s310s
T/W96160
Chamber Pressure1000psi ?1420psi
Expansion14.516
Throttle range100%70%-100%

————————————————————————————————————
注:这里的T/W指的是Thrust(Vac)/Weight,据此推算正在使用的Merlin 1C (block I)的引擎重量约656kg,原计划升级版Merlin 1C (block II)的引擎重量约653kg,而实际升级版的Merlin 1D 引擎重量约440kg,减重33%

 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-12 11:25 | 显示全部楼层
关于Merlin 1D
All Falcon 9 flights up to and including the sixth will be powered by the kerosene/liquid oxygen 95,000-lb.-thrust Merlin 1C, with the Merlin 1C-Vac derivative powering the upper stage. Development of the more powerful, 140,000-lb.-thrust Merlin 1D, which will equip the Falcon 9 from the seventh flight onward, is now underway. More than 150 firings have been accomplished at the company’s Rocket Development Facility in McGregor, Texas, since the effort began in February.

http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story.jsp?id=news/awst/2011/08/08/AW_08_08_2011_p27-354586.xml&headline=SpaceX%20Plans%20To%20Be%20Top%20World%20Rocket%20Maker&channel=defense
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-15 12:03 | 显示全部楼层
下面这段访谈里Musk提到Merlin 1D的燃烧室内套(jacket)是用爆炸成型(explosively formed)工艺生产的。

对工程不太了解,这是怎么实现的?这种工艺和前面关于电镀(electro-plating)的部分有什么联系?

The hardest part of the engine to mass produce is the electro-plating of nickel cobalt on the chamber. We create this thick metal jacket that takes the primary stress of the pressure vessel and it’s plated one molecule at a time. Plating is about the slowest way you can make a metal thing. With the Merlin-1D we take a metal jacket that is explosively formed. We take a metal sheet that’s in a cylindrical form and put it in a bucket of water, effectively. Sort of a concrete pool. And you set off an explosive and the jacket just goes “boohmp” and forms to the outer side walls into a jacket shape, so you have a mold, effectively. And then you just put the jacket on the chamber and braise it on. You can do several a day. We have a fully integrated engine and it’s being test-fired right now.

http://spacenews.com/profiles/110425-elon-musk.html
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-10-15 11:27 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-10-15 11:30 编辑
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-15 12:03
下面这段访谈里Musk提到Merlin 1D的燃烧室内套(jacket)是用爆炸成型(explosively formed)工艺生产的。
...

转自NSF论坛,首张Merlin 1D照片,拍摄地点是SpaceX位于德州McGregor的新测试台



从图上看Merlin 1D和Merlin 1c的喷口有很大区别,类似俄式的通道壁冷却喷口






 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-22 12:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-11-22 12:43 编辑
cmj9808 发表于 2011-10-15 11:27
转自NSF论坛,首张Merlin 1D照片,拍摄地点是SpaceX位于德州McGregor的新测试台
Musk向到访的德州参议员介绍Merlin 1D引擎,摄于McGregor的SpaceX开放日,图片可放大



http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.10150964581395131.767931.353851465130&type=1

点评

暗夜流星@但是Merlin 1D推重比近150,恐怕还是有绝活的。  发表于 2011-12-2 13:53
joki@用的合金估计都差不多,看起来类似也不奇怪。  发表于 2011-11-24 13:28
传感器用胶带固定在喷管外壁是首见,不知其他引擎测试是否也是这么做的?  发表于 2011-11-23 13:27
不知道是不是逆光的缘故,从这个角度看,色泽和喷管很YF20。。。  发表于 2011-11-22 14:33
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2012-6-8 13:29 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2012-6-8 13:36 编辑
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-7 10:24
更多关于Merlin 1D的信息

http://hobbyspace.com/nucleus/?itemid=31499


SpaceX主页公开了Merlin 1D的数据
Sea Level Thrust : 147,000 lbf (66.7t)
Vacuum Thrust: 161,000 lbf  (73.1t)
Sea Level Isp: 282s
Vacuum Isp: 311s

http://www.spacex.com/falcon9.php

比之前Tom Mueller在采访时提到的还要高一点
Revealing several new details of the 1D, Tom Mueller, propulsion engineering vice president, says the engine is designed to produce 155,000 lb. vacuum thrust and have a chamber pressure at “the sweet spot” of roughly 1,410 psia. “We’ve also increased the nozzle expansion ratio to 16 [compared with 14.5 on the Merlin 1C],” says Mueller, who adds that the initial engine “is doing better than we hoped.” The engine is designed for an Isp (specific impulse) of 310 sec. and has a thrust-to-weight ratio of 160:1. “We took structure off the engine to make it lighter. The engine we shipped [for test] to Texas was a development engine and hopefully the production engines will be even better,” he says.

相应的,Falcon 9的运力也增加了不少,但是Falcon 9 User‘s Guide还是09年的版本

Performance
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

Mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 13,150 kg (29,000 lb)
Inclination: 28.5 degree

Mass to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO): 4,850 kg (10,692 lb)
Inclination: 28.5 degree

另外增加了Falcon-H的GTO运力,只有12吨,远低于之前公布的19吨(w/ cross-feeding)和15吨(w/o cross-feeding),LEO运力没有明显变化

Launch Site: Cape Canaveral AFS
Inclination: 28.5 degree
Mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO): 53,000 kg (117,000 lb)
Mass to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO): 12,000 kg (26,460 lb)
http://www.spacex.com/falcon_heavy.php



点评

是的,目前使用的v1.0的GTO运力不足以发射主流通讯卫星  发表于 2012-6-9 08:44
难道是09年就按照改进型的预期能力来写Falcon 9 User‘s Guide?  发表于 2012-6-8 17:38
如果v1.1@51.6°运力为12.5吨的话,按飞船干质量4.9吨、推进剂1.6吨、宣传的加压舱内4吨货、tank里2吨货计算,刚好12.5吨。  发表于 2012-6-8 14:37
有没有公布v1.1的起飞重量?另,FH的GTO缩水严重啊,这个是cross-feed,还是没有cross-feed的指标?  发表于 2012-6-8 14:15
NSF网友普遍认为16吨的LEO运力是有水分的,一般认为v1.0是9.9吨,v1.1是12-13吨  发表于 2012-6-8 13:57
标准型的F9就只有前5发。换Merlin 1D后,就都是加长50%的F9v1.1了,LEO应该是16吨才对。  发表于 2012-6-8 13:39
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2012-6-26 15:09 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-7 10:24
更多关于Merlin 1D的信息

http://hobbyspace.com/nucleus/?itemid=31499


Merlin 1D 185s全程试车,达到预期推力和比冲,但推重比略低于之前提到的160,而是150+,看来dry weight高于预期。真空推力按75t算,单台M1D重约500kg。

Hawthorne, CA – Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) announces that its Merlin 1D engine has achieved a full mission duration firing and multiple restarts at target thrust and specific impulse (Isp).


The engine firing was for 185 seconds with 147,000 pounds of thrust, the full duration and power required for a Falcon 9 rocket launch. The tests took place at SpaceX's rocket development facility in McGregor, Texas.

...


With nine Merlins on the first stage, the Falcon 9 rocket will produce nearly 1.5 million pounds of thrust in a vacuum. An enhanced design makes the Merlin 1D the most efficient booster engine ever built, with a vacuum thrust-to-weight ratio exceeding 150, while still maintaining the structural and thermal safety margins needed to carry astronauts.


http://www.spacex.com/press.php?page=20120625


点评

Merlin 1D应该是迄今为止推重比最高的火箭引擎  发表于 2012-6-26 17:58
即便是燃气发生器循环的煤油机,印象里150+的推重比已经是最高的了吧?  发表于 2012-6-26 15:52
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2012-6-27 22:31 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2012-6-26 15:09
Merlin 1D 185s全程试车,达到预期推力和比冲,但推重比略低于之前提到的160,而是150+,看来dry weigh ...

Mr.Musk肯定了我的算术能力

https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/217973460348047360

Merlin fired at full thrust! Engine weighs half a ton, but has power equal to several Hoover Dams


 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2012-12-3 19:52 | 显示全部楼层

SpaceX的猎鹰9运载火箭:Merlin 1D+将投入使用

本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2015-1-23 13:53 编辑

转自jurvetson的flickr相册
www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/ ... 51/with/8233307143/

F9v1.1的助推级,左端是引擎安装位置


级间段,分离装置由V1.0的9个改为3个

下图是v1.0的级间段,可以做个比较

半个整流罩,闪闪发光的球体可能是氦气瓶。

流水线上的Merlin 1D的引擎喷管“内胆”,可以看到喷口处已经蚀刻上的“通道”(channel),远景是完成蚀刻的喷管内胆,中景则是套上外壁的喷管,形成一个完整的channel wall

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主力部队 发表于 2012-12-3 19:58 | 显示全部楼层
不得不佩服美国佬的科技实力,中国还需要许多年才能赶上~
祖国之翼 发表于 2012-12-3 20:13 | 显示全部楼层
主力部队 发表于 2012-12-3 19:58
不得不佩服美国佬的科技实力,中国还需要许多年才能赶上~

要是说起来的话,还是应该佩服土星5(停产),战神(被砍),德尔塔4重(还活着)这类重型机
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2012-12-3 20:15 | 显示全部楼层
准备在电磁干扰(EMI)测试室接受测试的GN&C系统。

SpX的EMI测试室的名字是VooDoo Lounge, 热真空测试室叫Hangover, 振动测试室则叫The Kraken,再加上下面的Iron Maiden,让你很难与rocket science联系起来。



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点评

哈,IT攒机style的延续~  发表于 2012-12-4 09:53
shaolin1254 发表于 2012-12-3 20:40 | 显示全部楼层
还继续使用商业CPU等零件?

点评

便宜量足啊,低轨道发射也不太用考虑宇宙射线下的误码率什么的...  发表于 2012-12-4 03:30
至少近期内仍使用商业元件  发表于 2012-12-3 22:16
rhZhao 发表于 2012-12-4 05:42 | 显示全部楼层
大学毕业以后看看能不能申请到这工作几个月inter~~~
joki 发表于 2012-12-4 10:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 joki 于 2012-12-4 10:08 编辑

工艺精湛,感觉不错。很期待这个长径比接近19的铝锂合金共底储箱火箭的实际表现,不知道能不能如期在2013年首射。
sinoempire 发表于 2012-12-4 10:41 | 显示全部楼层
工厂看起人好少,又干净,羡慕。。。。
junzheng 发表于 2012-12-4 11:49 | 显示全部楼层
技术底子摆在那里,要赶上还是很难的
北极企鹅 发表于 2012-12-4 21:39 | 显示全部楼层
思路转变了,技术上的差距可以很快赶上
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