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[专题专项] 中国空间站:2020年中国太空站建设路演图

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word 发表于 2009-9-23 20:01 | 显示全部楼层
东方红先生说得好,没有创意,中国航天缺的就是创新能力来突破目前航天的技术框.
jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-17 10:40 | 显示全部楼层

中国计划2020年左右投入使用的空间站,三舱、载3名宇航员、重60吨

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2009-10-17 13:40 编辑

China Begins Lunar Landings Study


Oct 16, 2009
By Frank Morring, Jr. and Bradley Perrett


DAEJEON, South Korea - China is laying the groundwork to land astronauts on the moon, which would follow an ambitious lunar robotic precursor program that also could pave the way for the country's first unmanned probe to Mars.

Dong Nengli of the China Manned Space Engineering Program says his organization - which developed the Shenzhou human spacecraft and is planning an unpiloted orbital rendezvous and docking experiment in 2011 - is already looking beyond the planned deployment of a 60-ton Chinese space station in 2020.

"During the course of the third step of the China manned spaceflight program, we will conduct a manned lunar mission conception study, validate the key technologies and finally pave the way for manned lunar exploration," Dong said at the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) here Oct. 15.

Chinese officials stress that there has been no government approval for a manned lunar landing, and say China would "welcome" a chance to join the larger international exploration effort that has coalesced around the International Space Station.

Dong and other officials at the congress offered no details about the human-lunar concept study, instead elaborating on plans to continue gaining spaceflight experience by building toward the 60-ton, three-person space station, and to follow up the second Chang'e lunar orbiter set for launch next year with a robotic lander, rover and eventually a sample-return mission.

The first miniature space station - Tiangong 1 - is under construction and still scheduled to go into orbit in 2011 to serve as a docking target for the Shenzhou 8, which will be unmanned. There will be two or three Tiangongs, with one set up as a space laboratory in 2013. Astronauts will use it to practice medium-term stays in space and to do scientific experiments.

Since China's upcoming heavy-lift launcher, the Long March 5, will not go into service until 2014, the laboratory's mass will be limited by the throw weight of the current Long March series, the most powerful of which can lift 13 tons to low orbit.

A concept plan has been finished for the 60-ton space station, which would follow around 2020 (the previous target was "by 2020"). It will be assembled in space from three modules, matched to the capability of the Long March 5.

While China builds up experience with human space flight in low Earth orbit, it will continue sending robotic probes to the moon before bringing the two strands together with the possible manned landing. The next lunar mission will be Chang'e 2, due to be launched next October, following the successful Chang'e 1 mission of 2008-09. Chang'e 2 will orbit the moon at an altitude of 100 kilometers (60 miles), equipped with a camera with a resolution of better than 10 meters.

Chang'e 3 will land, executing phase two of the robotic lunar exploration plan, and deploy a rover. The scientific objectives include investigating the geological structure of the moon, its material composition, internal structure and usable materials, and "to build up an observatory" based on the moon. A later mission "before 2017" will be aimed at bringing lunar samples back to Earth.

China also is looking at sending a probe to Mars, using the experience and infrastructure developed with the Chang'e missions.
jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-17 13:26 | 显示全部楼层

空间站最新概念图

yourfile.jpg
jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-17 13:32 | 显示全部楼层
jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-17 13:34 | 显示全部楼层

载人航天工程副总设计师王忠贵在60届国际宇航联大会做Presentation的截图

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2009-10-17 13:39 编辑

china station 2.jpg china station.jpg
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-17 15:01 | 显示全部楼层
还是三舱两船型空间站
jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-19 12:40 | 显示全部楼层

中国空间站将定位于400-450km轨道上,倾角42-43度,寿命10年

China Out Front With Human Lunar Planning


Oct 16, 2009
  
Frank Morring, Jr. and Bradley Perrett/Daejeon, South Korea

Previously circumspect, Chinese space officials are out front now about their interest in sending their astronauts to the Moon on their own, even as they worked the halls of the International Astronautical Congress (IAC) here to establish closer outside links for human-spaceflight cooperation.

Dong Nengli of China’s Manned Space Engineering Program says his organization—which developed the Shenzhou human spacecraft and is planning an unpiloted orbital rendezvous and docking experiment in 2011—is already looking beyond the planned deployment of a 60-ton Chinese station in 2020.

“During the course of the third step of the China manned-spaceflight program, we will conduct a manned lunar mission conception study, validate the key technologies and finally pave the way for manned lunar exploration,” Dong told a press conference on his country’s space program on Oct. 15.

Chinese officials stress that there has been no government approval for a manned lunar landing, and they say China would “welcome” a chance to join the larger international exploration effort that has coalesced around the International Space Station.

“If the Americans and the International Space Station [partners] put forward this kind of cooperation suggestion, we would definitely really welcome these suggestions,” says Wang Jongqui, deputy chief designer of the Manned Space Engineering Program. “We would seriously take that into consideration.”

To that end, Wang and his delegation—which included Chinese spacewalker Zhai Zhigang—met with representatives of the French and German national delegations to the congress here. Their presence at the IAC marks a change in the public face of China’s space program, which in the past has sent representatives of the civilian China National Space Agency (CNSA) to the annual event.

This year, CNSA Administrator Sun Laiyan, a regular at past IAC heads-of-agency plenary sessions, withdrew from the congress after the programs had been printed. Officials of two different Western space agencies say there have been indications the CNSA is on the outs in Beijing, while the head of the Manned Space Engineering Office—Wang Wenbao—told Aviation Week and a delegation from the Space Foundation on Sept. 22 that his organization is handling human spaceflight for the central government (AW&ST Sept. 28, p. 24).

The management-level Manned Space Engineering Office and the Manned Space Engineering Program, which handles the technical side of the human-spaceflight effort, draw their funding from the Chinese military. All of the nation’s astronauts are military pilots; but like their counterparts from the U.S. and Russia, they do not wear their uniforms at international gatherings such as the IAC, and program officials downplay the military link when questioned about it.

Dong and other officials here offered no details about the human lunar concept study, which has been mentioned in Chinese-language technical publications but not announced at an international forum before. Instead, they elaborated on plans to continue gaining spaceflight experience by building toward the 60-ton, three-person space station and to follow up the second Chang’e lunar orbiter—which is set for launch next year—with a robotic lander, rover and eventually a sample-return mission.

The first miniature space station, Tiangong 1, is under construction and still scheduled to go into orbit in 2011 to serve as a docking target for the Shenzhou 8 spacecraft, which will be unmanned. If that goes well, China will move into a series of manned rendezvous and docking tests with Tiangong 1. Wang says there will be two or three Tiangongs, which officials previously said will weigh 8.5 tons. A Tiangong will be set up as a space laboratory in 2013. Astronauts will use it to practice medium-term stays in orbit and to perform scientific experiments. “By operating the space laboratory, China will accumulate experience in building, managing and operating the future space station,” says Dong.

Since China’s upcoming heavy-lift launcher, the Long March 5, will not go into service until 2014, the laboratory’s mass will be limited by the throwweight of the current Long March series, the most powerful of which can lift 13 tons to low orbit.

A robotic cargo craft also is planned to resupply the larger space station, and Wang says it will be structurally related to the Tiangong series.

The docking port China is developing for the Shenzhou 8 mission is similar in diameter to, but not compatible with, the Russian-designed system used on the ISS, Wang says. However, China would be interested in hearing any suggestions that could lead to an international docking-interface standard, he notes.

A concept plan has been finished for the 60-ton space station, which would follow around 2020 (the previous target was “by 2020”). It will be assembled in orbit from three modules, matched to the capability of the Long March 5 and launch from the low-latitude site under construction on Hainan Island. China has said at least one of the station modules will weigh 20 tons; the others are likely to be close to that. Designed to sustain a crew of three for long-duration missions, the station would orbit at an altitude of 400-450 km. (248-280 mi.) and an inclination of 42-43 deg, with a planned service life of 10 years.

The ISS, with a mass of about 300 tons, generally orbits at an altitude less than 400 km. and at an inclination of 51.6 deg., with accommodation for six. It began service in 2000 and—if the recommendations of the Augustine panel reviewing the future of U.S. human spaceflight are followed—would be shut down in 2020, just as the Chinese station becomes operational.

While China builds up experience with human spaceflight in low orbit, it will continue sending robotic probes to the Moon before bringing the two strands together with a possible manned landing. The next lunar mission will be Chang’e 2, due to be launched next October, following the successful Chang’e 1 mission of 2008-09. The Chang’e 2 probe was previously a backup for its predecessor and will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km. Its equipment will include a camera with a resolution of better than 10 meters (33 ft.).

Chang’e 3 will land on the Moon, executing the second phase of the robotic lunar exploration plan. The 3,750-kg. (8,250-lb.) spacecraft is due to be launched in 2012 directly to the Moon without first orbiting the Earth, inserted into a 100 X 100-km. orbit that will be adjusted to 100 X 15 km. When the vehicle reaches the 15-km. perigee, its engine will begin reducing its velocity from 1.7 km./sec. to about zero, turning it to a vertical attitude before the craft reaches an altitude of 2 km. The lander will hover at 100 meters, moving horizontally to avoid any hazards, and then slowly descend to 4 meters, at which point its engine will shut down for a free fall to the surface.

The lander will carry a rover. The scientific objectives include investigating the geological structure of the Moon, its material composition, internal structure and usable materials, and “to build up an observatory” based on the Moon. A later mission “before 2017” will be aimed at bringing lunar samples back to Earth.

China is also looking at sending a probe to Mars, using the experience and infrastructure developed with the Chang’e missions.
Nighthawk 发表于 2009-10-19 13:12 | 显示全部楼层
为什么要选一个比神舟和ISS高大约100千米的轨道?
cmj9808 发表于 2009-10-19 18:36 | 显示全部楼层
这个轨道确实有点高,是否是记者搞错了
liudao 发表于 2009-10-19 23:04 | 显示全部楼层
天空实验室大约435公里,国际空间站350~500公里,中国的和它们差不多。空间站的轨道倾角还是要迁就酒泉的,毕竟人要从那里上天下地嘛。将来文昌的货运飞船打上天后,耗些燃料,自己调整倾角,和空间站对接。
gell 发表于 2009-10-21 22:00 | 显示全部楼层

(转)美媒称中国2020年将建成60吨级大型空间站

本帖最后由 gell 于 2009-10-21 22:02 编辑

核心提示:有中国航天专家在10月15日召开的国际宇航大会上雄心勃勃地表示,2020年中国将打造重达60吨的空间站,该空间站可载三名宇航员,将由三个太空舱组成。中国正在为宇航员登月做基础准备工作,这个项目还将为中国的首次火星无人探测铺平道路。


美国航空周刊官方网站(aviation week)2009年10月16日刊载题为“中国开始登月研究”的文章,文章提到,有中国航天专家在10月15日召开的国际宇航大会上雄心勃勃地表示,2020年中国将打造重达60吨的空间站,该空间站可载三名宇航员,将由三个太空舱组成。

文章首先说,中国正在为宇航员登月做基础准备工作,随之而来的是一个雄心勃勃的月球机器人先期项目,这个项目还将为中国的首次火星无人探测铺平道路。文章引用一位中国载人航天工程项目(China Manned Space Engineering Program,这个项目正是研发“神舟”载人飞船,并计划在2011年进行轨道交互对接试验)专家的话说,展望未来,中国将在2020年建成重60吨的载人空间站;文章提到,这位专家在10月15日召开的国际宇航大会(International Astronautical Congress,IAC)上表示,中国载人航天飞行计划的第三步将进行载人登月任务概念研究,验证关键的技术,最后为载人登月探测奠定基础。

文章说,中国专家阐述了中国计划打造重达60吨的载三名宇航员的空间站,继续获得太空飞行的经验,明年将进行第二次“嫦娥”(嫦娥二号)绕月发射计划。

文章提到,中国的首个小型空间站“天宫一号”正在建造之中,计划于2011年升空进入轨道,作为“神舟8号”的对接目标;在2013年将打造2个或者3个“天宫”空间站,一个要作为太空实验室使用,宇航员将在其中进行中等期限的太空停留活动,并进行科学实验。

文章还说,既然中国的大推力火箭——“长征-5号”直到2010年才会投入使用,上述空间实验室的规模将是有限的,目前的“长征”系列火箭可以将13吨重的载荷送入近地轨道。而预计到2020年建成的重达60吨的空间站,将由三个太空舱组成。

美国航空周刊官方网站的文章还说,中国已经拥有了在近地轨道载人航天飞行的经验,在宇航员登陆月球之前,还将继续向月球发射无人探测器。下一次探月任务将是“嫦娥二号”探月卫星的发射,计划在明年10月份发射,这是继2008-2009年度成功发射“嫦娥一号”之后进一步行动。“嫦娥二号”将在100千米高的轨道上绕月飞行,上面将配备分辨率小于10米的摄像机。“嫦娥三号”月球探测器将登陆(软着陆,而非撞击)月球,并展开月球巡视,它的科学目的包括探测月球的地质结构、成份构成、内部结构和可用物质材料,还将在月球建造一个“气象台”(探测月球环境)。在此之后、2017年之前的一个任务就是把月球上的物质样品带回地球。

文章最后说,中国还计划运用“嫦娥”探月计划中累积的经验和建造的基础设备,向火星发射探测器。
snowtiger 发表于 2009-10-22 00:00 | 显示全部楼层
三舱两船而已。建议合并。另外,看长五运力,60吨也许保守了。
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-22 00:32 | 显示全部楼层
第一次尝试大型组合在轨航天器么,别要求太高,安全可靠适用就好。反正这东西初期还是短期有人,长期无人站。该试验的都搞完,寿命到了,就该搞2代空间站了。
tianlan 发表于 2009-10-22 13:44 | 显示全部楼层



    呵呵, 说不定天宫三号就会尝试在轨舱段组合哦!
jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-9 18:47 | 显示全部楼层

中国航天三步走 已经走了一步半

2010年01月09日   浙江在线-钱江晚报

  中国航天事业起步晚,加速度却相当惊人。眼看着“神五”、“神六”、“神七”相继上天,飞天已然不是梦想。接下来,我国航天事业还有什么新计划?昨天,中国首次太空漫步航天展(杭州站)在杭州世贸中心开展。仪式结束后,记者采访了中国载人航天工程办公室副主任王兆耀。

  航天三步走

  中国走了一半

  听王兆耀介绍,从1992年开始,中央就绘制了中国航空计划的详细蓝图,订出了三步走计划。

  第一步,实现天地往返。通俗点说就是人能上天,也能回得来;

  第二步,建立空间实验室。可让人作短期驻留。这一步,中国可说是走了一半,就像“神七”,能在太空中待3天,而且完成了出舱;

  第三步,建立空间站。那时驻留的时间较长,规模较大,可长期住人。

  2020年前后

  建成自己的空间站

  中国的航天事业已经取得了光辉的成绩,展望未来更是让人憧憬。王兆耀为我们描绘出了未来8年的一幅航空蓝图——

  2012年,完成交汇对接技术,这是技术准备

  2015年前后,空间实验室、货运实验室建成后,航天员就能在太空中生活和工作上一段时间了,半个月一个月应该没问题

  2020年前后,将建成中国自己的空间站,中国人就可以长期在外太空驻留了。

  中国登月

  尚未订出计划表

  登月是载人航天活动的一项重要内容,王副主任说,登月目前尚没有排出时间表,但中国一直有探月的计划和设想,这应该是太空飞行的下一个目的地。

  开发利用月球资源,让其成为太空深度探索的大本营,才能为向更遥远的星球探索积累经验。为此,相关专家已经开展研究和论证,为今后登月的决策和实施奠定基础。“中国人的足迹早晚会踏上月球。”王副主任笑着说,一有计划一定会及时告诉大家。

  太空归来

  航天员“减肥”效果明显

  从太空回来,航天员身体有什么大的变化吗?王副主任也为大家揭密:“从目前来看没多大影响。但最明显的是,他们(翟志刚、刘伯明、景海鹏)一回来,体重下降了很多,短短3天明显就瘦了。这是因为在外太空体力消耗很大。”

  在太空长期生存,失重、真空、辐射等各种因素肯定会对航天员身体造成影响。所以我国在进行空间实验室建设的过程中,专家也在研究各种具体参数试验分析,以保证航天员的安全。
ssizz 发表于 2010-1-9 19:11 | 显示全部楼层
发射天宫1号需要出动四艘远望吗?
roychen 发表于 2010-1-9 19:17 | 显示全部楼层
应该是五艘吧。
snowtiger 发表于 2010-1-9 19:25 | 显示全部楼层
回复 75# tianlan


    如无意外,TG1基于神舟搞,TG2应该是基于四助推总共6台YF100的新一代3.35米火箭系列的最大版本来搞,14吨上下。TG3就是三舱两船六十吨了,自然会分段发射在轨组装。
jingyan66 发表于 2010-2-19 20:30 | 显示全部楼层

中国空间站:1个核心舱、2个实验舱

Snap2.jpg
ssizz 发表于 2010-2-19 20:40 | 显示全部楼层
图上黑色的部分是返回舱?怎么有太阳能电池板?
或者是货运飞船的推进舱?
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