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[新概念武器] 俄罗斯高超声速试验飞行器

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kktt 发表于 2014-2-25 14:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 kktt 于 2014-4-19 14:16 编辑

http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kholod.html

Hot breath of Kholod      During the 1990s, when the Russian space program was largely left for dead, the nation's engineers  flight-tested a pioneering propulsion system that  one day might revolutionize space travel. Known as scramjet, for supersonic combustion ramjet, the engine still remains a cutting-edge technology, while its early history in Russia has ended up largely forgotten.


Origin of the program
      The project of an experimental scramjet engine that came to fruition in the waning days of the Soviet Union, started  at least two decades earlier at the Moscow-based Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors, TsIAM. Its pioneering vehicle  became known in the West as Hypersonic Flying Laboratory, HFL. (686) In the USSR, the project was code-named Kholod, the Russian word for "cold." Indeed, the engine at the heart of the program used cryogenically cooled liquid hydrogen as a fuel, while compressed air "sucked" from the stratosphere served as an oxidizer.
      Due to the absense of an air compressor like those inside traditional aircraft jet engines, the scramjet   promised lower mass, higher efficiency and, most importantly, much higher speed. However for the same reason, it would need  initial acceleration with an alternative source of thrust, before atmospheric air could start flowing into its inlet and enable combustion. Soviet engineers resolved the problem by fitting the scramjet vehicle on top of the anti-aircraft missile from the S-200 system (known in the West as SA-5), which was able to accelerate the miniature vehicle three times faster than the speed of sound, or Mach 3, at an altitude of more than 20 kilometers. After firing for slightly more than a minute, the Kholod vehicle was designed to accelerate to Mach 6.5, climbing as high as 35 kilometers above the Earth surface. (331)
      Test flights of Kholod scramjets would be all preprogrammed without any attempt to steer the rocket from the ground. However, an onboard telemetry system would transmit engineering data to mission control. The hydrogen scramjet would be fired after the separation of the solid-propellant boosters of the first stage.   The scramjet would remain attached to the second stage of the S-200 rocket and fire simultaneously with its own liquid propellant engine. (Critics charged that such a mixed propulsion mode had complicated the analysis of the scramjet's performance.)
      After consuming around 17 kilograms of liquid hydrogen, the vehicle would enter a free fall and slam into the desert. Still, engineers planned to search for  the mangled debris for additional analysis.
      Propulsion system design
      The Kholod experimental vehicle was designed to be small enough to replace  the explosive warhead of an anti-aircraft missile. In order to minimize changes to the shape of the converted missile, engineers placed the scramjet engine into the nose of the vehicle with its hydrogen propellant tank located right behind it. As a result, the scramjet would pull rather than push its rocket. With such an unusual configuration, the engine would suck the air with its doughnut-shaped inlet, then compress it and feed it into a circular combustion chamber. The exhaust would then escape through a ring-shaped nozzle, essentially flowing around the body of the rocket. (686)
       The hydrogen fuel liquefied at a temperature of around 30 Kelvin would first flow through a cooling loop enveloping the combustion chamber. After fulfilling its job as a coolant, the hydrogen would quickly heat up, turning from liquid to gas. It would then be sprayed into the combustion chamber through three rows of nozzles, where it would mix with air and be ignited by electric sparks.
      The combustion chamber had three section of combustion: the first zone located right behind the air inlet enabled subsonic movement of air, while the two following sections provided super-sonic combustion.
      This purely experimental propulsion system became known as axisymmetric, because the engine's cylindrical body was perfectly symmetrical all around a single axis. However such a configuration was expected to be followed by larger non-symmetrical designs that were envisioned for practical use. In turn, next-generation scramjet engines could pave the way for  more advanced propulsion systems, which could use atmospheric air during flight in the atmosphere and then switch to onboard supplies of oxidizer upon entering airless space. As a result, one-stage space planes could reach orbit following horizontal takeoff from a conventional runway. The technology also had potential military applications, such as propelling cruise missiles and hypersonic planes.
      First flight test
      Following years of theoretical development initiated in mid-1970s, the Turaev branch of the TsIAM institute successfully tested the scramjet engine at its Ts-16KV test stand, apparently the largest facility of its kind. These trials cleared the technology for actual flight tests. The first Kholod rocket lifted off from the Sary Shagan test range in Kazakhstan on Nov. 27, 1991, just a few weeks before the dissolution of the USSR. The vehicle reached an altitude of 35 kilometers and developed a speed of 1,653 kilometers per second or Mach 3.6. The hydrogen-powered scramjet engine logged a total of 27.5 seconds of firing during the flight. (688)
      Second launch
      Following the collapse of the USSR  in 1991, both French and American engineers raced to team up with TsIAM, in order to learn from the Kholod project. However initially, the US  industry bogged down in bureaucratic hurdles, while the French aerospace research establishment ONERA quickly initiated a $95-million program in the field. In April 1992, ONERA started negotiations on cooperation with TsIAM and in September the two sides signed an agreement, which would give French industry access to a wealth of  data along 50 different parameters to be measured during an upcoming test flight. According to US estimates, ONERA  invested a modest sum of around $200,000 into the second flight of the Kholod vehicle in 1992. (687)
      On November 17,  1992, the Kholod  lifted off from Sary Shagan again, while eight representatives of the French aerospace industry were looking on. The rocket was programmed to fly a slightly lower trajectory than in the first test to give the scramjet engine better flying conditions. Combined with improved fuel controls, the new trajectory promised a longer firing of the engine in the so-called supersonic combustion mode, which produces maximum performance.
      Around 17 seconds before reaching the summit of its trajectory, as the rocket was flying at Mach 3.5, the scramjet engine fired in subsonic combustion mode lasting from six to seven seconds. Upon acceleration to  Mach 5, just 10 seconds from reaching the highest point of its trajectory, the supersonic combustion was initiated. This unprecedented flight mode lasted for 15 seconds accelerating the rocket to a speed of Mach 5.5, before it ran out of  liquid hydrogen. Overheating of the engine was also apparently detected. The scramjet logged a total of 23 seconds of firing during the mission. The unpowered rocket then smashed into the ground 180 kilometers from the launch site, after a 100-second flight. (687)
      At the time, plans called for the development beginning in 1995 of a six-meter scramjet rocket, which could be accelerated to Mach 8 by a traditional booster, then separate and fire its scramjet for around one minute. However during the third test flight of the Kholod vehicle in March 1995, the scramjet failed to fire, even though its launcher delivered it to an altitude of 30 kilometers. A similar fate befell on the next Kholod experiment launched in September 1997.
      NASA involvement
      In November 1994, NASA finally joined the Kholod program. During the same year, Department 101 at the KB Khimavtomatiki propulsion bureau, KBKhA, in the city of Voronezh took over the development of the scramjet engine, which was now designated 58L. (331) The engine was re-designed to withstand higher temperatures, which would result from sustained operation of the engine in a supersonic combustion mode.
      A NASA-sponsored test mission, which featured an upgraded engine supplied by KBKhA lifted off on February 12, 1998. With the goal of reaching a speed of Mach  6.5, the Kholod vehicle accelerated from Mach 3 to around Mach 6.41-6.47, after successfully firing for record-breaking 77 seconds at a maximum altitude of 27.1 kilometers. (688, 331, 689) Ironically, despite its terrible economic woes in the 1990s, Russia became the first to fly a scramjet vehicle.
      Back to US

NASA likely used the experience from the Kholod project to build an unmanned experimental aircraft with a scramjet engine designated X-43A. The program was conducted jointly by NASA's Langley and Dryden research centers. Not coincidently, Dryden had participated in the last launch of the Kholod vehicle on behalf of NASA. Record-breaking flights of the X-43A vehicle were first attempted just three years after the last launch of Kholod.
      Research into scramjet technology was also conducted in France, Germany and Japan, however the results of this work still await their practical application into space launch systems or civilian aviation. (686)

APPENDIX
      Chronology of the Kholod and X-43A projects:
      1991 Nov. 27: The Kholod vehicle lifts off for the first time, firing its scramjet for 27.5 seconds and reaching a speed of Mach 3.6 at a maximum altitude of 35 kilometers.
      1992 Nov. 17: The Kholod vehicle develops a speed of Mach 5.35, while climbing to an altitude of 22.4 kilometers, with its scramjet engine firing for 41.5 seconds.
      1995 March 1: The Kholod vehicle reaches an altitude of 30 kilometers and a speed of Mach 5.8, however its scramjet engine fails to fire.
      1997 Sept. 1: The Kholod vehicle reaches an altitude of 33 kilometers and a speed of Mach 6.2, however its scramjet engine fails to fire.
      1998  Feb. 12: The fifth Kholod vehicle reaches an altitude of 27.1 kilometers and a speed from 6.41 to 6.47 Mach, with its scramjet engine firing for 77 seconds. (688)
      2001 June 2: NASA makes an attempt to test-fly its X-43 experimental vehicle powered by a scramjet engine. It fails due to a  failure of the Pegasus rocket, which was designed to accelerate X-43 after a mid-air launch from a B-52 aircraft.
      2004 March         27: NASA's second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft flies successfully         after being dropped in mid-air by NASA's B-52 and accelerated by a Pegasus rocket.         For the first time, an air-breathing scramjet accelerated a free-flying vehicle. The unmanned vehicle's supersonic combustion ramjet, or         scramjet, ignited as planned and operated for the duration of its hydrogen         fuel supply, which lasted about 10 seconds. The X-43A reached its test         speed of Mach 7.
      2004 Nov. 16: NASA's        X-43A scramjet-powered research vehicle reaches speed of around Mach 9.8, or        7,000 miles per hour, as it flies at an altitude of about 33 kilometers, following        a mid-air launch from a B-52B aircraft onboard the Pegasus rocket booster.        The mission concluded the program, discontinuing the development of scramjet        technology at NASA.


Participants in the Kholod project:
      
Organization
Location
Leading personalities
Responsibility
Baranov TsIAM
-
M. V. Strokin
Prime developer
Turaev MKB  Soyuz
Lytkarino
-
Initial engine development
KB Khimmash, KBKhA
Voronezh
I. V. Liplyavy, Yu. A. Martynenko
Development of 58L engine
Fakel design bureau
-
-
Launch system upgrades
Gorizont design bureau
-
-
-
Avtomatika design bureau
-
-
-
TsAGI
Zhukovsky
-
-
LII
-
-
-
      
      Known specifications of the 58L engine for the Kholod vehicle:
      
Temperature in the combustion chamber
2,680 Kelvin
Airflow pressure inside the combustion chamber
5 kilograms per square centimeter
Inlet diameter
226 millimeters
Propulsion system length
1,200 millimeters
Propulsion system diameter
400 millimeters
Operational altitude
20-35 kilometers
Operational speed
3-6.5 Mach
Maximum propellant consumption
0.15 kilograms per second
Engine mass
180 kilograms
Combustion chamber mass
45 kilograms
      
      
"冷/Kholod"计划的5次飞行试验:

飞行试验日期 1991.11.27 1992.11.171995.03.01
1997.08.011998.02.12
最大飞行高度/km 35 22.4 30 33 27.1
最大飞行速度/Ma 5.6 5.35 5.8 6.2 6.5
超燃冲压发动机工作时间/s 27.5 41.5 - - 77






 楼主| kktt 发表于 2014-2-25 14:16 | 显示全部楼层

A 1 to 5 scale model of the Kholod scramjet engine.



One of the early Kholod vehicles launched in 1991 or 1992.



The 58L scramjet developed at KB Khimavtomatiki, KBKhA, in Voronezh was tested at speed of more than Mach 6 in 1998.


A Kholod laboratory lifts off from Sary Shagan.

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 楼主| kktt 发表于 2014-2-25 14:19 | 显示全部楼层
http://www.russianspaceweb.com/gla.htmlRussia jump-starts hypersonic flight research
      Published: 2013 Jan. 18
      Russia appears to be accelerating development of hypersonic vehicles capable of flying four or five times faster than the speed of sound. First and foremost this cutting-edge  field of aerospace promises to advance military missiles, however the same technology  has the potential to revolutionize the future of aircraft and space transportation.
      In 2009, the Russian Ministry of Defense reportedly resumed funding for research into these exotic systems, however three years later the nation significantly lagged behind the United States   in hypersonic weapons, Vice Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said during his visit to MKB Raduga specialized in tactical missiles. He called for boosting the status of hypersonic development programs to the highest priority level.
      Rogozin's words had  a seemingly remarkable effect, because only a few months after the speech, the Izvestiya daily reported that the prototype of an unidentified supersonic vehicle had undergone so-called "throw" tests at the Akhtubinsk State Flight Research Center sometime in 2012.
      According to the newspaper, the hypersonic vehicle was dropped from a carrier aircraft and then fired its engine for a short period of time without attaining the speed of sound. (It should be noted that the term "throw test" usually implies an unpowered flight.) Sources quoted by the paper, promised another, full-speed flight test of the hypersonic missile  in Akhtubinsk in July or August 2013. (621) The Akhtubinsk site is essentially an extension of the historic rocket-testing and launch range near Kapustin Yar on the Volga River.
      The term  "hypersonic" is usually applied to flight at speeds of Mach 4 and faster, where Mach is a speed of sound. Depending on the altitude, the speed of sound can vary. At speeds of Mach 4 and 5, vehicles experience  a sharp increase in temperatures of their skin  and face more complex aerodynamic processes  unseen at lower speeds. Last but not least, accelerating and sustaining the vehicle at hypersonic speeds requires complex multi-mode propulsion systems.
      The resolution of enormous technical challenges long facing flight at speeds of Mach 5 and beyond would allow to build more advanced cruise missiles, but also to develop new-generation of launch vehicles, super-fast suborbital aircraft and, possibly, manned space planes capable of reaching orbit after a horizontal takeoff from a runway. Proponents of the technology believe that it would  drastically cut the cost of access to orbit, when compared to the use of traditional rockets.
      Origin of Russian hypersonic research
      Work in the field of hypersonic vehicles   first flourished in the USSR during the development of ballistic missiles. To understand the behavior of rockets and their warheads during the atmospheric phase of the flight, design bureaus turned to the Central Aviation and Hydro-dynamics Institute, TsAGI, with its huge wind tunnels in the town of Zhukovsky, south of Moscow. Upon conquering most technical problems of missiles, in August 1962, TsAGI started  research in the field of space planes. In 1966, the institute joined forces with the Mikoyan design bureau, developer of the famous MiG fighter jets, to develop the Spiral space plane.
      In the 1970s, TsAGI focused its research on hypersonic aircraft and cruise missiles that were intended to achieve sustained and stable flight in the atmosphere at this enormous speed. Along with problems of aerodynamics, the need for a new type of propulsion came to the forefront. By the end of the 1970s, TsAGI and its sister institute, TsIAM, already started considering hybrid engines, capable of changing their propulsion modes as the vehicle accelerated and climbed through the atmosphere.
      In May 1978, TsAGI joined forces with the department of mechanics and control problems of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Along with the Military and Technical Council of the Ministry of Defense, aviation specialists held conferences on the problems of hypersonic flight in 1979 and 1984. Still, with huge technical problems to overcome, most of the projects remained in purely experimental stage. (318)
      In the post-Soviet period, Russian aviation research organizations, such as TsAGI, Flight Research Institute, LII, and TsIAM demonstrated a number of experimental prototypes for testing critical principles of hypersonic flight. In early 1998, a modified anti-aircraft rocket launched the so-called Kholod scramjet vehicle to a speed of Mach 6. Its 58L engine burining liquid hydrogen was developed at the KBKhA design bureau in the city of Voronezh.
      Practical developments
      Along with fundamental research and experimental work, the Soviet rocket industry embarked on a number of relatively small-scale weapons projects, which tackled problems of sustained hypersonic flight in the Earth atmosphere.
      The design bureau led by Vladimir Chelomei considered various projects of hypersonic vehicles in conjunction with development of the UR-200 ballistic missile. An experimental vehicle designed to test principles of hypersonic flight was reportedly tested but the program was discontinued in 1965. By the 21st century, Chelomei's bureau, now known as NPO Mashinostroenia  reportedly worked on a  hypersonic vehicle known as 4202.
      In 1997, MKB Raduga  based in Dubna, unveiled the GELA Kh-90 supersonic vehicle, which became known in the West as AS-19 Koala. This large cruise missile was designed to be dropped from a modified Tu-160M aircraft and then cover 3,000 kilometers at hypersonic speed. It could reportedly release two nuclear warheads capable of hitting targets as far as 100 kilometers from the point of separation from their "mothership." There were apparently plans to deploy Kh-90 as a replacement for the operational Kh-55 cruise missile, however the project was reportedly stalled by financial problems as early as 1992.
      Yet, in the first decade of the 21century, both national and Western media reported testing in Russia of maneuverable hypersonic warheads carried by the Topol-M ballistic missile. Little is known about these systems, however, Russian military officials have continued referring to highly maneuverable vehicles serving as upper stages of newest ballistic missiles. They are reportedly capable of avoiding enemy's anti-missile defenses thanks to their ability to maneuver widely during their descent. It is unclear whether these devices are gliders using the aerodynamic forces to maneuver, or they have a propulsion system.
      Work at NPO Energomash and KBKhA
      In June 2013, NPO Energomash announced that it was conducting preliminary studies (known in Russia as NIR) of a small hypersonic ramjet engine with a thrust of 500 kilograms and enabling to develop a speed of more than Mach 5. The company's representative said that such engines could be assembled in clusters and have a "wide range of applications."
      In August of the same year, KBKhA design bureau also confirmed that it had been working on a hypersonic ramjet engine.


APPENDIX
      
      Russian research institutions involved in hypersonic research:
      
Institution
Field of research
Zhukovsky TsAGI
Aerodynamics shape, thermal protection, propulsion
Baranov TsIAM
Propulsion
Gromov LII
-
NIIAS
-
KB Khimmash (KBKhA)
Propulsion
Keldysh center
Air-breathing and liquid propellant hybrid engine
      
      Russian experimental hypersonic vehicles:
      
Vehicle
Speed
Altitude
Length
Mass
Firing duration
Details
GLL-31
Mach 2-9
18-35 kilometers
8 meters
3,800 kilograms
50 seconds
Aircraft dropped, hydrogen-fueled scramjet engine
GLL-8 (GLL-VK)
Mach 15
70 kilometers
8 meters
2,200 kilograms
20-50 seconds
Rocket-launched, hydrogen-fueled  three-mode scramjet engine
GLL-AP-02
Mach 6
27 kilometers
3 meters
550-600 kilograms
?
Hydrocarbon-based fueled ramjet prototype for high-altitude test stand tests
      
      
 楼主| kktt 发表于 2014-2-25 14:21 | 显示全部楼层

The 2,200-kilogram, eight-meter long GLL-8 (GLL-VK) hypersonic vehicle was designed to reach Mach 14-15 at an altitude of 70 kilometers. It would be equipped with a three-mode scramjet engine burning between 20 and 50 seconds with a thrust of 12 kN after its launch on a Rockot booster.



An experimental hypersonic vehicle designed for tests at Mach 6 at an altitude of 27 kilometers.


A wind tunnel prototype of a hypersonic vehicle.

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 楼主| kktt 发表于 2014-2-25 14:27 | 显示全部楼层
CD这个贴子也可以参考:

http://lt.cjdby.net/thread-1776625-1-1.html
lemoncap 发表于 2014-2-26 08:07 | 显示全部楼层
Kholod 这个领域,大有作为。其实5倍音速都能创造很多奇迹。
wsl2005 发表于 2015-7-4 23:11 | 显示全部楼层
自由灯塔报撰写文章称,今年2月份,俄罗斯在栋巴洛夫斯基用SS-19导弹进行了代号Yu-71的高超音速飞行器试验,试验属于“4202项目”,类似中国的WU-14。

http://freebeacon.com/national-security/russia-tested-hypersonic-glide-vehicle-in-february/

相关内容可以参考:http://bbs.9ifly.cn/thread-2425-3-1.html
wsl2005 发表于 2015-7-4 23:19 | 显示全部楼层
wsl2005 发表于 2015-7-4 23:11
自由灯塔报撰写文章称,今年2月份,俄罗斯在栋巴洛夫斯基用SS-19导弹进行了代号Yu-71的高超音速飞行器试验 ...

文中提到,测试并不成功,为什么叫Yu-71呢?

或许Y就是亚斯内基地(栋巴洛夫斯基)的第一个字母,u代表ultra,,,71也是山姆大叔给的编号,,,



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 楼主| kktt 发表于 2015-7-6 09:30 | 显示全部楼层
wsl2005 发表于 2015-7-4 23:19
文中提到,测试并不成功,为什么叫Yu-71呢?

或许Y就是亚斯内基地(栋巴洛夫斯基)的第一个字母,u代表 ...

你被国内某些乱写的文章误导了

Yu71是俄国人自己的代号,不是美国人给的代号

Yu71的全称是15Ю71,见http://www.uniikm.ru/file/2013/year_report_2012.pdf,第36页
langge945 发表于 2015-7-6 11:23 | 显示全部楼层
lemoncap 发表于 2014-2-26 08:07
Kholod 这个领域,大有作为。其实5倍音速都能创造很多奇迹。

5倍就创造奇迹?兔子现在飞的是10倍又创造什么?不要把俄毛捧的太高。
haojiang77 发表于 2015-7-8 05:17 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
langge945 发表于 2015-7-6 11:23
5倍就创造奇迹?兔子现在飞的是10倍又创造什么?不要把俄毛捧的太高。

有动力的能加速到5-6马赫并保持一段时间就是奇迹了目前。
langge945 发表于 2015-7-8 11:09 | 显示全部楼层
haojiang77 发表于 2015-7-8 05:17
有动力的能加速到5-6马赫并保持一段时间就是奇迹了目前。

问题是俄毛的失败了。
 楼主| kktt 发表于 2015-7-8 12:53 | 显示全部楼层
langge945 发表于 2015-7-8 11:09
问题是俄毛的失败了。

你黑毛子也要有点根据好不好,俄罗斯Mach5~6的超燃冲压动力高超飞行器早就试飞成功了
冥夜之咆哮 发表于 2015-7-8 14:55 | 显示全部楼层
请问是什么型号的超燃冲压?

点评

看顶楼  发表于 2015-7-8 21:49
langge945 发表于 2015-7-22 23:53 | 显示全部楼层
消息人士:俄高超音速飞行器可使美国反导系统丧失作战能力

© 照片: Roscosmos press service
俄罗斯
22:20 2015年07月22日(更新 22:31 2015年07月22日) 缩短网址

据俄罗斯媒体周三援引消息人士的话报道,若在俄罗斯进行的关于研发高超音速飞行器的“4202”项目的试验设计工作顺利完成,那么美国所建造的反导系统就将变得毫无意义。
2020年前俄或出现高超音速导弹
据报道,很有前景的俄罗斯高超音速飞行器将毁掉美国全球反导系统的作战能力,实际上就是将其变得毫无用处。
此前曾有公开报道称,最近10年,可能从拜科努尔发射场和栋巴罗夫斯基(Dombarovsky)发射基地已经借助UR-100N UTTKH RS-18(SS-19)洲际弹道导弹完成了6次“4202项目”的发射。最近一次发射是在今年2月,关于此并没有任何官方报道。

据俄罗斯媒体援引消息人士的话报道,这里所指的是相当老旧的研发,它只是被看作为现有的和有前途的、包括RS-28(萨马特)在内的重型洲际导弹建造更现代化的战斗部的过渡。据现有消息,“4202项目”已于6月在莫斯科郊外的库宾卡举办的“陆军-2015”军事技术论坛上的非公开展览中被专家们展示。



全文 详见: http://sputniknews.cn/russia/201 ... .html#ixzz3gdVGoKTj
ssizz 发表于 2015-8-31 16:51 | 显示全部楼层
  中新网8月31日电 据中国国防科技信息网报道,俄罗斯格罗莫夫试飞院(LII)官员透露,计划在未来3-4年内完成全部GLL-AP-02超燃冲压发动机试验飞行器的飞行试验。
  GLL-AP-02是“俄罗斯版的X-51”,是继GLL-VK和GLL-31项目之后俄罗斯火箭助推式高超声速试验飞行器的最新项目。LII专家透露,西方制裁对该项目未造成任何影响,该项目具备军民两用前景。
  目前俄罗斯正在与澳大利亚、欧盟合作开展HEXAFLY高超声速飞行试验项目,旨在使多项在民用高速运输领域具有前景的航空结构技术发展成熟。俄罗斯中央航空研究所在本届莫斯科航展上就展出了两个HEXAFLY项目的风洞试验模型件。
  LII专家表达了对俄罗斯重启可重复试验航天飞机的愿望。格罗莫夫试飞院曾帮助研制了前苏联BOR-4可重复试验轨道测试飞行器。该飞行器在1982-1984年间成功进行了4次飞行试验,所取得的热防护罩技术直接应用到了后来的“暴风雪”航天飞机上。
  LII表示,目前正在密切关注美国内华达山脉公司“追梦者”项目,部分原因是因为其方案与BOR-4非常相像。LII官员表示,BOR-4设计非常实用,可为未来俄罗斯相关领域的发展典型坚实基础。(廖孟豪)
langge945 发表于 2015-9-1 17:01 | 显示全部楼层
这个据说是俄毛的高超音速飞行器。

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klonoa1121 发表于 2016-2-19 20:50 | 显示全部楼层
http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/98462
俄罗斯正在研发基于伊尔-76的高超声速技术飞行试验平台
2016-02-19
     【据俄罗斯卫星新闻网2016年2月17日报道】俄罗斯官方报纸《俄罗斯报》(Rossiiskaya Gazeta)引述俄罗斯格洛莫夫飞行研究院周一在其网站上发布的消息称,俄罗斯伊尔-76军用运输机即将改装成为高超声速技术飞行试验平台。相关改装工作大约需要2605万美元,但没有透露更多细节。
     《俄罗斯报》称具体目的目前仍然不得而知,所开展的相关具体研究也必将处于保密状态。       伊尔-76运输机早前被选中用于改装成为A-60机载激光试验平台。苏联在1970年代在塔甘罗格机械制造厂专门组建了一个航空综合体来为军方研发机载激光武器技术。最终研制出来的A-60平台搭载了能够摧毁敌方导弹和间谍卫星的Skif-D型激光武器。(中国航空工业发展研究中心 廖孟豪)



 楼主| kktt 发表于 2016-2-22 11:19 | 显示全部楼层
http://russianforces.org/blog/20 ... _in_2016-2017.shtml

今年可能有一次4202飞行试验
wsl20005 发表于 2016-3-18 16:38 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 wsl20005 于 2016-3-18 17:50 编辑






那个飞行器模型图中部写的应该是“锆石”,图片来源于企鹅的一篇文章:
揭秘“俄罗斯版WU-14”高超音速武器计划(原标题:俄罗斯高度保密的"4202项目" )http://news.qq.com/a/20160115/010069.htm

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