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[核武器] 美国的核武器

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langge945 发表于 2017-4-3 17:49 | 显示全部楼层
B-2“幽灵”轰炸机将装备新型数字化核武器和空对地导弹

2017-04-01

[据scout.com网站2017年3月28日报道]据报道,空军将对上世纪80年代具有隐身功能的B-2“幽灵”轰炸机装备新武器并升级,以在本世纪50年代顺利完成攻击敌人空中防御的任务。

在未来的几年,B-2将配备下一代数字化核武器,如具有制导尾翼组件的B61-12核弹或远程防区外巡航导弹(LRSO,新一代空射巡航导弹)。

B61-12是一个正在进行的现代化计划,其目的是将B61-3、B61-4、B61-7和B61-10整合为一种兼具战略和战术能力的新型导弹。B61-12搭载惯性测量装置。

空军官员表示,B-2除了携载LRSO、B83和B61-12之外,还可携载具有钻地能力的B61-11。LRSO将取代B-52轰炸机目前携载的空射巡航导弹(ALCM)。

除携载核武器,B-2还将携载各种常规武器,包括可精确制导的2000磅或5000磅重的联合定向攻击炸弹(JDAM)、联合防区外武器、联合防区外空对地导弹和5000磅重的GBU 28钻地弹等。B-2还可以携载30000磅重的巨型钻地弹。(核信息院   蔡莉  哈琳)

http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/103880
klonoa112 发表于 2017-4-5 23:30 | 显示全部楼层
http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/103895
美国空军启用核指挥中心
2017-04-05
      [据shreveporttimes网站2017年4月3日报道] 美国空军在巴克斯代尔空军基地正式启用了维护和支持国家领导人与核战斗人员间沟通联系的指挥中心。

      美国空军核指挥控制与通信(NC3)中心是空军全球打击司令部的分支机构,成立于2016年10月1日。该中心指挥官马克·贾布洛称:“核指挥控制与通信是让总统和国家领导人能够通过高存活性、安全、可迅速恢复的通信路径发布核命令。NC3中心是空军实现这种意图的主要手段。”NC3中心武器系统是地下掩体中各型无线电、通信链路、卫星链路和终端的集合,用于支持轰炸机上的导弹和无线电通讯。

      美国空军全球打击司令部司令罗宾·兰德称:“NC3中心将成为总统、国防部长和其他领导人使用的全球系统。我们的对手正在现代化,我们也必须确保现代化。”(核信息院   刘渊 蔡莉 哈琳)
zhyuli 发表于 2017-4-6 09:46 | 显示全部楼层
langge945 发表于 2017-4-3 17:49
B-2“幽灵”轰炸机将装备新型数字化核武器和空对地导弹

2017-04-01

这将是MD核武库最有威胁的核打击力量————对手很难预警
MD仍然在追求“打赢核战”
klonoa112 发表于 2018-3-21 23:22 | 显示全部楼层
美国战略司令部司令表示美国需要新型低当量核武器威慑俄罗斯
2018-03-21

      [据防务新闻2018年3月20日报道]美国战略司令部司令约翰•海顿将军在3月20日举行的国会听证会上表示,“强烈赞同研发《核态势评估》报告中提到的两种新型低当量核武器”。俄罗斯“以升级去升级”的战略意味着它将在常规战争中使用低当量核武器,即战术核武器。俄罗斯认为美国可能不愿意将冲突升级为大当量的战略核武器冲突,而选择妥协。国会部分反对人士认为,美国以低当量武器回应俄罗斯的“以升级去升级”战略可能会使情况很容易失控,并导致大规模相互摧毁核打击。(核信息院  王兴春 哈琳)
http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/108914

zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-24 16:18 | 显示全部楼层
klonoa112 发表于 2018-3-21 23:22
美国战略司令部司令表示美国需要新型低当量核武器威慑俄罗斯
2018-03-21
      [据防务新闻2018年3月20日 ...

这个低当量核武器怕是跟那个什么W88换代计划有点关系吧。美国人一直担心W88的钚芯过期导致点不着次级,正好趁这个机会研究一下W88换代
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-24 17:46 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-24 16:18
这个低当量核武器怕是跟那个什么W88换代计划有点关系吧。美国人一直担心W88的钚芯过期导致点不着次级,正 ...

微博上有些研究军控的认为这是要搞预警式核战,低规模核实战逐渐升级来逼迫敌方不敢打核大战
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-25 21:24 | 显示全部楼层
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-24 17:46
微博上有些研究军控的认为这是要搞预警式核战,低规模核实战逐渐升级来逼迫敌方不敢打核大战

这个本来不就是已经有当量可调的B61-12了么?还需要在三叉戟上搞?
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 22:24 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-25 21:24
这个本来不就是已经有当量可调的B61-12了么?还需要在三叉戟上搞?

速度不够,按美国人的设想低当量核武器就是用来快速反应的,即使对手用的是常规武器,只要判定威胁程度够大,先让SSBN一枚三叉戟招呼过去,阻止对方进一步行动
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-25 22:42 | 显示全部楼层
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 22:24
速度不够,按美国人的设想低当量核武器就是用来快速反应的,即使对手用的是常规武器,只要判定威胁程度够 ...

一枚D5是8个W88,打击目标每次都是8个?如果只有一个目标,剩下7个弹头怎么办?自爆浪费掉?再说用一枚D5运一个低当量也太奢侈了
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 23:32 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-25 22:42
一枚D5是8个W88,打击目标每次都是8个?如果只有一个目标,剩下7个弹头怎么办?自爆浪费掉?再说用一枚D5 ...

具体数据可能还得进一步估算,不过这个推演如果成真的话,用一枚D5阻止未来升级的核大战简直不能再合算
红水兵 发表于 2018-3-28 10:23 | 显示全部楼层
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 23:32
具体数据可能还得进一步估算,不过这个推演如果成真的话,用一枚D5阻止未来升级的核大战简直不能再合算

按照你前面的描述貌似没有这枚D5也不会有核大战。
zhutou6 发表于 2018-3-28 13:59 | 显示全部楼层
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 23:32
具体数据可能还得进一步估算,不过这个推演如果成真的话,用一枚D5阻止未来升级的核大战简直不能再合算

战术核武器作为冲突抑制器只是一小部分人(核实战/核致胜学派)的观点,且这种理论需要对手的反应符合理性决策的特点。总体上来说战术核武器在冷战时期还是作为绊线使用的,是冲突升级器而不是冲突抑制器。
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langge945 发表于 2018-4-19 20:07 | 显示全部楼层
特朗普政府将6500万美元用于新的核弹头设计
2018-04-19
[据defensenews网站2018年4月18日报道]特朗普政府已要求为能源部的预算拨款6500万美元,以启动一项新的低当量核弹头设计工作。在4月9日那一周提交给国会的一份重新编制的预算请求中,管理和预算办公室要求把6500万美元拨给国家核军工管理局,用于“低当量核武器的工程设计和所有后续阶段”。2018年2月,随着《核态势评估》(NPR)报告的发布,宣布研制一种潜射低当量核弹头。但是由于《核态势评估》和2019财年预算申请公布在时间安排上的原因,核军工管理局没有收到任何关于该计划的资金。国防部对弹头的资助部分2019财年为2260万美元,加上未来数年国防计划分摊到2023财年之前每一年的资金。那么2019财年弹头的开发总费用将为8760万美元。弹头设计将基于现有的海军的“三叉戟”弹道导弹上的W76-1弹头。根据管理和预算办公室文件,低当量型号的弹头将被称为W76-2。

    虽然预计这一设计方案将使费用保持在相当低的水平,但对于美国国家核军工管理局来说,在2019财年中得到资金是很重要的,因为W76-1的翻新计划预计2019财年完成。管理和预算办公室的文件说,如果能在2019财年开始新的W76-2计划,那么就不会由于计划推迟而在将来需要重启W76生产线,从而节省费用。(核信息院  赵畅 哈琳)

http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/109296
DF21 发表于 2018-4-30 06:46 | 显示全部楼层
pingkefu 发表于 2018-3-25 22:24
速度不够,按美国人的设想低当量核武器就是用来快速反应的,即使对手用的是常规武器,只要判定威胁程度够 ...

美俄都是落地前反击的吧,弹头落地之前你怎么知道是低当量还是高当量的?战争如果进行到预警卫星被打残的话,光凭地面预警雷达,谁知道你打了一发后面是不是还跟着很多发?这种设想太理想化,实战环境对手很可能直接启动全面核报复
langge945 发表于 2018-5-24 02:25 | 显示全部楼层
美国众议院将权衡新的低当量核武器
2018-05-23
[据ucsusa.org网站2018年5月22日报道]作为美国2019财年《国防授权法》的一部分,众议院要在2018年5月22日就政府推出的新型“低当量”核武器(即所谓的W76-2核弹头)进行权衡。
W76-2核弹头报告的当量为6500吨,将取代目前部署在“三叉戟”导弹上现有的当量为10万吨的W76弹头。通过修改现有的弹头来生产这种低当量弹头相对简单和便宜:预算包括8800万美元用于W76-2弹头的工作,其中2300万美元拨给国防部,6500万美元拨给能源部的国家核军工管理局。如果国会批准这笔资金,新弹头将在特朗普总统任期内部署。
早在5月22日下午,众议院就众议员Blumenauer提出的修正案进行投票表决,该修改案的内容为:在国防部长就低当量核武器计划提交评估报告前,为W76-2弹头提供一半的资金。
国防部长的评估报告涉及:(1)该计划对战略稳定性的影响;(2)减少误算风险的方案,因为敌人无法区分“三叉戟”导弹携带的是一枚低当量弹头还是(现在的)几枚高当量弹头;(3)保持“三叉戟”核潜艇生存能力和二次打击能力的方案。
(核信息院  王兴春 哈琳)

http://www.dsti.net/Information/News/109713
zhutou6 发表于 2018-5-24 13:54 | 显示全部楼层
DF21 发表于 2018-4-30 06:46
美俄都是落地前反击的吧,弹头落地之前你怎么知道是低当量还是高当量的?战争如果进行到预警卫星被打残的话 ...

一般肯定不会打预警卫星,打了真就是全世界重启模式了
zhutou6 发表于 2018-6-9 20:37 | 显示全部楼层
美国即将重启钚弹芯生产。初步计划LANL年产30个pits,Savannah River年产50个。
天朝的生产能力也要加把劲了。。。
https://www.defensenews.com/global/the-americas/2018/06/08/new-25b-contract-awarded-to-manage-nuclear-weapons-lab/
New $2.5B contract awarded to manage nuclear weapons lab
By: Susan Montoya Bryan, The Associated Press     17 hours ago

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. — Overseeing a top nuclear weapons laboratory that has had security and safety problems will be the responsibility of a new management team that includes two universities and a research firm with offices around the world, the U.S. government announced Friday.

The National Nuclear Security Administration chose Triad National Security LLC as the winning bidder to manage Los Alamos National Laboratory, the birthplace of the atomic bomb. Comprised of Battelle Memorial Institute, Texas A&M University and the University of California, the team will begin taking over later this year.

The contract — worth an estimated $2.5 billion a year — marks a big step as federal officials look to get the lab back on track after safety lapses and missed goals.

The lab in recent years has mishandled plutonium and mistakenly shipped nuclear material to other federal facilities via a commercial cargo plane. It also inappropriately packaged waste that led to a radiation release and a nearly three-year closure of the nation’s only underground nuclear waste repository.


Criticism of the lab’s safety record has intensified as the federal government pushes to restart production of plutonium cores for the nation’s nuclear weapons arsenal.

Following serious concerns about management more than a decade ago, the University of California formed a consortium with Bechtel and other private companies to become Los Alamos National Security LLC.

Problems persisted, however, and federal officials announced in 2015 that the contract wouldn’t be renewed due to missed performance goals.

The National Nuclear Security Administration followed up in 2017 with a request for proposals that called for the would-be contractor to foster a “security conscious culture,” something watchdog groups have said has been missing at the lab.

NNSA Administrator Lisa Gordon-Hagerty didn’t address the lab’s previous problems in a statement issued Friday. Instead, she mentioned its history of scientific innovations related to national security.

“The lab will continue to be a critical resource to ensure the future safety and security of the United States as we begin work on new endeavors, like the effort to recapitalize our plutonium pit mission,” she said.

Gordon-Hagerty was referring to a recent recommendation by her agency that Los Alamos each year produce at least 30 plutonium cores — the triggers for nuclear warheads.

Production of the cores has been based at Los Alamos since the 1990s, although none have been turned out since 2011 because of safety problems and concerns about a lack of accountability.

At least 50 cores, also known as pits, will be produced each year at the U.S. Energy Department’s Savanna River Site in South Carolina under the recommendations outlined in May.

The effort is worth hundreds of jobs and billions of dollars in federal funding that would be needed to either revamp existing buildings or construct new factories to support the work.

The National Nuclear Security Administration said Triad was “the best value to the government when all factors were considered and will provide future stability” for up to 10 years if all contract options are exercised.
zhutou6 发表于 2018-6-9 20:42 | 显示全部楼层
重复了,编辑掉
boris_7 发表于 2018-7-5 22:18 | 显示全部楼层
前几天在网上看到这个,请评论。链接

The US Air Force completed two more tests of the B61-12 gravity nuclear bomb by dropping a dud (or "non-nuclear test assembly") from a B-2 Spirit stealth bomber at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada on June 9, as part of the multi-billion dollar project to extend the service life of the bomb, introduced in 1968, by another 20 years.
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NNSA
@NNSANews





#NNSA and Air Force complete successful #B61 Life Extension Program flight tests at Tonopah Test Range using #B2 bomber. #nuclear #deterrence https://www.energy.gov/nnsa/articles/nnsa-air-force-complete-successful-end-end-b61-12-life-extension-program-flight-tests …
12:57 PM - Jun 29, 2018

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“The Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the US Air Force completed two non-nuclear system qualification flight tests of the B61-12 gravity bomb on June 9 at Tonopah Test Range in Nevada,” the Department of Energy announced in a statement. “These tests are the first such end-to-end qualification tests on a B-2A Spirit Bomber for the B61-12.”
The tests involved releasing a B61-12 non-nuclear test assembly, which includes the NNSA designed bomb assembly and U.S. Air Force acquired tail-kit, from a B-2A Spirit Bomber operated by the 419th Test & Evaluation Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base in California. These tests are the first such end-to-end qualification tests on a B-2A Spirit Bomber for the B61-12.
Over the past five decades, the US has used different versions of the B-61 nuclear gravity bomb, which is a core part of the US nuclear triad and has been deployed across the US and NATO bases for five decades. While, over the years, the Pentagon produced numerous modifications to the deadly weapon, B61 variants of 3, 4, 7, and 11 remain in service.
The bomb tests are a part of the Pentagon's $7.6 billion 'B61-12 Life Extension Program', which aims to “refurbish, reuse, or replace all of the bomb’s nuclear and non‐nuclear components” and extend the service life of the B61 by at least 20 years. The “first production unit” is scheduled for completion in 2020.
As RT notes, besides deploying B61-12 on modern and future long range bombers such as the B-2A Spirit bomber, the Pentagon is making sure the bomb can be easily used by F-15E fighter jets, and wants to integrate it with the F-35 Lightning II fifth generation combat jets, raising concerns it is creeping towards lowering the threshold for tactical use of nuclear weapons.
After former President Barack Obama authorized a nuclear modernization program, Trump revised it into an ambitious 30-year project that would cost at least $1.2 trillion to complete. Some $800 billion will be spent on maintaining nuclear forces, while about $400 billion will be spent on modernizing them, under the pretext of an existential need to deter “revisionist powers” such as China and Russia.
To justify the massive taxpayer spending on nuclear upgrades, Washington has constantly pointed the finger at Russia, accusing it of threatening its neighbors and US national security. “Russia has demonstrated its willingness to use force to alter the map of Europe and impose its will on its neighbors, backed by implicit and explicit nuclear first-use threats,” the NPR report claims, despite Russian military doctrine clearly stating that nukes can only be used in response to a nuclear attack, or when the state’s very existence is put under threat by a massive conventional attack.
* * *
The latest test was the third in a series that will be conducted over the next three years to qualify the B61-12 for service. Three successful development flight tests were conducted in 2015.

                               
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“These qualification flight tests demonstrate the B61-12 design meets system requirements and illustrate the continued progress of the B61-12 life extension program to meet national security requirements” said Brig. Gen. Michael Lutton, NNSA’s Principal Assistant Deputy Administrator for Military Application. “The achievement is also a testament to the dedication of our workforce and the enduring partnership between NNSA and the U.S. Air Force.”

                               
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"The flight test included hardware designed by Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by the Nuclear Security Enterprise plants. The tail-kit assembly section was designed by the Boeing Company under contract with the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center," the NNSA statement said.

boris_7 发表于 2018-7-5 22:19 | 显示全部楼层
part 2
"The flight test included hardware designed by Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by the Nuclear Security Enterprise plants. The tail-kit assembly section was designed by the Boeing Company under contract with the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center," the NNSA statement said.

                               
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Phil Hoover, an engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, shows off a flight test

body for a B61-12 nuclear weapon
The B61-12 consolidates and replaces four B61 bomb variants in the nation’s nuclear arsenal. The first production unit is scheduled to be completed by March 2020.

                               
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The original B61 gravity bomb is the mainstay of the Air Force’s nuclear arsenal and one of the legs of the so-called nuclear triad, along with the intercontinental ballistic missiles deployed from either ground-based silos or oceangoing submarines. The B61 nuclear gravity bomb, deployed from U.S. Air Force and NATO bases, has almost 50 years of service, "making it the oldest and most versatile weapon in the enduring U.S. stockpile." Numerous modifications have been made to improve the B61’s safety, security, and reliability since the first B61 entered service in 1968, and four B61 variants remain in the stockpile: the 3, 4, 7, and 11. However, the aging weapon system requires a life extension to continue deterring potential adversaries and reassuring our allies and partners of our security commitments to them.
The B61-12 LEP will refurbish, reuse, or replace all of the bomb’s nuclear and non-nuclear components to extend the service life of the B61 by at least 20 years, "and to improve the bomb’s safety,  effectiveness, and security" according to the NNSA. The B61-12 first production unit will occur in FY 2020. The bomb will be approximately 12 feet long and weigh approximately 825 pounds. The bomb will be air-delivered in either ballistic gravity or guided drop modes, and is being certified for delivery on current strategic (B-2A) and dual capable aircraft (F-15E, F-16C/D & MLU, PA-200) as well as future aircraft platforms (F-35, B-21).
President Trump has endorsed the ambitious and expensive plan to modernize the US nuclear triad, begun under his predecessor.
The June test of the B61-12 was the third in a series with the final design review due in September 2018 and the first production unit scheduled for completion by March 2020. Once the bomb is authorized for use in 2020, the US plans to deploy some 180 of the B61-12 precision-guided thermonuclear bombs to five European countries as follows:
  • Belgium - 20;
  • Germany -20;
  • Italy - 70;
  • Netherlands - 20;
  • Turkey -50;
... although in light of the recent developments, the Turkish deployment will likely be scrapped.

                               
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