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[单篇] 利用弹道捕获实现地火转移

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StdNormDist 发表于 2014-12-25 14:18 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
资料信息
资料名称: Earth-Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture
封面: -
作者/出版商: Edward Belbruno, Francesco Topputo
发行时间: 2014-10-27
分类: 轨道设计
摘要: 计算发现一条前往火星的捷径,先将探测器部署在类火星轨道上,再通过火星的引力将其减速并成为火星的卫星。
简评: 低能量转移轨道的设计
语言: 英文
格式: PDF
评级: ★★★★
备注:
Earth-Mars Transfers with Ballistic Capture
http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.8856




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 楼主| StdNormDist 发表于 2014-12-25 14:24 | 显示全部楼层
科学家发现一条飞往火星的最佳轨道
腾讯科技  2014年12月25日07:49
http://tech.qq.com/a/20141225/010463.htm

  [摘要]科学家通过数学计算发现一条前往火星的捷径,先将探测器部署在类火星轨道上,再通过火星的引力将其减速并成为火星的卫星。
  腾讯科学讯 据国外媒体报道,前往火星的计划目前只有美国宇航局有能力进行,该机构也正在积极推进载人登陆火星的任务,飞往火星具有较大的难度,主要涉及到如何选择轨道,因为这关系到火星任务需要携带多少补给货物。如果宇航员需要花500天完成火星任务,就需要带上足够的粮食和燃料,那么是否有更简便的方法达到相同的目的呢?目前米兰理工大学的科学家弗朗西斯科与美国宇航局的专家爱德华通过数学计算发现一条前往火星的捷径,先将探测器部署在类火星轨道上,再通过火星的引力将其减速并成为火星的卫星。
  该理论在1990年时用于日本的月球探测器,但如果用于载人探索火星,那么在时间上就会增加数月,这就使得原本500天左右的任务期会被延长百来天,而我们获得的则是更加简单的轨道设计以及更加便宜的探索火星途径。从某种意义上看,科学家试图让火星飞船利用火星的引力拉回,逐渐“漂移”到火星轨道上,而不是使用自身携带的助推器让火星减速。美国宇航局行星科学部的科学家詹姆斯•格林认为这是一个非常有想象力的轨道设计,使人非常感兴趣。
  弹道式的捕获能够让我们开启更多的火星任务,向火星派遣许多探测器,甚至在载人登陆火星时也能够用到。传统使用火箭前往火星的飞船需要进入霍夫曼转移轨道,而新方法的特点在于不需要使用复杂的地火轨道,也不需要进行发动机点火减速,这就大大简化了前往火星的复杂性。但是火星飞船的发射和巡航的成本仍然保持不变。本项研究论文发表在《天体力学和动力天文学》上。
  1990年,日本月球探测器就使用了低能量转移轨道的设计,科学家设计出一种弹道捕获轨迹,让缺乏燃料的探测器进入月球轨道,这是该理论第一次被用于实践检验。本次科学家提出的探索火星也可以使用类似的轨道设计,这为今后探索火星提供了一种可能。(罗辑/编译)[责任编辑:quarkqiao]
 楼主| StdNormDist 发表于 2014-12-25 14:27 | 显示全部楼层
英文报道

New idea for transporting spacecraft could ease trip to Mars
by Brooks Hays
Princeton, N.J. (UPI) Dec 22, 2014
http://www.marsdaily.com/reports ... ip_to_Mars_999.html

Scientists say a new method, called ballistic capture, for transporting robotic rovers, satellites and astronaut-carrying spacecraft to Mars could save space agencies time and money.

Currently, the favored method for getting a spacecraft into orbit around Mars is the "Hohmann transfer." After rocketing through the Earth's atmosphere, the craft make a beeline for the Red Planet, barreling through space at high speeds. As it approaches Mars, its thrusters fire in the opposite direction -- slamming on the brakes and swinging the craft into orbit.

The Hohmann transfer is a highly effective move -- road-tested and reliable. But it is expensive and time specific. Launches are limited to a brief window when the orbit and rotation of Earth and Mars are just right.

Ballistic capture, on the other hand, would allow a more flexible launch window. It would also do away with the fuel-guzzling that Hohmann's high-speed braking requires. Instead of rocketing straight at Mars, a ballistic capture technique would see the spacecraft launched out ahead of Mars' orbital path. It would gradually slow and hold in place, waiting for Mars to swing by -- the Martian gravity pulling the craft into orbit as it approached.

"That's the magic of ballistic capture -- it's like flying in formation," Edward Belbruno, a visiting associated researcher at Princeton University, recently told Scientific American.

Belbruno, along with Francesco Topputo of the Polytechnic University of Milan, is responsible for a new paper on the subject of ballistic capture and its potential for enabling cheaper more frequent visits to Mars.

The study was published on arXiv, Cornell University's free science journal library, this week; it has also been submitted for formal publication to the journal Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy.

As both Belbruno and Topputo are willing to admit, ballistic capture isn't perfect. It takes much longer than the typical six-month straight shot that has spit a number of Mars current orbiters into their paths around the Red Planet. Ballistic capture would also put a craft into a much higher orbit than most probes prefer for their scientific missions.

But the new study considers other options, too, including aerocapture, whereby a Hohmann transfer is tweaked to allow Mars' atmosphere to do some work in slowing down the craft's approach. That's why not as much fuel needs to be burned during the braking.

Ballistic capture may need some kinks worked out, but NASA is excited about its potential.

"It's an eye-opener," James Green, director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, told Scientific American. "This [ballistic capture technique] could not only apply here to the robotic end of it but also the human exploration end."

NASA has used the ballistic capture technique on one of its lunar missions -- the GRAIL mission in 2011. The European Space Agency also used the technique for its SMART-1 lunar mission in 2004.


 楼主| StdNormDist 发表于 2014-12-25 14:31 | 显示全部楼层
发这个新闻和文献是想起了“利用行星间的“引力弹弓”效应前往火星”
http://bbs.9ifly.cn/thread-954-29-1.html
@darklighter
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