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[新概念武器] 高超音速时代

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lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-16 11:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 lixianghua 于 2009-12-16 12:12 编辑

美军迈入高超音速攻击时代 X-51A导弹试飞成功
2009-12-16 10:57:51 中青在线 发表评论


美制X-51A高超音速巡航导弹


    本报特约撰稿 付晓武 楚水昂
    据美国空军官方网站12月11日报道,波音公司研制的X-51A高超音速巡航导弹已于9日首次成功升空,用项目负责人查理·布林科的话说,“这是最伟大的一天。”那么,这部绰号“乘波者”(WaveRider)的新概念飞行器究竟有多大军事价值?这得从美军的“全球快速打击计划”谈起。
    “1小时内打击任何目标”
    “全球快速打击计划”提出于上世纪90年代,目的是让美军能在1小时内用常规武器打击地球上的任何目标。该计划的关键就在于“速度”,配套研制的各种飞行器都必须达到5倍以上的音速,其中最具代表性的就是X-51。
    人类很早就进入了超音速飞行时代,但经过几十年的发展,普通飞机的速度最多只能提高到音速的3至4倍,再往上就触及了传统技术的极限。于是,高超音速飞行的理论应运而生。高超音速,指物体的速度超过5倍音速,约合每小时移动6000公里。举例来说,按照这个速度从乌鲁木齐直飞上海只需30分钟甚至更少,而一般的民航班机要数小时。
    高超音速飞行器主要包括3类:高超音速巡航导弹、高超音速飞机以及空天飞机。这次试飞成功的X-51就是高超音速巡航导弹的原形,它采用的超音速冲压发动机被认为是继螺旋桨和喷气推进之后的“第三次动力革命”——相比之下,美军目前装备最多的“战斧”巡航导弹仅能以亚音速缓慢飞行,根本没法和X-51相提并论。
    三大优势压倒老式导弹
    高超音速飞行器可以承担全球实时侦察、快速部署和远程精确打击任务,将大大改变未来战争的样式。尤其是最容易实现的高超音速巡航导弹,相比一般巡航导弹有如下优势:
    一是更快的反应速度。亚音速巡航导弹打击1000公里外的目标需要1个多小时,高超声速巡航导弹只需要不到10分钟。
    二是更强的突防能力。现有的巡航导弹主要依靠超低空飞行与隐身技术突破防御,由于速度太慢,暴露后很容易被拦截,在科索沃战争中就有数十枚“战斧”遭击落。而就在高空飞行的高超音速巡航导弹来说,现有的防空武器对它基本无计可施。
    三是更大的破坏力。高超音速武器具有惊人的动能,对钢筋混凝土的侵彻深度可达十几米,特别适合打击深埋于地下的指挥中心等坚固目标。
    当然,高超音速巡航导弹技术先进,其开发研制仍面临不少难关,如推进技术、一体化设计、材料工艺等,其他许多国家攻关多年一直未有成果。
    正式列装为时不远
    美国的X-51项目起初并未获得足够重视,小布什执政期间特别是“9·11事件”后,其进度明显加快。根据公开资料,长4.27米的X-51有一个扁平的头部,弹体中部安装4片可以偏转的小翼和腹部进气道。最近几年,它相继通过了包括风洞、发动机、燃料等在内的许多试验,终于在今年结出硕果。在试飞计划中,X-51由B-52轰炸机在1万米高空发射,当助推火箭使其达到4.5倍音速时,主发动机启动,一举将速度提升至7倍音速。明年,X-51还将进行3次试验,待全部试验结束,就离正式列装不远了。
    美军战略司令部早先透露的消息称,X-51计划的终极目标就是要发展一种比现役巡航导弹快5倍以上,可以在1小时内打击地球上任意目标的全新武器。这种装备一旦投入使用,美国就可以在无须利用盟国或海外基地的情况下,随心所欲地发起迅雷不及掩耳的攻击。若这一愿景成真,则意味着美军不但拥有了顶尖的导弹防御系统,在主动打击方面,也大步走在了世界最前列。
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-16 12:04 | 显示全部楼层

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tatg5kgn 发表于 2009-12-16 22:25 | 显示全部楼层
这东东能装核战斗部吗??
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-16 22:33 | 显示全部楼层
老美是用这个技术来研制导弹的,你说可不可以装核战斗部呢?
mimimomoba 发表于 2009-12-16 22:48 | 显示全部楼层
射程?!!
4米的长度,装什么药能那么持久有劲?!
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-16 23:07 | 显示全部楼层
回复 5# mimimomoba


    这是在试验,是缩小的导弹试验,不是表示以后的弹弹就怎么大知道吗?
暗夜流星 发表于 2009-12-16 23:27 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 暗夜流星 于 2009-12-17 00:15 编辑

X-51 只是一个实验机,说成巡航导弹未免夸大。
超燃冲压还有很多问题要解决。


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kktt 发表于 2009-12-17 00:02 | 显示全部楼层
山寨版

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贝尔纳多特 发表于 2009-12-17 00:23 | 显示全部楼层
我上次看到一个报道HYFLY明年也要再次试射



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shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-17 00:48 | 显示全部楼层
3-5年内能实用化,批量装备成军就很快了。
贝尔纳多特 发表于 2009-12-17 11:47 | 显示全部楼层
还有一张HYFLY发动机启动的照片

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暗夜流星 发表于 2009-12-17 13:38 | 显示全部楼层
这个东西很神秘,国内有跟踪研究的文章



还有一张HYFLY发动机启动的照片
贝尔纳多特 发表于 2009-12-17 11:47

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贝尔纳多特 发表于 2009-12-17 14:53 | 显示全部楼层
多谢暗夜兄了
crbyt 发表于 2009-12-17 16:24 | 显示全部楼层
乘波飞行器老米还是快啊。不知道咱们有没有相关的计划
kktt 发表于 2009-12-19 01:53 | 显示全部楼层
中国青年报又在忽悠,9号不是试飞,而是首次系留挂载飞行。正式飞行试验预计在2个月后进行。

[据美国《航宇日报》2009年12月14日报道] 普·惠公司(Pratt &Whitney)近日向外界透露,美国空军已于12月9日在加利福尼亚州爱德华兹空军基地进行了X-51A“乘波者”(Waverider)高超声速飞行器的首次系留挂载飞行,在飞行中X-51A由B-52H重型轰炸机携带并外挂在母机的机翼下。

按照先前的预计,X-51A应于10月末或11月初开始进行挂载飞行,但最后将原定日期向后推迟了。据美国国防部官员透露,其原因是X-51A与B- 52H母机的结合以及B-52H本身的维护均出现了问题。普·惠公司称,在进行此次测试飞行时,B-52H飞机向北方向起飞后爬升至50000英尺(15240米)高空,随后该机携带着X-51A做了较柔和的机动动作。(中国航空工业发展研究中心 陈黎)

http://www.space-travel.com/repo ... board_B_52_999.html

X-51A WaveRider Gets First Ride Aboard B-52

The next B-52/X-51 flight test mission is expected in mid-January, and will be a full dress rehearsal, for its first hypersonic test flight, now planned for mid-February, Mr. Brink said.
by Staff Writers
Wright-Patterson AFB OH (SPX) Dec 18, 2009
The X-51A Waverider was carried aloft for the first time Dec. 9 by an Air Force Flight Test Center B-52 Stratofortress over Edwards Air Force Base, Calif.

The test was a key milestone in preparation for the X-51 to light its supersonic combustion ramjet engine and propel the WaverRider at hypersonic speed for about five minutes, before plunging into the Pacific Ocean.

"This was a great day for the program," said Charlie Brink, X-51A program manager with the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

"The early look is we successfully captured all of our test points without any anomalies. I'm really proud of the AFRL, Air Force Flight Test Center, and Boeing/Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne teams' efforts to move us toward the big event. That flight test is currently planned in about two months, he said.

The Dec. 9 test, reminiscent of the early days of the historic X-15 program 50 years earlier, was conducted entirely in the airspace over Edwards AFB while various systems and telemetry were checked out. The Flight duration was 1.4 hours.

"After takeoff we climbed to 50,000 feet and verified B-52 aircraft performance, handling qualities with the X-51A attached to the B-52, control room displays and software integration with the X-51A," said Lt. Col. Daniel Millman, a B-52 project pilot.

"The B-52 handled great and the flight preceded as planned."

The next B-52/X-51 flight test mission is expected in mid-January, and will be a full dress rehearsal, for its first hypersonic test flight, now planned for mid-February, Mr. Brink said.

The dress rehearsal flight will depart Edwards AFB and head out over the Pacific to Point Mugu Naval Air Warfare Center Sea Range. Both airborne and multiple ground test assets will monitor all X-51A systems, but it will not be released from the B-52 and its engine will not ignite.

In February, the Air Force Flight Test Center's B-52 will carry the unmanned X-51A to approximately 50,000 feet over the Pacific Ocean then release it. A solid rocket booster from an Army Tactical Missile System will then ignite and accelerate the X-51 to about Mach 4.5.

Then the booster will be jettisoned and the X-51A's supersonic combustion ramjet propulsion system will ignite and operate for about 300 seconds, propelling the cruiser to more than six times the speed of sound.

Onboard sensors will transmit data to ground systems before the cruiser plunges into the Pacific. There are no plans to recover it.

Four X-51A cruisers have been built and were developed by officials from the Air Force, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Boeing.

Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne built the X-51's scramjet engine, which is the heart of the system. Engineers expect a great deal will be learned about hypersonic flight during the nearly 300 seconds under scramjet power. The longest-ever previous scramjet test, lasted only about 10 seconds, Mr. Brink said.

As the engine ignites it will initially burn a mix of ethylene and JP-7 fuel before switching exclusively to JP-7. The X-51's fuel-cooled engine design will both heat the JP-7 to an optimum combustion temperature and help the engine itself endure extremely high operating temperatures during the long burn.

"We believe the X-51 will lead the path to practical air breathing hypersonic flight," said George Thum, Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne X-51A program manager.

Boeing's Phantom Works performed overall air vehicle design, assembly and testing for the X-51's various components.

"We're elated with the success of the captive carry and looking forward to our powered flight tests. The captive carry test was the culmination of many months of hard work by the X-51A team to verify that hardware, electrical and software integration was complete," said Joseph Vogel, a Boeing Phantom Works X-51A program manager.

Mr. Vogel called the mission an essential step to ready for the dress rehearsal, where the team will run through the processes of a complete mission profile in final preparation for the X-51's first powered flight early next year.

Previous important ground tests verified the X-51 and B-52 could communicate electronically and that X-51A can be safely and successfully uploaded and downloaded on the modified B-52H pylon. Wind tunnel tests and modeling to ensure safe separation from the aircraft were other prerequisites.

Program officials said the scramjet motor's great advantage is the ability to capture and burn oxygen in the thin atmosphere, rather than having to carry it in a large tank like the space shuttle or other rockets. Not having to carry the oxidizer needed for combustion means more payload capability.

Beyond scalable scramjet propulsion, other key technologies that will be demonstrated by the X-51A include thermal protection systems materials, airframe and engine integration, and high-speed stability and control.

Boeing officials said they also had to demonstrate the X-51A 's compatibility with the electromagnetic environment of the B-52H aircraft. The test verified that the X-51A can be powered by and communicate with the B-52H using a modified Joint Direct Attack Munition interface.

"Adapting existing, proven hardware, helps us keep program costs down," Mr. Brink said.

Mr. Brink said he believes the X-51A program will provide knowledge required to develop the game changing technologies needed for future access to space and hypersonic weapon applications.
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-23 16:51 | 显示全部楼层
大气层内高超音速,直接用眼睛就能看到了,跟大流星一样。  红外线探测就好了。这种东西的成本比弹道导弹高,完全不是一个档次的。
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-23 16:58 | 显示全部楼层
这样的技术是以后导弹发展的方向啊,我们国家也在研究的啊.
snowtiger 发表于 2009-12-23 17:44 | 显示全部楼层
这样的技术是以后导弹发展的方向啊,我们国家也在研究的啊.
lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-23 16:58




    对高超音速俺持保守态度,理由就是你说的好探测好击落。SAM且不论,过十年这玩意成熟了,ABL也差不多了。碰上还是个死。
kktt 发表于 2009-12-23 18:44 | 显示全部楼层
ABL有效打击距离很有限吧
 楼主| lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-23 18:58 | 显示全部楼层
对高超音速俺持保守态度,理由就是你说的好探测好击落。SAM且不论,过十年这玩意成熟了,ABL也 ...
snowtiger 发表于 2009-12-23 17:44



    可这个速度快,如果再可以机动的话那就更难了,还有再增加隐形措施那就更更难了啊.
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