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[专题专项] 俄罗斯新一代载人飞船——Federatsiya/federation/联邦

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 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-4-9 11:25 | 显示全部楼层

俄罗斯新一代载人飞船“罗斯”(RUS)将是“快船”的现代化改进版

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2009-4-9 11:28 编辑

To the Moon - the new boat

09 апреля 2009

From heaven to earth - as the music. In the steppes of Kazakhstan landed 18 th expedition ISS. As Roskosmos, everything was perfect. Lander "Union" was seen even in the air at an altitude of about km. The capsule landed in the area, which has been set. Moreover, Russian cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov arrived not just on Earth - on a small home - near the town of Balkhash, where he was born. Met came with gifts.

Double space tourist Charles Simonyi apples are lacking - just kissing. It on the ground met the young wife - by the way, the Swedish model. Because of its sixty-year millionaire in the space for a third time did not fly - before the wedding Simonyi has signed a marriage contract, which states that the more he is in armor - either foot.

However, Simon may be changes and re-zasobiraetsya into space to learn what it will soon fly. Until July of next year in Russia will project a new spaceship - interplanetary. The project is strictly classified.

What will the new Russian space shuttle, the management corporation "Energy", which won a competition to create it, keeps in the strictest secrecy.

"We operate in a competitive environment, so until the end of the term, we talk about it will not. As regards the title, we had a working title -" Russia ", - told the president of Rocket-Space Corporation" Energia "Vitaly Lopota.

Sketches of the manned spacecraft show only the next year. Now only lifts the veil of secrecy over the technical specifications. The ship should be the interplanetary and carry twice as much cargo and astronauts, as the Soyuz, which fly in orbit now, 40 years old and obsolete.

"Six people - into Earth orbit and up to four - on okololunnuyu. Besides, the ship must be able to recover up to 500 kilograms of cargo to Earth", - explained the chief of manned space programs of the Federal Agency Alexei Krasnov.

Since 2000, the corporation "Energy" to develop another ship, which is called the "Clipper." He was even presented to the public in the form of a full-scale model. "Clipper" offered to make a reusable, but eventually decided to Roscosmos of the option to refuse.

"Those decisions - in particular, the management system - will be taken up and on this ship. The very design of the ship bearing the same will be taken. But the principle of planting - on the wings - a bird not to be uniquely" - said the head of the Federal Space Agency Anatoly Perminov.

In other words, it is likely to be highly modernized "Clipper". It can be assumed that, in contrast to the "Union", the new ship as "Clipper" will be on the launcher again to send into orbit. And return to Earth is not just a single capsule with the crew and the entire ship with engines. This will allow him to perform maneuvers in the atmosphere for hundreds of kilometers. However, lands Rus' did parasailing.

NASA, rather than the shuttle, too, is developing a new manned spacecraft - "Orion". But it decided to recall the well-forgotten old, so the "Orion" is a one-time and is similar to the Apollo. Start the American spacecraft is scheduled for 2014.

"We have a term of the first flight - in 2015. We go about nostril to nostril with NASA. They have more money. It all depends on funding, and we then meet the deadline", - Anatoly Perminov stressed.


原文(有视频)链接:http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=272856&cid=10
cmj9808 发表于 2009-4-9 16:51 | 显示全部楼层
同样是采访能源的总裁,一个说新飞船是“猎户座斯基”,另一个说是连服务舱都重复使用的新版“快船”,到底哪个是真的?
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-4-9 19:21 | 显示全部楼层
只有实物出现了,才能确定那个事真的。。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-4-10 14:47 | 显示全部楼层

俄罗斯新一代载人飞船(PPTS)——“罗斯”(RUS)

ppts_rb_leo_1.jpg

PPTS is the Russian abbreviation of "Perspektivnaya Pilotiruemaya Transportnaya Sistema" or "Prospective Piloted Transport System." The goal of the project was to develop a new-generation spacecraft to replace venerable Soyuz. By the beginning of 2009, upon abandoning plans for cooperation on the project with Europe, Russia's federal space agency, Roskosmos, ordered the industry to finalize proposals for the new manned spacecraft.

During the first quarter of 2009, Roskosmos, had finalized its requirements for the next-generation manned spacecraft and the agency was ready to finally name the prime-developer of the vehicle. Formally, only two organizations which were practically capable of developing manned space vehicle, competed in the government tender to build the new spacecraft -- RKK Energia in Korolev and Moscow-based Khrunichev enterprise.

Although the run up to the tender was conducted behind closed doors, a number of Russian officials made statements hinting about various stages of the project. On January 21, 2009, the head of Russian space agency, Roskosmos, Anatoly Perminov told Rossiyskaya Gazeta that Russia would likely proceed with independent development of the next-generation manned spacecraft. According to Perminov, the agency and its main research and certification center -- TsNIIMash -- had already conducted an expanded meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council, NTS, examining follow-on transport systems, including the next-generation manned ship. It would be followed by a government tender to select a developer for the new vehicle. The new spacecraft would be expected to enter service within a timeframe of the US Orion vehicle, however a more detailed development plan would be ready with the preliminary design of the vehicle in the middle of 2010, Perminov said. (321)

On January 29, 2009, Aleksei Krasnov, the head of manned space flight at Roskosmos, confirmed that a second government tender for the development of the next-generation spacecraft would be initiated in 2009. (In 2006, three Russian companies competed in an aborted government tender.)

In the first quarter of 2009, Roskosmos released requirements, which were used in the development of the Technical Assignment (TZ) to the industry working on the PPTS project. The preliminary development of the project was expected to take place from March 2009 until June 2010 at the estimated cost of around 800,000,000 rubles (or around $24 million). The work apparently covered only an Earth-orbiting version of the spacecraft, while laying the foundation for later lunar orbiting spacecraft, or even a Mars-bound crew vehicle.

The agency's general requirements asked the industry to develop a vehicle matching similar "foreign," (hence American) spacecraft in its technical capabilities and cost, while at the same time, using existing technologies as much as possible.

Spacecraft versions

Roskosmos envisioned several modifications of the spacecraft: Earth orbiting versions could fly 30-day-long autonomous missions, or a year-long missions, while docked to the ISS in the orbit with the inclination 51.6 degrees and to the future Russian space station launched from Vostochny into a 51.8-degree orbit. The lunar version could fly 14-days missions to orbit around the Moon, or stay docked to the lunar orbital station, LOS, for up to 200 days. (This requirement hinted about possible long-term plans of the Russian space agency for lunar exploration). The spacecraft could serve as a manned transport vehicle, or as an unmanned cargo ship.

Earth orbit (station)Lunar orbit versionEarth orbit (autonomous mission)Cargo version
Crew size6440
Cargo (delivery and return)500 kilograms100 kilograms?2,000 kg up; 500 kg down
Autonomous flight duration5 days14 days30 days-
Flight duration, when docked to the station365 days200 days--
Mass12 tons16.5 tons--


Roskosmos also requested to the industry to evaluate the possibility of launching a baseline modification of the spacecraft into the near-polar orbit with the inclination 73.2 degrees toward the Equator.

The agency specified that a single cosmonaut had to be able to conduct all flight operations from a single work seat, while two equally equipped work stations would be available in the cockpit to control the vehicle.

The agency also specified that g-loads on the crew should not exceed following parameters:

Nominal orbit insertion
4.0
Nominal reentry into the Earth atmosphere
3.0
During the descent with the maximum lateral maneuver
5.0
During the firing of the emergency escape system following a launch vehicle failure
7.0
During the atmospheric reentry following the emergency escape system firing
12.0


The crew capsule had to have a capability to conduct an emergency return to Earth either from orbit, or during a powered flight to orbit, with the ability to touch down in any season on any unprepared piece of land or at sea. As of March 2009, the agency extended the accuracy of the crew capsule landing on the Russian territory to 10 kilometers, while directing the industry to continue studying various modes of high-precision landing. Emergency escape and landing capabilities were mandated for every phase of the mission and had to provide the survivability of the crew until the arrival of the rescue and recovery teams.

Like the Soyuz, the vehicle would have to be able to conduct fully automated and manual docking and have enough propulsion capabilities during transport missions to dock and re-dock with orbital stations, low-orbital platforms, unmanned spacecraft and modules and then to provide for the safe return of the reentry vehicle to Earth. The reentry capsule could only employ environmentally safe propellants during the atmospheric phase of the flight. Roskosmos said that "in case of reuse" of the reentry vehicle it had to be able to fly up to 10 missions during its 15-year life span.

Missions for the autonomous ship

Roskosmos said that during its 30-day autonomous mission spacecraft should have capabilities to accomplish following tasks:


·service unmanned spacecraft and platforms;
·remove failed spacecraft and "space junk" fragments from orbit;
·conduct experiments and research with various payloads;
·test technologies for remote sensing and early warning about large-scale emergency situations and natural disasters;
·conduct dual-purpose and military application missions;
cmj9808 发表于 2009-4-10 21:39 | 显示全部楼层
Roskosmos的有些要求很诡异,比如清除太空垃圾和遥感预报自然灾害,完全可以由无人航天器完成这些任务。另外,为什么要一个月球轨道空间站LOS?一个LOS+RUS维持轨道所需的燃料肯定要超过一个RUS所需。维护和辐射都是噩梦
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-4-11 09:47 | 显示全部楼层

俄国新一代载人飞船设计启动

2009年04月10日   科技日报

  本报驻俄罗斯记者 张浩

  据俄媒体披露,新飞船原型是俄罗斯能源火箭航天集团大力宣传的“快船”,快船的各项指标也与新飞船相符:可重复使用,可用于登月,可搭载6名乘员和500公斤补给等。

  4月7日,俄罗斯联邦航天署在其网站上公布了未来载人飞船草案设计大赛结果,俄罗斯能源火箭航天集团的方案获得冠军。根据计划,能源火箭航天集团同时获得俄联邦航天局新一代载人飞船的设计合同。

  2010年前完成设计

  俄联邦航天局新闻秘书亚历山大·瓦罗比约夫表示,俄联邦航天局用了20天的时间来确定大赛最终结果,获胜者为俄罗斯航天领军企业——能源火箭航天集团。根据计划,能源火箭航天集团应从即日起开始新一代载人飞船设计,在2010年6月前完成设计方案。新一代载人飞船设计合同金额为8亿卢布。

  俄罗斯齐奥尔科夫斯基航天研究院通讯院士安德烈·伊奥尼表示,此次大赛暨招标毫无悬念。安德烈·伊奥尼称,首先,载人航天飞船研发一项就是能源火箭航天集团的特权;其次,最终结果显然是政府决定的,目的是保持大型航天企业间国家订单的平衡。尽管能源火箭航天集团顺利中标,但考虑到该设计项目过于庞大,俄联邦航天局建议能源火箭航天集团,吸纳另一家俄罗斯大型航天企业——国立赫鲁尼切夫航天科研生产中心一道参与新飞船研发。

  俄罗斯航天界人士认为,此次竞赛暨招标完成,标志着俄航天工业未来10年的发展蓝图已经明确。未来10年,俄航天工业将形成新飞船、新火箭,以及新发射场齐头并进的局面:能源火箭航天集团启动新一代载人飞船研发项目;进步中央专业设计局在上周获得栽重23吨的新一代运载火箭研发项目;紧邻中国的阿穆尔州,全新的“东方”航天发射场也正在紧锣密鼓建设中。这些项目将代表着俄航天工业的未来。如果没有意外的话,新一代运载火箭与新一代载人飞船将在2018年从新建成的“东方”发射场升空。俄联邦航天署署长佩尔米诺夫此前曾表示,该航天发射场将于2015年开始发射无人飞船,2018年进行载人飞船发射。

  多次往返式轨道飞船

  俄罗斯联邦航天署载人航天项目主管克拉斯诺夫透露,俄罗斯将研制的新一代载人飞船名称暂定为“罗斯”,它将不仅用于近地轨道飞行,还将用于月球开发。

  根据合同,新一代载人飞船为往返式轨道飞船,可在轨道自动运行5天,每次可搭载不少于500公斤的补给,而目前的俄“联盟”载人飞船返航时仅能携带250公斤的货物。这种新式载人飞船将能够同时把6名宇航员送至地球低轨道,或者把4名宇航员送至近月轨道。月球探索对搭载能力的要求略小,每次需不超过100公斤的补给,但自动运行时间要达到14昼夜之久。此外,根据俄联邦航天署的要求,这些设计还必须满足起飞过载不超过4克,飞行次数不少于10次,可靠性不低于99.5%等要求。相对于已经服役40多年,且不能重复使用的“联盟”飞船,新一代飞船的优势十分明显,代表着俄罗斯载人航天的发展方向。

  俄“能源”火箭航天企业总裁兼总设计师维塔利·洛波塔表示,俄罗斯新一代载人飞船将采纳俄罗斯各大航天企业的最新科技,新飞船外观与美国正在研制当中的下一代载人航天器“奥赖恩”类似。

  谈到国际空间站退役后的问题,克拉斯诺夫表示,俄计划建造新轨道空间站替换退役后的国际空间站,新的轨道站将同国际空间站一样成为科学试验基地,并还将扮演“太空飞船组装车间”的角色,为星际旅行及探月做准备。(本报莫斯科4月8日电)
cmj9808 发表于 2009-4-11 12:49 | 显示全部楼层
“起飞过载不超过4克”。。。
科技日报的记者缺乏科学常识
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-4-11 14:32 | 显示全部楼层
新闻系的记者都这样,科学对他们都是天书
RenBright 发表于 2009-4-12 11:31 | 显示全部楼层
阿波罗的气动外形+快船的电子系统
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-4-12 20:36 | 显示全部楼层
11-04-2009
Interview of Anatoly Perminov, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, to the Vesti TV-Channel



Financial crisis causes some problems for the space industry. Despite of this, all the objectives of 2009 will be accomplished. Anatoly Perminov, Head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, tells Vesti TV channel about it.

- Anatoly Nikolaevich, good day.

- Good day.

- ISS crew rotation is over, and we have a new crew in the station. One more Russian crew vehicle is to be launched in May. Does it mean that the notorious crisis has not touched the space industry? Could you describe prospective of the human spaceflights?

- The crisis impacted every industry, including the space one. But, I think, we will manage to accomplish all the human spaceflight objectives defined for 2009. The next crew launch is planned for appr. May 27. With this launch, we have some changes in the approach. OF course, a Russian, a Belgian and A Canadian will fly. They will start operations, and this time non one of them will return in 10 days. The vehicle will remain attached to the station for security, for permanent 6 crew.

- Who is the third crew member of the September`s expedition- a space tourist or a professional?

- Actually, a visiting crew had been planned. In other words, it should have been a tourist from Kazakhstan. We were following the request of the Kazakh party. Unfortunately, we received an official notification signed by the Head of the Kazakhstan Space Agency. It says that they cancel this mission due to financial difficulties. Currently, we are in process discussing the person to fly in September with our colleagues. These will be either two Russians, or it might be a Japanese representative. Starting from this year representatives of all ISS partners shall be in the station: Russians, US, Japanese, Europeans, and Canadians. Japanese and European modules have been commissioned. So, this is the outlook of this year. For the future… Well, we have assessed the human spaceflight program up to 2040. But things can change, you know…

- There are two foreigners out of three in the expedition. Can we consider it as a signal of successful evolution in the international cooperation?

- Yes, evolution of the international cooperation in the ISS program is successful. We are launching Mini-Research Module at the end of this year. That is, to turn ISS into the space lab, we would have to do more as well. Concerning the major objectives, this year is really hard for us. We have to finalize launch complex in South America, in French Guiana. Maiden launch of the Soyuz-2 rocket from this space port is planned in late 2009. This is one of the main objectives. Also, this year we have to finalize construction, to help South Korea with their space launcher for Naro space port. And so on. We have 60 agreements with 38 countries. Each of them is to be worked out, especially those related to spacecraft launches. This year we have the maximum number of Russian and commercial spacecraft launches planned. So, it is going to be hard. But it is feasible.

- What is the status of the GLONASS system? When would we have GLONASS constellation completed?

- There are 20 satellites in orbit, which are functioning successfully. One spacecraft undergoes maintenance operations. We need only 18 satellites to cover our country, the territory of Russia and former USSR republics, with 100% probability. Globally, 95% is covered. By the end of 2010, we have to launch 6 more satellites. Thus, we must have 24 spacecraft with 100% global coverage in orbit by the end of 2010, taking into account their lifetime. So, there is no issue with the orbital constellation. Owing to the President and the Government, this work has been planned, the program has been updated, and the budget has not been cut.

- Anatoly Nikolaevich, the next question is about the future space system. The selection has been made recently. Samara`s Progress will build launchers, and RSC-Energia is responsible for the new vehicle. Could you tell a little about this vehicle? When will it fly?

- RSC-Energia was expected to win in the tender, since it is the leading developer of human space vehicles. In 2015 we have to launch the cargo version of the new vehicle. In 2018, human option is to be available. The vehicle will seize all the best achievements of our previous projects. For example, we had winged Clipper. Though, now Energia`s base their concept on the conic option. It includes some Clipper outcomes, such as control system, etc. I wish I could tell you everything about the design, but I don`t want to hurt the General Designer. The main thing, the vehicle will be capable of flying to the International Space Station. Or, to any station we have in the future, a so-called expedition complex. We have it our program, after the ISS. Missions to the Moon. Reusable vehicle. The only thing I can say is- no wings. For sure.

- You said there would be a pause with the space tourism. Americans propose everybody to participate in suborbital space missions. It is also space tourism. Will Russia develop a vehicle for amateurs?

- Not under the state programs. None of our federal programs contain this line. On the other hand, this project is studied in Russia, one of our companies studied it, and this company deals with this topic today. According to my knowledge, it is very costly. There is no way to reimburse the investments, even with the tickets for 200-300,000 dollars, if the system with the launcher developed by us is applied.

- How about making the tickets more expensive?

- Then it becomes non- profitable. For one million dollars, nobody would desire to fly to space for a few minutes. My personal opinion is that suborbital missions are more complicated and less safe than the complicated flights to the ISS. Here it all has been validated and tested, safety has the highest priority. So, to my mind, it should be done on commercial basis, but not under the state programs. I will support such programs with great pleasure, if some industrial corporation would initiate it.

- Anatoly Nikolaevich, could you tell about a new space port to be located in Russia, Vostochny. What is the status of this project?

- It is in line with the schedule. We reported the status to the Chairman of the Government recently. Design and survey activities are planned until 2011. It is covered by the budget. Each month we hold meetings with the involved scientific and research organizations involved in the project, with Spetsstroy, which we intend to involve in construction of the space port, and other organizations, which also desire to be involved. I believe we will manage to cope with the terms, and prepare necessary documentation. The Government will make the decision to initiate the construction after our report about successful completion of the survey stage, the cost and the dates.

- Let these plans become true. I just wanted to get back to the crisis. You said Kazakhstan won`t let their cosmonaut fly due to financial problems. What is you estimation, can the crisis impact space industry and its evolution?

- You see, it didn`t impact us a lot in 2008. We finished the year successfully enough in all the branches. Concerning 2009, we start suffering from the crisis. There are difficulties in some industrial companies. Governmental anti-crisis measures helped to support some of them. Just a few space industrial entities, which lead cooperative activities, with high technologies and great assets. I believe these steps of the Government, daily monitoring of the companies, provide us with the feedback opportunity. There is no charity here. I know the status of the space companies. So, if this feedback process is under control, especially by the Ministry of Finance, in the way Seluyanov`s Commission does that- it provides support if it is really needed- then we would be able to finalize this year with good results, with the “plus”. Regarding 2010, it is hard to say now. In half a year the situation may change. There are some hints which allow me to say that the status can be improved in early 2010.

- Thank you, Anatoly Nikolaevich! Let me congratulate you on the upcoming Cosmonautics Day! Would you address a few words to your colleagues?

- My warmest congratulations. They say, it is a rocket and space industry`s holiday. A celebration for cosmonauts. It is not true. This is a festive occasion for the whole country. Space was born in our country, we fly humans, the first space mission was conducted by the Russian man. People are still proud of it. Our citizens love space. I would like to thank our people for their support. I congratulate all scientists, employees of the space industry, I wish health and successful overcoming of these crisis problems to everybody. The main thing is to finalize this year with good results. Thank you.

- Thank you, Anatoly Nikolaevich!
cmj9808 发表于 2009-4-12 21:06 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2009-4-14 17:03 | 显示全部楼层
俄新一代飞船实现垂直降落 可重复使用10次
2009年04月14日 08:50   来源:中国经济网综合   

    据俄罗斯新闻网报道,俄“能源”火箭航天集团目前已开始研制新一代的宇宙飞船。
    该集团的一位专家表示,这种飞船将能够重复使用10次,可在不借助降落伞的情况下垂直降落,最多可搭载6名宇航员。除了可用于向国际空间站运送航天员外,还可用于执行探测月球和火星的计划。

    这位专家指出,俄新型飞船的降落方式很像是科幻电影中描写的外星飞碟--配备有使用环保燃料(可能是乙醇)的制动发动机,采用效率更高的垂直降落方式。而到目前为止,各国的宇宙飞船在降落时均需依赖降落伞,且制动发动机使用的燃料也可能污染到环境。

    根据俄联邦航天局下达的技术指标,新型飞船不但应能重复使用,而且还应能运送500公斤重的货物。

    “能源”火箭航天集团的专家表示,这种新型飞船的构造将于前些年公布的“三桅快船”存在明显差异:新飞船将采用无翼设计,密封舱,并且在大气层内的飞行姿态也是可以控制的。目前,俄方还未正式命名新型飞船,其工程名称为“新一代载人输送飞船”。

    在穿越浓密的大气层后,新飞船将可不依赖降落伞安全着落,而是依赖一套特殊的制动发动机。

    不过,俄并不会利用这种飞船执行登陆月球或火星的计划。

    他指出:“这种飞船将主要用于执行轨道飞行和将六名宇航员安全送回地球的任务。”

    不过,新飞船可能会被用于执行针对月球和火星的轨道探测活动。据悉,俄新一代宇宙飞船的设计费用约为8亿卢布,“能源”火箭航天集团将自行负担这笔费用。

    按照计划,俄新一代飞船将在2010年6月前完成设计方案,并在2018年从新建成的“东方”发射场升空。
zhangwee 发表于 2009-4-14 17:18 | 显示全部楼层
"这位专家指出,俄新型飞船的降落方式很像是科幻电影中描写的外星飞碟--配备有使用环保燃料(可能是乙醇)的制动发动机,采用效率更高的垂直降落方式。"------坐电梯?
songliang 发表于 2009-4-14 17:29 | 显示全部楼层
安德烈·伊奥尼称,首先,载人航天飞船研发一项就是能源火箭航天集团的特权;其次,最终结果显然是政府决定的,目的是保持大型航天企业间国家订单的平衡。
未来10年,俄航天工业将形成新飞船、新火箭,以及新发射场齐头并进的局面:能源火箭航天集团启动新一代载人飞船研发项目;进步中央专业设计局在上周获得栽重23吨的新一代运载火箭研发项目;紧邻中国的阿穆尔州,全新的“东方”航天发射场也正在紧锣密鼓建设中。--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------从以上两句可以看出,果不出我所料,赫鲁尼切夫之所以没有赢得新飞船和火箭的竞争就是我所说的:毛子想平衡几大航天集团的力量,防治一家独大!!
hkhtg090201 发表于 2009-4-14 17:34 | 显示全部楼层
也觉得疑惑--进入大气层不使用降落伞会提高效率吗?
但不管如何,如果成功了也是一个创新!!别把有趣的东西让老美都垄断了。
东方红 发表于 2009-4-14 18:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 东方红 于 2009-4-14 18:06 编辑

“在穿越浓密的大气层后,新飞船将可不依赖降落伞安全着落,而是依赖一套特殊的制动发动机。”
——这种减速着陆方式不稀奇,是应用了附面层主动控制技术。
制动发动机喷出的气体紧贴返回舱顶壁形成高速附面层气流,根据流体力学伯努利原理,返回舱顶面大气压力小,底面大气压力大,上下压力差足以完成返回舱后续制动和垂直降落。
这种制动系统充分利用了大气压力作为制动力,效率远高于反推火箭。缺点是必须依赖稠密大气层,在稀薄大气层乃至真空环境中发挥不了多大作用。
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-4-14 18:54 | 显示全部楼层
毛子新飞船的10次复用是指返回舱总体上可以复用10次吧,像防热瓦和表面涂层啥的都需要降落后再判断吧
cmj9808 发表于 2009-4-14 18:56 | 显示全部楼层
“在穿越浓密的大气层后,新飞船将可不依赖降落伞安全着落,而是依赖一套特殊的制动发动机。”
——这种减速着陆方式不稀奇,是应用了附面层主动控制技术。
制动发动机喷出的气体紧贴返回舱顶壁形成高速附面层气流 ...
东方红 发表于 2009-4-14 18:00

学习了。
这种利用压力差的控制技术有先例吗?制动发动机是水平安装在返回舱顶吗?
东方红 发表于 2009-4-14 19:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 东方红 于 2009-4-14 19:49 编辑

边界层吸附效应:平顺流动的流体经过具有一定弯度的凸表面的时候,有向凸表面吸附的趋向。据此效应提出上表面吹气增升技术,某些型号的飞机(如美国波音YC-14、前苏联安-72)把发动机装在机翼上方前面,吹出的高速气流可以提高低速时机翼的升力。
上表面吹气增升技术用得好就能实现垂直起落,比如前苏联的伊基普碟状飞行器。
飞船返回舱制动发动机应该安装在舱体顶部,环状分布的喷嘴斜向下方贴着返回舱锥形顶壁喷出高速气流。
haojiang77 发表于 2009-4-14 19:49 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 haojiang77 于 2009-4-14 19:50 编辑

毛子的返回舱是啥样的啊?据说倒锥型减阻很有利!!!
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