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[专题专项] 印度的可重复使用载具技术验证机:RLV-TD成功进行亚轨道测试

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cmj9808 发表于 2009-5-12 19:12 | 显示全部楼层
要暴风雪来干啥呢?
shh 发表于 2009-5-13 15:11 | 显示全部楼层
但是研制和生产费用都更高。具体怎么样,只能用实际数字说话,而且也和发射频率密切相关。这个具体讨论可能超出我们爱好者的能力之外了。但是从各国国家的选择看,总体上应该有一个答案了。不说实际经济性可能不好,至少也是由此带来的风险超过能得到的好处吧。

防热的问题,是由于小型航天飞机和大型的相比,由于尺寸小,一些部件的曲率半径小,由此再入时这点上温度更高。当然使神号研制时就发现其鼻锥温度可以到1700度或以上,腹部温度在1300度以上,都高于美国航天飞机。当然问题都可以解决,只是代价会更大而已。现在有一些新材料了,比如碳化硅和陶瓷基的复合材料,他们有更好的抗氧化和力学性能。

我个人很喜欢有翼飞行器和升力体,能飞回来而不是掉下来,象飞机一样自由飞行始终是人类的梦想。而且其返回技术和军事上有重大意义的高超音速飞行技术有个别相通之处,完全值得开发一下。所以看到我们的SL是一点都不奇怪的。但是这类项目作为技术演示验证或许比较合适,真上项目就不一定了。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-6-18 14:43 | 显示全部楼层

RLV的2张吹风模型图

图片1.jpg 图片2.jpg
Nighthawk 发表于 2009-6-18 17:13 | 显示全部楼层
我个人很喜欢有翼飞行器和升力体,能飞回来而不是掉下来,象飞机一样自由飞行始终是人类的梦想。而且其返回技术和军事上有重大意义的高超音速飞行技术有个别相通之处,完全值得开发一下。所以看到我们的SL是一点都不奇怪的。但是这类项目作为技术演示验证或许比较合适,真上项目就不一定了。…… shh 发表于 2009-5-13 15:11

高超音速飞行器是你说的这一切的基础,我认为不但要搞,而且要大规模地研发,先从实用的巡航导航发展起,到高空高速轰炸机或侦察机,再最终走向RLV。
aijam 发表于 2009-6-18 17:39 | 显示全部楼层
可复用助推级的两级入轨系统是现在的流行趋势
气动外形看起来像X37
cmj9808 发表于 2008-12-26 23:37


还有X34和X40
aijam 发表于 2009-6-18 17:41 | 显示全部楼层
既然升力返回,为啥还要海上溅落?!直接搞个起落架然后陆地机场跑道着陆不行么?!三锅又在不可理喻了。。。。。
话说回来本人的看法是航天飞机和助推器以及外挂燃料箱几乎水平并列的设计才是哥伦比亚事故 ...
snowtiger 发表于 2009-5-12 12:48


921三期小航天飞机?真有这样的计划存在吗?
aijam 发表于 2009-6-18 17:42 | 显示全部楼层
这个很难讲,按照这篇报道里的说法,火箭本身占了70%的发射费用,如果改成可复用的助推级,发射费用顶多减半
cmj9808 发表于 2009-1-2 21:44


减半我觉得都已经很乐观了。。。
还是要有足够的任务密度支持
cmj9808 发表于 2009-6-18 19:40 | 显示全部楼层
减半我觉得都已经很乐观了。。。
还是要有足够的任务密度支持
aijam 发表于 2009-6-18 17:42

如果算上研发成本,没有百八十次飞行可复用飞行器都比不上一次性火箭经济。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-10 14:08 | 显示全部楼层

2010年底,缩小比例的RLV-TD工程样机将进行试飞

Tuesday, Jan 05, 2010
  

Challenges ahead in putting 2 Indians in space



Special Correspondent


THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: Plans to put two Indians in space by 2015 require cutting edge technologies such as building a robust and reliable launch vehicle, a livable crew capsule, providing life support systems for the astronauts and “a 100 per cent reliable crew escape system” in case of an emergency, according to S. Ramkrishnan, Chief Executive, Human Space Flight Programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

The most challenging part was to ensure that the two-man crew were brought back safely to earth, said Mr. Ramakrishnan on Monday at the Space Summit of the Indian Science Congress, which is under way here.

The astronauts would remain in low-earth circular orbit at an altitude of 300 km for seven days. The mission called for building a launch vehicle that could safely take two humans into space, navigation, guidance and control systems, plans to pre-empt disasters, etc. “But we have established our credentials for doing very complex missions,” he said.

Mr. Ramakrishnan, who is also Director (Projects), Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, said the ISRO was building a technology demonstrator of a reusable launch vehicle, called RLV-TD, similar to the U.S. space shuttle. The RLV-TD’s engineering model was ready. A scaled-down model would be flown by the end of 2010.

The Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III was now in the testing phase. Its two boosters, each carrying 200 tonnes of solid propellants, would be tested after some weeks. It is a three-stage vehicle which, in 2011, would put a satellite weighing four tonnes in geo-synchronous transfer orbit and a 10-tonne satellite in low-earth orbit.

Managing Director of Cochin International Airport Limited (CIAL) C.G. Krishnadas Nair made a strong case for establishing universities devoted to aeronautics. The ISRO, CIAL, Airports Authority of India Limited and the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited were trying to establish an international institute for aeronautical engineering and management in Bangalore. Universities should be established for teaching airport design, construction and management. Very little research was done in aerospace in the private sector in the country. The Union government should devise a pro-active policy in aeronautics and set up an empowered commission on aeronautics.

Lars Prahm, Director-General, EUMETSAT, said weather-induced disasters such as floods and landslips were increasing globally. There was a reduction in the snow cover and a rise in the global sea-level. EUMETSAT, a European organisation with six operating satellites, wanted to forge global partnership, including with the ISRO, in meteorology, oceanography, monitoring of climate and atmospheric composition.

Director of CNES (French Space Agency) Marc Pircher said the Megha-Tropiques satellite, with payloads from India and France, would be put in orbit from India this year. It would study the tropical atmosphere near the equatorial belt and cyclone formation.

Daring to dream

The former Chairman of ISRO, U.R. Rao, wanted a new green revolution for better productivity of food grains. This required factors such as better management of agriculture, higher investment in energy sector and more access to marketing for farmers. The country’s food grain productivity of 3.5 tonnes per acre was lower than the world average. The nation’s challenges lay in ensuring food security, energy security, environmental security, space security and so on.

Professor Rao said colonisation of Mars by humans was possible in thousand years. “It is no more fiction. It is within the realm of possibility. The last 50 years of space has been dramatic. The next 50 years will be spectacular for those who dare to dream.”
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-20 15:11 | 显示全部楼层

看来这个DD今年还试飞不了

Moon and beyond - India's space programme in take-off mode


Mon, 08 Mar 2010 05:02:31 GMT

New Delhi - As the United States winds down its space shuttle programme, emerging economy India is developing its own reusable launch vehicle that it hopes will make it a space power. The Avatar, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV), would be capable of delivering a 500 to 1000-kilogramme payload into orbit at a fairly low cost.

The Aerobic Vehicle for Hypersonic Aerospace Transportation (Avatar) is just one example of how far India's space programme has travelled since it first launched a sounding rocket in 1963 from a fishing village Thumba in southern Kerala.

India's space scientists have, over four decades, slowly but steadily developed a mature capability despite small budgets and an embargo on high technology transfers because of its nuclear tests.

"With a miniscule budget, we have developed cutting edge technology," said Madhavan Nair, former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

Today, India's Department of Space encompasses the ISRO, more than a dozen research and development units, and the Antrix Corporation, a state-owned company that markets space products and services. More than 500 small and medium industries contribute to the programmes.

And after years of focusing on applications like telecommunications and remote sensing aimed at economic and social development, India, is now looking at space exploration.

In 2008, India heralded a new operational phase of its space programme with the Chandrayaan-1 moon mission. The mission cost an estimated 83 million dollars, about a third of China's Chang'e-1 and a sixth of Japan's Kaguya moon missions.

Chandrayaan-1 had to be aborted in August 2009, several months before schedule due to communication failure, but ISRO claimed it had achieved 95 per cent of its objectives.

Discovery of water and ice on the moon by NASA instruments on board the Chandrayaan have added to the sense of success of the mission.
But Chandrayaan looks to be just the beginning as India has an impressive string of missions in the pipeline. These include:

- A second moon mission Chandrayaan-II in the first quarter of 2013.

- A manned spaceflight in 2016 in which two astronauts will go on a week-long journey in low-Earth orbit. ISRO estimates the project would cost about 124 billion rupees (2.7 billion dollars). The funding has been approved on principle by the government, but only a small part of it released so far.

- Aditya-1, a satellite to skirt the outer solar atmosphere to gather data on the sun in about 2016-17.

- A planned Mars mission in 2030.

One of the main factors holding back India's space programme has been the paucity of funds. A 50-billion-rupee (a little over 1- billion-dollar) allocation in the budget for the 2010-11 fiscal year was the highest ever, according to current ISRO chairman K Radhakrishnan. The amount was a 58 per cent hike from the previous budget, but amounted to just 3 per cent of funding earmarked by the US for its space programme in 2010.

Critics also continue to ask, can a developing country like India, where millions are mired in poverty and disease, afford to spend even this on futuristic space missions?

India's space policy-makers maintain its programmes are not part of a space race with countries like China or Japan, but an extension of its core aim of aiding development.

Currently, India has one of the world's largest constellations of remote sensing and communication satellites. These are used for broadcasting, weather forecasting and geo-mapping applications for mineral prospecting, managing water, ocean and forest resources and disaster management.

India's satellite launch vehicles - the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geo-Synchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV) - have good records and earned 1 billion rupees (about 22 million dollars) from launching satellites for other countries over the past three years.

Successful development of the Avatar, a scramjet-powered hyperplane that would take off like a commercial jet, would give India an edge in a competitive market where no country barring the US has yet launched a reusable satellite launch vehicle.

ISRO scientists are cagey about giving details, but from the organization's website and presentations at science fora, it appears the Avatar RLV would be a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle with wings and a tail fin.

Unlike NASA's space shuttle, it would not enter orbit, but launch a satellite into orbit and immediately re-enter the earth's atmosphere to glide back for a conventional landing.

A winged RLV technology demonstrator (RLV-TD) has been configured which would act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies like hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion.

ISRO director in charge of publicity S Satish said no major milestones had yet been achieved in the RLV's development, but a hypersonic flight experiment on a technology demonstrator was likely in 2011
.

India's consistent economic growth for several years running and the desire to be seen as a world power have played a crucial role in making Indian politicians more open to pressure from the scientific community to embark on ambitious programmes like the RLV and space exploration missions.

There is a strategic angle too, but scientists the world over have played to the government on defence matters to be able to secure funding for research and development.

India, however, wants to project future space missions as a part of its original human development goal.

Abdul Kalam, the flamboyant scientist who became India's president for two terms, has often outlined his vision where space should be seen as a possible source for water, rare materials and energy.

With more than 1 billion population and growing, India cannot afford to lag behind.
火箭兵 发表于 2010-3-21 10:03 | 显示全部楼层
大家别怕,我们的神龙都飞了好多次了,阿三预研都落后我们好多年!
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-29 13:46 | 显示全部楼层

印度正在开发可重复使用载具技术验证机RLV-TD

India developing winged reusable rocket: ISRO


First Published : 28 Mar 2010 01:08:23 PM IST

BANGALORE: India is developing a winged reusable rocket and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has configured a Technology Demonstrator as a first step towards realising it, the space agency said in a report.

India's space scientists have already configured a winged Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD). This is a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) fully re-reusable launch vehicle, according to Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

The agency said in its latest annual report that a series of technology demonstration missions have been conceived.

"The RLV-TD will act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies like hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion. First in the series of demonstration trials is the hypersonic flight experiment (HEX)," it said.

Meanwhile, for the Chandrayaan-2 mission, expected by 2012-13, ISRO has received 36 Indian payload proposals for orbiter and lander/rover.

The Scientific Advisory Board of Chandrayaan-2, a follow-on mission to Chandrayaan-1, is currently in the process of reviewing the payloads proposed for orbiter.

ISRO sources said the space agency has also received foreign proposals evincing interest to send their instruments for hosting by the Chandrayaan-2 which would be jointly developed with Russia.

It would have an Indian orbiter and mini-rover, and Russian lander and rover.

According to ISRO, the Megha-Tropiques satellite, an Indo-French joint mission for the study of the tropical atmosphere and climate related aspects, is expected to be launched later this year.

It is set to join a string of global spacecraft designated to study climate change.

"Considering the strong global demand for data from Megha-Tropiques, ISRO, CNES (French space agency) and NASA have agreed to integrate this satellite into Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites," ISRO said.

"With this, Megha-Tropiques will be one of the eight satellites contributing to the global scientific community to study and understand the dynamics of climate system," it said.

Data from the recently-launched Oceansat-2, which carried an atmospheric sounder 'ROSA' from Italy apart from main payloads - ocean colour monitor and scatterometer -- is highly sought after by international scientific community.

In this respect, a cooperative programme on sharing the data with National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for their operational research is expected to be signed shortly, it said.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-4-4 17:39 | 显示全部楼层

印度为造可重复使用航天器将进行飞行试验

2010年04月02日   新华网

  新华网孟买4月2日电(记者聂云)印度空间研究组织发言人拉达克里希南日前说,为了将来研制可重复使用的航天器,印度计划在今后一年内进行距地高度不超过60公里的飞行试验。

  拉达克里希南说,试验中使用的飞行器如同一架飞机,由火箭推动。在首次试飞中,这种飞行器将飞到距地面60公里的空域,然后靠滑翔返回地面。在试飞期间,科学家们将评估该飞行器在有动力巡航飞行和自动降落方面的技术可靠性。预计,这次试飞将花费3亿卢比(1美元约合46卢比)。目前,印度空间研究组织正加紧完善该飞行器的性能,使其在一年之内能够首次试飞。

  拉达克里希南指出,一旦首次试飞获得成功,科研人员和工程师们将努力使这种飞行器飞得更高更久,以测试其运载能力,为将来开发可重复使用的载人及货运航天器作准备。

  据报道,2008年12月,印度空间研究组织为开发可重复使用的航天器实施了助推火箭地面试验。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-4-16 22:46 | 显示全部楼层
IMG_0873.JPG
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-4-17 00:14 | 显示全部楼层
又是海上降落?
shuchunyong 发表于 2010-4-17 00:40 | 显示全部楼层
印度超强呀,已经在研制航天飞机了。我们要加油呀!!!!!!!
一米迷雾神探 发表于 2012-7-17 15:21 | 显示全部楼层
印度的技术积累够吗?

点评

这个项目就是用来进行技术验证的  发表于 2012-7-17 15:36
turbopump 发表于 2012-7-17 17:17 | 显示全部楼层
目前为止还是不看好这类东西,技术跨度太大。至少是短期内不会有大的突破
hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-5-20 16:09 | 显示全部楼层
          印度计划在2013年下半年首次试验带翼可重复使用运载火箭技术演示验证器(RLV-TD)
            
新闻发布时间:2013-05-20
         
  [据美国航天新闻网站近日报道]  继推迟3年后,印度太空研究组织(ISRO)准备在2013年晚些时候进行首次带翼可重复使用运载火箭技术验证器(RLV-TD)。

  根据ISRO最新的2012~2013年年度报告,评审委员会已明确,批准在2013年9月进行RLV-TD高超声速飞行任务。该试验原计划在2010年进行。
     
  报告称,作为发展完全可重复使用的二级入轨火箭的初步举措,ISRO预计进行一系列技术验证器的飞行试验。目前,演示器作为一个飞行试验平台已安置完毕,具有自主着陆、带动力巡航飞行和利用吸气式推进系统进行高超声速飞行的能力。

  带有侧翼和尾翼的RLV-TD将安置在固体火箭助推器的顶端发射升空。试验开始时,RLV-TD将进行无动力飞行,最后由吸气式超燃冲压发动机提供动力。RLV-TD和火箭助推器将分别返回地球,RLV-TD可以像飞机一样在跑道上着陆,助推器火箭通过降落伞着陆。   

  该报告称,印度超燃冲压发动机的发展目前处于“先进”水平。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 陈菲 许红英)

点评

三锅没有高超音速风洞做基本的气动试验吧,这种试验模式成本太高了哦。  发表于 2013-5-21 18:04
纸飞机 发表于 2013-5-21 15:48 | 显示全部楼层
印度测超燃冲压发动机实现正推力了吗?
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