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[专题专项] 商业航天公司之SpaceX/政策计划人事财务预算等:USAF完成Falcon 9 Upgrade认证

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cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-13 13:40 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-8-20 11:22
SpaceX有意建造第三个发射场。

http://www.parabolicarc.com/2011/08/19/spacex-looking-in-multiple-st ...

位于德州南部靠近美墨边境的小镇Willacy County有可能成为SpaceX的商业发射场,SpaceX正与当地政府进行谈判。

SpaceX scouting sites for launch

http://www.floridatoday.com/arti ... -launch?odyssey=tab|topnews|text|Space%20News

Speculation about SpaceX’s interest in Texas, where the company already test-fires its Merlin engines, was fueled this summer by local news reports.
Officials in Willacy County, north of Brownsville on the state’s southern Gulf Coast, said they were in negotiations with an unidentified company to establish a commercial launch site.
County Judge John Gonzales, Willacy’s top official, told the Valley Morning Star the company might lease two 50-acre sites, invest up to $50 million and hire up to 200 people to establish a "NASA-style" launch site.

cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-15 21:14 | 显示全部楼层
SpaceX主页更新了发射列表,将政府任务和商业发射分别用红蓝两色标出。
与之前的版本相比,最大的变化是加拿大MDA公司的试验通讯卫星CASSIOPE成为了Vandenberg首射的载荷,而非之前的
Cape Canaveral。Fact sheet上的数据显示CASSIOPE的轨道是300*1500km的极轨,看来是SpaceX纠正了之前的错误。
另外铱星二代确定为8次发射,一箭九星。

http://www.spacex.com/launch_manifest.php


Customer
Vehicle Arrival at Launch Site
Vehicle
Launch Site
NASA COTS – Remaining demos
2011
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
ORBCOMM - Multiple Flights
2011-2014
Multiple
Cape Canaveral
MDA Corp. (Canada)
2012
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 1
2012
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 2
2012
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
Falcon Heavy Demo Flight
2012
Falcon Heavy
Vandenberg
SES (Europe)
2013
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral
Thaicom (Thailand)
2013
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 3
2013
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 4
2013
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NSPO (Taiwan)
2013
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
DragonLab Mission 1
2014
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 5
2014
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 6
2014
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 7
2014
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
Space Systems/Loral
2014
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral*
CONAE (Argentina)
2014
Falcon 9
Vandenberg*
Spacecom (Israel)
2015
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral*
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 8
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 9
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 10
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
Astrium (Europe)
2015
Falcon 1e
Kwajalein
Bigelow Aerospace
2015
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral
DragonLab Mission 2
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
SES (Europe)
2015
Falcon 9
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 11
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
NASA Resupply to ISS – Flight 12
2015
F9/Dragon
Cape Canaveral
CONAE (Argentina)
2015
Falcon 9
Vandenberg*
Iridium – Flight 1
2015
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 2
2015
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 3
2015
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 4
2016
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 5
2016
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 6
2016
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 7
2017
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
Iridium – Flight 8
2017
Falcon 9
Vandenberg
*Or Kwajalein, depending on range availability.
shaolin1254 发表于 2011-11-15 23:46 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-15 21:14
SpaceX主页更新了发射列表,将政府任务和商业发射分别用红蓝两色标出。
与之前的版本相比,最大的变化是加 ...

FH明年能试射?怎么觉得SpaceX有点大跃进的意思啊。F1,发射5次只有最后2次成功。然后就全力搞F9,F9试射2次刚起步,又有点向FH转向的意思了。

点评

明年是运抵发射场,搞不好是年底,发射怎么也得2013。  发表于 2011-11-16 09:02
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-17 12:55 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-11-17 12:57 编辑

air&space magazine文章,介绍Elon Musk和SpaceX,提到了一些之前未见过的技术细节,看得出作者做了不少功课。

1)Falcon 9的GN&C三度冗余,使用Linux系统;
2)Falcon 9在T+0~T+90s单引擎关机或T+90s之后双引擎关机,对飞行无影响;
3)热试车过程中向煤油和液氧输送管线中添加不锈钢螺丝模拟故障,对引擎基本无影响;
4)SpaceX生产80%的部件,文中提到了低温推进剂阀门和飞行电脑,部分源于某些坑爹的承包商(注:仍有1/5是向承包商购买的,比如Merlin 1C的涡轮泵);
5)PICA-X的造价只有PICA制造商要价的1/10;
6)SpaceX的组织模式是硅谷式而非NASA式,一位NASA官员形容SpaceX的讨论会像一群“快闪族”
7)由于Musk坚持要求回收助推级,Merlin引擎按照使用10次以上的标准设计,导致其测试进度也推迟了两年。

PS:最后一条令人困惑,且Falcon 9在每次发射之前都在发射台上进行热试车,作为富燃循环的煤油引擎,Merlin如何避免积碳问题?

1 visionary + 3 launchers + 1,500 employees = ?
Is SpaceX changing the rocket equation?
By Andrew Chaikin

http://www.airspacemag.com/space-exploration/Visionary-Launchers-Employees.html?c=y&page=1#


TSQZSL 发表于 2011-11-17 13:42 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-10-29 20:39
SpaceX公司研制重复使用“猎鹰”-9火箭

新闻发布时间:2011-10-29

会不会搞得像登月舱那样的支架啊!
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-19 10:17 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-8-20 13:58
从文中看SpaceX有意新选场地修建一个发射场,候选地点包括德克萨斯、波多黎各和夏威夷,也可能在佛罗里达另 ...

SpaceX确认其正在为一个商业发射场选址,候选地点包括数个州和海外领地(指波多黎各)

SpaceX searches for new commercial launch site

Hawthorne, CA – Today, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) is seeking a new launch site to meet increasing demand from commercial customers. SpaceX already has an active launch pad at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida and is currently developing a new launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The company also operates a rocket development facility in McGregor, Texas.

“Our growing launch manifest has led us to look for additional sites. We're considering several states and territories,” said SpaceX CEO Elon Musk. “I envision this site functioning like a commercial Cape Canaveral.”

SpaceX is the fastest growing launch services provider in the world, having received 14 new orders for its Falcon 9 rocket within the last year alone. The company has over 3 billion dollars of revenue on the books through 2017, and has sold over 40 missions for the Falcon 9, over half of which are for commercial customers.

Four U.S. states – Virginia, California, Alaska, and Florida – have active launch sites. Given the complexity of developing a rocket launch site, SpaceX will be pursuing several options concurrently in order to fully understand the pros and cons of each location.

http://www.spacex.com/press.php?page=20111118
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-19 10:26 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-11-19 10:29 编辑

SpaceX本周六将在位于德州McGregor的引擎测试场举行午餐会,邀请当地居民参观。Elon Musk和德州参议员Cornyn将出席,参观者将有机会现场观摩火箭发动机测试。
PS:不愧是搞IT出身的,公关手段不一般啊。
The event will run from 11:00 AM to 2:00 PM overlooking the rocket facilities including the 235 foot tripod where SpaceX tests its rocket engines. Up and coming country rock band The Black Matches will provide entertainment. For children, there will be inflatable slides, an obstacle course, and a rocket bounce house.

SpaceX founder and CEO Elon Musk is flying in from California to attend the event and Texas Senator John Cornyn is expected to stop by.

Guests will even have the opportunity to view a test of an actual rocket engine. SpaceX has conducted roughly one test a day at the 630 acre facility since beginning operations there in 2003.

http://www.spacex.com/press.php?page=20111118-2
古风居士 发表于 2011-11-19 11:01 | 显示全部楼层
不知道作为一家私营航天企业,SpaceX的各型火箭发射成功率分别是多少。
航天发射本身是一件高风险、高投入、高技术的产业,当然如果发射成功那么也是高回报的。
所以对于SpaceX公司来说,如何保持较高的发射成功率至关重要。如果经常发射失败它很难盈利。

点评

@ shaolin1254 F1的成功率实在太低。不过一个稳定的发射成功率需要靠大量发射次数的积累才会变得有意义。  发表于 2011-11-19 16:37
F1,5射2成。F9,2射2成。  发表于 2011-11-19 14:51
joki 发表于 2011-11-19 11:57 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 joki 于 2011-11-19 11:59 编辑

不负责任猜测下,新发射场首选德克萨斯州。运输比去佛罗里达便利,且一级飞行段在墨西哥湾上空,落点也比较安全。将来考虑复用的话,可以选择就近落在墨西哥的梅里达或坎昆,毕竟F9一级采用降落伞+垂直陆地降落,滑翔机动能力有限,飞回是不太可能的。第二选择是佛罗里达,可以考虑落在沿线的小岛上,而夏威夷或波多黎各就没这样便利的条件了。
暗夜流星 发表于 2011-11-20 00:05 | 显示全部楼层
4)SpaceX生产80%的部件,文中提到了低温推进剂阀门和飞行电脑,部分源于某些坑爹的承包商(注:仍有1/5是向承包商购买的,比如Merlin 1C的涡轮泵);


那篇文章我读了一下,感觉有些迷惑。SpaceX 自己生产 80% 的部件,并因此大大降低了成本,这是违反常理的。一般来说,现代社会通过专业分工和批量化生产来达到在提升质量的同时降低成本,美国军方多年来一直强调 COTS 也是如此。

现在 SpaceX 告诉我们对着干,自己生产零部件更便宜更好,那这里只有两种可能:(1)SpaceX 在忽悠大伙。 (2)美国的航天业出了大问题,不只是一个 NASA。

点评

社会分工降低成本提升质量肯定没错。私以为,关键是所有企业做产品都要加上自己的利润,渠道、层次越多,“利润”也是层层加码。航天产品批量小,不利于摊销成本。对于终端用户而言,有时候确实不如自己生产。  发表于 2011-11-20 09:58
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-20 13:11 | 显示全部楼层
这一原则还是成立的,比如OSC的Taurus II/Cygnus就全部外包,能买则买,自己只负责系统整合。

其实现在的SpaceX很像当年收购了洛克达因的波音公司,除了RL-10以外,Delta IV可以说是波音一家公司的产品。只是目前的火箭制造商只生产箭体结构和燃料箱,没有自己制造引擎的,所以SpaceX显得很另类。Merlin引擎的用量比较大,如果一年发射10枚F9就需要100台,超过了PWR和Aerojet两家公司的总产能,SpaceX自己搞条生产线也便于质量控制。而像标准尺寸的Al-Li 2195合金板之类的原材料以及转发器和对接用的LiDAR之类的电子产品都是购买货架产品或外包给其他承包商。这些东西专业跨度比较大,SpaceX即使自己想搞也搞不了。

不过有几样是例外的,比如GN&C的软件是SpaceX自己编程,Dragon飞船上用的太阳能板和锂电池据说也是SpaceX自己搞的,考虑到Musk是IT出身,同时又掌管着一家电动汽车公司和一家太阳能公司,这些东西如果自己搞倒也不奇怪。

至于文中提到的PICA-X,我想可能是SpaceX改变了其中的一种或几种成分,同时使用了一种新工艺生产防热大底,这才使得用PICA-X比PICA更加便宜。因为NASA之所以选择Apollo时期的Avcoat而非PICA作为Orion的防热大底材料,一个重要原因就是PICA难以加工成大尺寸。
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-20 13:49 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-19 10:26
SpaceX本周六将在位于德州McGregor的引擎测试场举行午餐会,邀请当地居民参观。Elon Musk和德州参议员Corny ...

BBQ上的助兴节目:60s Merlin引擎测试
McGregor的居民终于可以亲眼看看是个怎样的喷火怪物让他们八年来不得清净https://twitter.com/#!/mayemusk/status/137992708764614656:






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cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-20 14:35 | 显示全部楼层
Twitter @jeff_foust:
http://twitter.com/#!/jeff_foust/status/137932372875280384

Larry Williams, SpaceX: we expect to fly 4 times in 2012 and 12 times in 2013.


True or not,we will see.

点评

SpaceX式航天大跃进,拭目以待吧  发表于 2011-11-20 15:05
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-21 11:08 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2011-11-21 11:08 编辑

McGregor测试场扩招,目前有超过130名员工,未来几年内预计每年增加约30-50%
While the exact details have not been released, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk says personnel is expected to increase by 30 to 50 percent annually for years to come.
http://www.kcentv.com/story/1608 ... projected-expansion

PS:这才是德州参议员到场的原因

jeff 发表于 2011-11-22 14:34 | 显示全部楼层


11月30日能发射成功吗?
jeff 发表于 2011-11-24 14:30 | 显示全部楼层

离2011年结束还有不到40天,谁有SpaceX 2011年的发射时间表吗?
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-24 14:43 | 显示全部楼层
jeff 发表于 2011-11-24 14:30
离2011年结束还有不到40天,谁有SpaceX 2011年的发射时间表吗?

SpaceX下次发射已推迟至2012年,看下面这个帖子
http://www.9ifly.cn/thread-5756-1-3.html



jeff 发表于 2011-11-24 17:48 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2011-11-24 14:43
SpaceX下次发射已推迟至2012年,看下面这个帖子
http://www.9ifly.cn/thread-5756-1-3.html


原来是这样,2011 零发射了....
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-1-12 12:53 | 显示全部楼层
今年开始测试重复使用的Falcon 9
SpaceX to begin testing on Reusable Falcon 9 technology this year
January 11th, 2012 by Chris Bergin  
   
http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2 ... chnology-this-year/

野心语录1:火箭是为了生存,不只是为了发射。
                A Rocket Is For Life, Not Just For Launch:


cmj9808 发表于 2012-1-12 15:41 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-1-12 12:53
今年开始测试重复使用的Falcon 9
SpaceX to begin testing on Reusable Falcon 9 technology this year
J ...

Merlin 1D的改进很多是为了简化设计和生产流程,和之前各种渠道流出的消息吻合

“Increased reliability: Simplified design by eliminating components and sub-assemblies. Increased fatigue life. Increased chamber and nozzle thermal margins,” noted SpaceX in listing the improvements in work.

“Improved Performance: Thrust increased from 95,000 lbf (sea level) to 140,000 lbf (sea level). Added throttle capability for range from 70-100 percent. Currently, it is necessary to shut off two engines during ascent. The Merlin 1D will make it possible to throttle all engines. Structure was removed from the engine to make it lighter.

“Improved Manufacturability: Simplified design to use lower cost manufacturing techniques. Reduced touch labor and parts count. Increased in-house production at SpaceX.”



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