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[美国发射] 2016年9月9日07:05,小行星取样返回任务OSIRIS-REx/NF-3由Atlas V-411自卡角发射

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Flying_Pencil 发表于 2016-7-1 20:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 Flying_Pencil 于 2016-7-1 20:03 编辑

Carl Hergenrother fingers a stack of white, 8½- by 11-inch paper that sits before him on his desk. As he flips through the inch-thick dossier, lines of type are clearly visible.

"This is everything we know about Bennu," says Hergenrother, glancing down at the pile of paper.

Hergenrother is a staff scientist at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. Bennu is an asteroid and a small but distinct resident of our solar system — so distinct that it was chosen as the destination for the OSIRIS-REx mission.

The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is set to launch in September and in 2020 pick up a sample of the asteroid's regolith, the loose soil and rocky material found on its surface. The sample then will be returned to Earth for analysis.

Scientists discovered Bennu on Sept. 11, 1999, by using electro-optical telescopes operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research, or LINEAR, program. The asteroid originally was known as 1999 RQ36.

Hergenrother played a key role in choosing Bennu for the OSIRIS-REx mission. The first time he laid eyes on the asteroid, it was 2005, and 1999 RQ36 was cruising close to the Earth as it does every six years. Through the Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow, Bennu appeared as no more than a dot of light, "like a star that moves," Hergenrother says.

After all, an asteroid is simply a "rock in space," he says.

Not Your Average Space Rock

But in many ways, Bennu is a special rock.

It was 2004 when the late Michael Drake, director of the Lunar and Planetary Lab, proposed securing a sample of a near-Earth asteroid. But back then, no one knew much about Bennu. In fact, researchers were considering an assortment of other asteroids, specifically ones rich in carbon.

"We want to go to a particular type of asteroid, a carbonaceous asteroid," Hergenrother says. Researchers also want that asteroid to be rich in volatiles — substances that boil off easily, like water.

"The thinking is that these are the kinds of objects that in the early days of the solar system seeded the Earth with the organics that life formed from, as well as the water needed," says Hergenrother, cautioning that there is still some debate about the matter.

"But we hope that Bennu is what we would call a time capsule, that it hasn't changed much over the history of the solar system and will show what materials looked like in the very early days of solar system."

Hergenrother became Bennu's champion after years of data collection and analysis — and a good deal of deductive reasoning. He served as coordinator for the mission, but much of the observation and deduction fell to other mission scientists.

"We're now approaching a million known asteroids," Hergenrother says. "That wasn't the case when we started doing this 12 years ago. But we were still talking hundreds of thousands of asteroids at that time."

However, the researchers didn't have to analyze nearly so many. Most of them could be quickly eliminated by their stark faults, such as residing too far from Earth. Closer asteroids allow for the completion of a mission within a reasonable amount of time. That criterion alone left only a couple thousand asteroids that remained viable candidates for exploration, Hergenrother says.

And of those, many have orbits that are less than stellar.

"They're too far from the sun or too close to the sun," Hergenrother says. "Or they're at a sharp angle to the Earth, which would take a more powerful rocket to get into that kind of orbit."

Looking for 'Favorable Orbits'

Which, in turn, left only a few hundred objects that have favorable orbits — that is, ones residing near the Earth and remaining a favorable distance from the sun. However, most of those objects are too tiny.

"Some are as small as a desk," Hergenrother says. "The ones smaller than about 200 meters have a habit of rotating very fast. The fastest ones we know about rotate about every 16 seconds."

That's too fast to accommodate a spacecraft looking for a sample of regolith.

But Bennu rotates only once every 4.3 hours, slow enough to sample its regolith.

"So, once you eliminate the small guys, you look at the bigger ones that have very Earth-like orbits," Hergenrother says. "Now you're talking only dozens of candidates, and we wanted to go to one that's carbonaceous.”

Which Bennu seems to be. Its carbonaceous nature sent it to the top of the list of asteroids, says Hergenrother, who emailed Drake and Dante Lauretta, saying, "Guys, this is carbonaceous. It's looking good. And there's radar data."

Lauretta, professor of planetary science and cosmochemistry at the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, is Drake's successor as the principal investigator for the OSIRIS-REx mission.

The data showed Bennu having a polar diameter of 508 meters, a mean diameter of 492 meters and an orbital velocity of more than 28 km per second. It also showed that the asteroid has a spinning-top shape; that is, it sports a bulge along its equator, a common feature among near-Earth asteroids.

"What we think this means is that this is a rubble-pile object," Lauretta says, meaning that Bennu probably is made out of many boulders tens to hundreds of meters across.

The boulders "are loose, and they’re responding to the forces of the asteroid spinning, and material is migrating from the pole of the asteroid and accumulating at the equator and building up a ridge," Lauretta says.

Life Expectancy: 10 Million More Years

For better or worse, Bennu has an unstable orbit. That means it probably won’t last more than 10 million years before it collides with Earth or another planet, or falls into the sun, according to Lauretta.

This is a concern to scientists. In fact, Bennu is considered a potentially hazardous object and has a relatively high possibility of impacting the Earth. So scientists are interested in understanding how asteroids' orbits evolve.

Key to that evolution is something known as the Yarkovsky effect.

"Which is simply that an asteroid receives energy from the sun, turns that energy into heat, and as it rotates into the afternoon throws that energy back into space as thermal energy, and that acts like a thruster and changes the orbit of the asteroid slowly but surely over time," Lauretta says. "If you want to know where an asteroid is going to be in the future, particularly in our future, then you want to know about the Yarkovsky effect."

Looking back on his quest to help select an asteroid suitable for sampling, Hergenrother says he sometimes thinks about what if there were no Bennu.

"There are only three carbonaceous objects that are easy to get to," he says. "They all seem to be the same shape. They all seem to be relatively safe targets. They're scientifically interesting, and they're easy to get to. But that's only three out of nearly a million."

https://uanews.arizona.edu/story ... id-became-rock-star
Flying_Pencil 发表于 2016-7-27 20:46 | 显示全部楼层
整流罩抵达KSC
CoXtZu9XYAA_DSe.jpg
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-7-27 20:59 | 显示全部楼层
按计划这次任务在9月4日发射, 而 SpX 的 Amos-6任务也预备在这3~4日发射,  估计其中之一必须调一下日期.
Flying_Pencil 发表于 2016-7-27 21:07 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-7-27 20:59
按计划这次任务在9月4日发射, 而 SpX 的 Amos-6任务也预备在这3~4日发射,  估计其中之一必须调一下日期.

时间改更新了吧,本任务应该是9月8号
Flying_Pencil 发表于 2016-7-27 21:10 | 显示全部楼层
wsl20005 发表于 2016-8-5 14:40 | 显示全部楼层
If all goes according to plan, the $800 million OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Sept. 8.
The spacecraft will spend two years chasing Bennu down, finally rendezvousing with the near-Earth asteroid in August 2018. OSIRIS-REx will then study the space rock from orbit for another two years before grabbing at least 2.1 ounces of surface material in July 2020.
In 2023, this relatively hefty sample should make it back to Earth, where researchers in laboratories around the globe will analyze the material in a number of ways.
The mission team is chiefly interested in learning the role that asteroids like Bennu — dark, primitive and apparently carbon-rich objects — may have played in helping life get a foothold on Earth, Lauretta said.
"Did these kinds of bodies deliver organic material and water, in the form of hydrated minerals like clays, to the surface of our planet that created the habitability and the environments that may have led to the origin of life?" Lauretta said.
"That's the prime mission," to investigate that question, he added.
There are secondary objectives as well, including learning more about the valuable resources that Bennu-like asteroids may harbor, Lauretta said. And then there's the planetary-defense angle, which has gotten a lot of attention in the last few days.
gnss 发表于 2016-8-20 03:23 | 显示全部楼层
发射任务概览存档于此

av_osirisrex_mob.pdf

2.16 MB, 下载次数: 8, 下载积分: 飞币 -1 飞币

topzdx 发表于 2016-8-20 13:45 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2011-5-29 17:29
更详细的解说:
--------------------------------------
美国宇航局将发射小行星取样返回探测器(图

“一旦发射升空,OSIRIS-Rex探测器将在经过4年连续飞行之后,于2020年接近近地小行星1999 RQ36。”

四楼的这段文字,把飞行时间搞错了,本贴的其它楼层(包括英文资料)都说是两年飞行,下面是两年绕飞study,然后采样并飞回

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参与人数 1火箭 +1 收起 理由
hkhtg090201 + 1 关键的发现, 不在于文字的多少.

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wsl20005 发表于 2016-8-23 18:20 | 显示全部楼层
636072934937095566-OSIRIS-REx-inside-the-PHSF-1.jpg

636072935574515652-OSIRIS-REx-inside-the-PHSF-2.jpg
wsl20005 发表于 2016-8-23 18:29 | 显示全部楼层
NASA小行星采样任务OSIRIS-REx 准备发射
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-8-24 08:57 | 显示全部楼层
五大设备助力勘测小行星"贝努":将认识可能撞击地球的星体
2016年08月22日 新浪科技 微博
http://tech.sina.com.cn/d/s/2016-08-22/doc-ifxvcsrn8875390.shtml

文章来源:科技日报

  科技日报北京8月21日电 (记者刘霞)据美国国家航空航天局(NASA)官网消息,NASA将于美国东部时间9月8日下午7:05从佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角空军基地发射“源光谱释义资源安全风化层辨认探测器(OSIRIS-REx)”。作为美国首个小行星采样返回任务,OSIRIS-REx旨在探测一颗名为“贝努”(Bennu)的小行星,研究地球如何形成,生命如何开始,让人们更深入地认识那些可能撞击地球的小行星。


  OSIRIS-REx首席调查员、亚利桑那州立大学图森分校(UAT)的但丁·劳雷塔介绍,OSIRIS-Rex搭载了5台设备来探测“贝努”。由UAT承制的3台照相机组成的相机组主要用于观测“贝努”,并拍摄相关图像,帮助探测器选择合适的采样地点并见证采样事件;激光测高计用于测量航天器和“贝努”表面之间的距离并帮助绘制小行星的形状;热辐射光谱仪研究矿物质丰度并观测红外热光谱提供温度信息;可见光和红外光谱仪主要用于测量“贝努”发出的可见光和红外光,确定其矿物质和有机物组成;风化层X射线成像光谱仪将观测X射线光谱,以确定“贝努”表面化学成分及丰度。

  除了这5台探测设备,还有洛克希德·马丁太空系统公司提供的触摸和采样获得机制(TAGSAM)及样品返回舱,前者用于收集“贝努”表面样本,后者拥有一台隔热设备和一个降落伞,以便将样品送回地球。

  按计划,重约2110公斤、完全由燃料驱动的OSIRIS-REx将搭载“阿特拉斯5(Atlas V)”火箭升空,于2018年抵达“贝努”,随后进入距离小行星表面约4.8公里的轨道进行为期6个月的勘测,之后利用机器手臂采集2—70盎司(约60到2000克)的地表样本,并于2023年将样本送回地球

  NASA科学任务董事会执行副主席杰夫·约德说:“这一任务将有助于我们理解宇宙以及我们在其中的位置。”
marsceo 发表于 2016-8-25 13:01 | 显示全部楼层
是不是当初NASA签名的那颗星啊,签名带上小行星的那颗,都快忘了!
cmj9808 发表于 2016-8-25 19:56 | 显示全部楼层
本次任务使用的Atlas V今天进行WDR。
PS:由于操作流程已足够成熟,Atlas V现在已经取消了WDR流程,这次是为NASA破的例

https://twitter.com/DSLauretta/status/768472539521773568
chenyiqun000 发表于 2016-8-26 02:25 | 显示全部楼层
长征火箭有没有只带一个助推器的版本?或规划?或试验?或论证?
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-8-31 07:37 | 显示全部楼层
                                发射前几天的日程安排
NASA Sets Schedule for OSIRIS-REx Briefings, Launch Coverage                                                                        Posted  byDoug Messier   on August 30, 2016,
  

                                                                                       
This is an artist’s concept of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft preparing to take a sample from asteroid Bennu. (Credit: NASA/Goddard/Chris Meaney)




KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. (NASA PR) — NASA is gearing up to launch the United States’ first mission to sample an asteroid, with activities at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida beginning Tuesday, Sept. 6, and culminating with the spacecraft launch Thursday, Sept. 8. Various activities are open to media and will air live on NASA Television and the agency’s website.
The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance (ULA)  Atlas V rocket between 7:05 and 9:05 p.m. EDT Sept. 8 from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, neighboring Kennedy in Florida.
The full schedule of events and NASA TV coverage is as follows:

Tuesday, Sept. 6
10:30 a.m. – Commercial Crew Program media tour
NASA’s Commercial Crew Program will provide media with an update on the progress being made by the agency’s commercial crew partners. Media wishing to participate must arrive at the Kennedy Press Site by 9:45 a.m. to board buses, and will return to the Press Site by 11:50 a.m.
1 p.m. – Prelaunch mission briefing at the Kennedy Press Site
This briefing will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website. Social media followers can ask questions during this event using #askNASA. Briefing participants are:
  • Geoffrey Yoder, acting associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington
  • Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx principal investigator at the University of Arizona, Tucson
  • Tim Dunn, NASA launch manager at Kennedy
  • Scott Messer, program manager for NASA missions at ULA in Centennial, Colorado
  • Michael Donnelly, OSIRIS-REx project manager at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland
  • Rich Kuhns, OSIRIS-REx program manager for Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver
  • Clay Flinn, launch weather officer for the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida
2 p.m. – OSIRIS-REx mission science briefing at the Kennedy Press Site
This briefing will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website. Social media followers can ask questions during this event using #askNASA. Briefing participants are:
  • Christina Richey, OSIRIS-REx deputy program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington
  • Jason Dworkin, OSIRIS-REx project scientist at Goddard
  • Daniella DellaGiustina, OSIRIS-REx lead image processing scientist at the University of Arizona, Tucson
2:45 p.m. – Ka-Band Objects Observation and Monitoring (KaBOOM) tour
Media will have an opportunity to tour the antenna site and talk to Principal Investigator Barry Geldzahler about this high-power, higher-resolution radar system being developed to characterize near-Earth objects, such as asteroids and comets, 100,000 times more accurately than optical telescopes. Buses board for this tour at 2:45 p.m. and return to the Press Site by 4:40 p.m.
Wednesday, Sept. 7
8 a.m. – Atlas V Launch Vehicle Rollout
Media are invited to cover the rollout of the Atlas V rocket from the Vertical Integration Facility to the launch pad. Media should be at Kennedy’s Press Site at 8 a.m. for transportation to the viewing location near Space Launch Complex 41. Media will be returned to the Press Site by 11:30 a.m.
Noon to 1 p.m. — OSIRIS-REx Talk from Kennedy’s Operations Support Building II (OSB II)
NASA will host a discussion with representatives from the mission’s science and engineering teams that includes an overview of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and the science behind the mission. Social media followers can ask questions during this event using #askNASA. This event will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website.
1 to 2 p.m. – Uncovering the Secrets of Asteroids
During this panel at OSB II, NASA scientists will discuss asteroids, how they relate to the origins of our solar system, and the search for life beyond Earth. Social media followers can ask questions during this event using #askNASA. This event will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website. Panelists for this conversation are:
  • Ellen Stofan, NASA chief scientist
  • Michelle Thaller, deputy director of science communications for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate
  • Lindley Johnson, director of the Planetary Defense Coordination Office in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate
  • Alex Young, associate director for science in the Heliophysics Science Division at Goddard
Media who would like to attend this panel must board a bus at the Press Site at 12:15 p.m. to travel to the OSB II. Buses will return at 2:15 p.m.
Also on this day, NASA will air a prelaunch webcast on the agency’s YouTube channel at:
Thursday, Sept. 8
2 p.m. — Dust to Thrust: Mining for Resources in Space
During this event at the Kennedy Press Site, media will learn more about the potential and technology for space mining, and have the opportunity to interview experts in the in-situ resource utilization and atmospheric mining communities. This event will not air on NASA TV or the agency’s website.
4:30 p.m. – Launch Coverage Begins
Live coverage of the OSIRIS-REx mission launch will begin on NASA TV and the agency’s website with the start of cryogenic tanking of the Atlas V rocket, and conclude approximately one hour after launch.
7:05 to 9:05 p.m. – Launch window for the OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft
The launch will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website.
Approximately 2 hours After Launch – Post-Launch News Conference
Representatives from NASA and ULA will discuss the status of the spacecraft and next steps on the asteroid sampling mission. Social media followers can ask questions during this event using #askNASA. This event will air live on NASA TV and the agency’s website.
OSIRIS-REx will be the first U.S. mission to sample an asteroid. OSIRIS-REx will travel to the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, arriving in 2018, to survey the surface, retrieve at least 60 grams (2.1 ounces) of surface material, and return it to Earth in 2023 for study. Analysis of the sample will reveal the earliest stages of the solar system’s evolution and the history of Bennu over the past 4.5 billion years.
Goddard provides overall mission management, systems engineering and the safety and mission assurance for OSIRIS-REx. The University of Arizona leads the science team and observation planning and processing. Lockheed Martin Space Systems built the spacecraft. OSIRIS-REx is the third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers Program.  NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the agency’s New Frontiers Program for its Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Launch management is conducted by the Launch Services Program at Kennedy.
To learn more about the OSIRIS-REx mission, visit:
To watch NASA Television programming online, or for downlink or schedule information, visit:
Follow the launch countdown online at:
Join the conversation online using #osiris-rex and follow the OSIRIS-REx mission on social media at:


wsl20005 发表于 2016-9-3 15:56 | 显示全部楼层
预祝任务成功。
solnechnye-batarei-ustanovleny-na-osiris-rex.jpg osiris-rex-podnyat-na-bort-launchera-atlas-5.jpg
zscn 发表于 2016-9-3 15:59 | 显示全部楼层
发射的工位离F9爆炸工作有多远呢,是否受到影响?
cmj9808 发表于 2016-9-3 16:25 | 显示全部楼层
zscn 发表于 2016-9-3 15:59
发射的工位离F9爆炸工作有多远呢,是否受到影响?

一英里左右,初步评估显示未受影响
http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/0 ... ion-passes-its-frr/
EP-爱因斯坦探针 发表于 2016-9-4 23:59 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
北京时间9月9日7:05~9:00,在这两个小时内,每隔5分钟有一个瞬时发射窗口,80%发射机会,推迟24或48小时有70%机会。总共34天窗口,但是空军只给了3天
http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/09/04/weather-forecast-favorable-for-atlas-5-to-launch-nasa-asteroid-probe-thursday/
poweru235 发表于 2016-9-5 00:21 | 显示全部楼层
zscn 发表于 2016-9-3 15:59
发射的工位离F9爆炸工作有多远呢,是否受到影响?

仅仅是爆燃 没达到爆炸的程度 振波很弱 观察摄像机便可判断
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