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[专题专项] NASA下一代天文观测旗舰项目:广域红外巡天望远镜/WFIRST——寻找暗能量与系外行星

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cmj9808 发表于 2016-1-4 18:59 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2016-1-15 12:19 编辑

NASA即将上马寻找暗能量的WFIRST,基于NRO赞助的2.4m反射镜,该项目将成为继Webb之后的新一代太空望远镜旗舰项目。

关于NRO赞助镜片的相关信息详见:
http://bbs.9ifly.cn/forum.php?mo ... d=200972&fromuid=31

Jeff Foust @jeff_foust
A bit of news from the ExoPAG meeting at #aas227: NASA’s Martin Still says a formal new start for WFIRST now planned for February.

wfirst-afta_0.jpg
黑与白 发表于 2016-1-4 19:32 | 显示全部楼层
这么早就开贴?
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2016-1-4 19:34 | 显示全部楼层

不算早吧,从Jeff的twitter消息看下个月就立项
ceres 发表于 2016-1-4 21:46 | 显示全部楼层
非常期待此镜的日冕仪
wsl2005 发表于 2016-1-5 09:21 | 显示全部楼层
wsl2005 发表于 2016-1-5 09:32 | 显示全部楼层
http://wfirst.gsfc.nasa.gov/about.html
WFIRST, the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope, is a NASA observatory designed to settle essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics. The telescope has a primary mirror that is 2.4 meters in diameter (7.9 feet), and is the same size as the Hubble Space Telescope's primary mirror. WFIRST will have two instruments, the Wide Field Instrument, and the Coronagraph Instrument.
The Wide Field Instrument will have a field of view that is 100 times greater than the Hubble wide field instrument, capturing more of the sky with less observing time. As the primary instrument, the Wide Field Instrument will measure light from 380 million galaxies over the course of the mission lifetime. The Coronagraph Instrument will capture light from ~2,600 exoplanets over the course of the mission.
WFIRST is designed for a 6 year mission, and will launch on a EELV out of Cape Canaveral.
AFTA_Obs.jpg

The wide field imaging capability of WFIRST-AFTA enables large area surveys  at a much faster rate but at the same resolution as HST/WFC3/IR. The HST/WFC3/IR PHAT  Survey required 432 pointings to cover M31 while only 2 WFIRST pointings are required.
M31 PHAT Survey.gif


ceres 发表于 2016-1-5 17:51 | 显示全部楼层
wsl2005 发表于 2016-1-5 09:21
WFIRST与WISE比较有何不同?

2009年美最后一射:12月14日“广角红外测量探测器”(WISE)由Delta II从范登 ...

这级别差距可大了。。
WISE是0.4米镜子远不能和WFIRST2.4米相比
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2016-1-7 12:18 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2016-1-7 12:20 编辑

国会在FY2014拨款5600万,NASA在FY2015申请了1400万,结果国会给了5000万,NASA又在FY2016申请了1400万,结果这次国会给了9000万。。。结果就是立项时间提前至2016年,本来NASA想等JWST发射后再立项。
有钱就是任性啊,国会硬塞钱,NRO送镜子,估计NASA自己都觉得再不立项都不好意思了
http://spacenews.com/nasas-next- ... starts-in-february/
陈鹏旭 发表于 2016-1-7 14:30 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2016-1-7 12:18
国会在FY2014拨款5600万,NASA在FY2015申请了1400万,结果国会给了5000万,NASA又在FY2016申请了1400万,结 ...

有钱啥都好办
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2016-1-15 12:15 | 显示全部楼层
12月完成mission concept review,2月正式启动。任务预算23亿美元,发射时间不早于2024年。
WFIRST的视场与现有的Hubble和JWST的对比 SDT2015-FOV-2.png
http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/0 ... o-get-formal-start/

hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-2-4 22:09 | 显示全部楼层
NASA下一架旗舰级太空望远镜获得正式启动
NASA’s next flagship space telescope to get formal start
Posted on  January 13, 2016 by Stephen Clark
http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/01/13/nasas-next-flagship-space-telescope-to-get-formal-start/
 
    NASA官员预计二月份正式 揭幕   一个数十亿美元天文台的开发,  (其)回收利用了一架停飞的绝密间谍卫星望远镜, 能够研究暗能量,并直接分解出其他恒星周围的行星。
NASA  officials expect to officially kick off development in February of a  multibillion-dollar observatory recycling a grounded top secret spy satellite telescope capable of  studying dark energy and directly resolving planets around other stars.
     WFIRST任务 将在21世纪20年代发射,作为NASA2018年升空的詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜后 的下一个旗舰级天体物理天文台。
The WFIRST mission will launch in the 2020s as NASA’s next  flagship-class astrophysics observatory following the James Webb Space  Telescope set for liftoff in 2018.
     保罗·赫兹,NASA天体物理学分部的领导 ,说,在WFIRST12月份通过一个任务概念评审以后,该任务的制定阶段预计在二月份开始。在美国国会最近的预算中为加快WFIRST(提供)额外资金后,这个(成型)规划里程碑被提前了一年。
Paul  Hertz, head of NASA’s astrophysics division, said the mission’s formulation phase is due to begin  in February after WFIRST passed a mission concept review in December. The formulation milestone is a year ahead of schedule after Congress sped up WFIRST with extra funding  in recent budgets.
      “这份预算(在12月份通过)在本财年  为 WFIRST 布置了 $ 9千万的资金,它也指示我们提前启动这个WFIRST项目” 1月4日赫兹在....说。
“This budget (passed in December) lays out funding for WFIRST of  $90 million in the current fiscal year, and it also directs us to move  forward toward starting the WFIRST project,” Hertz said Jan. 4 in a  presentation to a group of astronomers and astrophysicists charged with  advising NASA strategic science programs.
    这份在今年划拨给WFIRST 项目的  9千万美元款项,远远超过 NASA要求的$ 1千4百万的预算要求。该宇航局曾内部计划在2017年 通过WFIRST成型关口。
The  $90 million appropriated to the WFIRST project this year is much more than  NASA’s $14 million budget request. The space agency had internally planned to  pass WFIRST’s formulation gate in 2017.
      在2014年和2015年议员们还授予额外资金给WFIRST ,并且NASA为该天文台的两个主要仪器花费了这些资金,以激发鼓舞技术开发,一个多用途宽视场成像仪和一个日冕仪,去察看对比与明亮恒星的暗淡行星。  
Lawmakers  also awarded extra funding to WFIRST in 2014 and 2015, and NASA spent the  money to infuse technology  development for the observatory’s two main instruments, a multipurpose wide  field imager and a coronagraph to see dim  planets contrasted  against the bright light of stars.
      “两年前,我们 同时为宽视场检测仪技术和日冕仪技术所需的技术开发  制定了一套里程碑,” 赫兹说。“目前我们已经如期取得了我们的每一项里程碑。这并不意味着我们没有问题,但是这意味着该团队正在努力。”
“Two years ago, we laid out a set of milestones for the  technology development necessary for both the wide field detector  technologies and the coronagraph technologies,” Hertz said. “We have made every one of our  milestones on schedule so  far. That doesn’t mean we’re in the clear, but that means the team is working  hard.”
   图片:这张图像比较了WFIRST 的视场 与哈勃太空望远镜和詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜上仪器的视场。版权归于: NASA / 2015年SDT报告
This  image compares the field of view of WFIRST with the fields of view of  instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope.  Credit: NASA/2015 SDT report
    NASA已经... ...在JWST上的支出高峰年...,开始了该机构的天体物理学预算去逐步加强WFIRST工作,...  ... ...。
NASA  has put the peak spending  years on JWST behind it,  opening up the agency’s astrophysics budget to gradually  ramp up work on WFIRST, the next in a line of marquee telescopes with a lineage tracing from Hubble to  Chandra, Spitzer and JWST.
      WFIRST代表宽视场红外巡天望远镜(的缩写),一项初步费用可达$ 23亿的任务。它旨在给力宇宙膨胀、奇异暗物质分布、以及遥远太阳系的新研究。
WFIRST stands for the Wide-Field Infrared  Survey Telescope, a mission with a preliminary cost projection of up to $2.3  billion. It is designed to enable new research into the expansion of the  universe, the distribution of exotic dark matter, and faraway solar systems.
    对于天文学家们来说,由WFIRST导致的进步如同给予了哈勃太空望远镜周围的视觉。
For  astronomers, the advancements to be introduced by WFIRST are like giving the  Hubble Space Telescope peripheral vision.
    发射日期定于不早于2024,WFIRST是一项基线六年的任务,处于L2拉格朗日点,一个引力稳定位置,距离地球大约1百万英里,从(看)太阳的方向,赫兹说。
With  a launch date scheduled for no earlier than 2024, WFIRST is baselined for a  six-year mission at the L2 Lagrange point, a gravitationally stable location  about a million miles from Earth in the direction away  from the sun, Hertz said.
     WFIRST的望远镜已经被建造(完毕)。美国国家侦察办公室,美国政府的间谍卫星机构,给了NASA 2架多余的望远镜,(其) 最初制造是为飞行于情报界的秘密监视任务上。
WFIRST’s  telescope is already built. The National Reconnaissance Office, the U.S.  government’s spy satellite agency, gave NASA two surplus telescopes originally manufactured to fly on clandestine surveillance missions  for for the intelligence  community.
    该望远镜的主镜直径2.4米(7.9英尺), 与哈勃上的主镜大小相同。准备飞行于WFIRST上的镜子, 其直径接近该天文台最初所设想的望远镜的两倍。
The  telescopes’ primary mirrors are 2.4 meters (7.9 feet) in diameter, the same  size as the primary mirror aboard Hubble. The mirror set to fly on WFIRST is  nearly twice the diameter as the telescope in the observatory’s original  concept.
    这种间谍光学将给WFIRST更好的视力,但望远镜的大尺寸意味着它需要更大的航天器和火箭,增加了该天文台的成本。但是,如果NASA从无到有开发一架2.4米望远镜,它的成本甚至更多,根据该机构官员说。
The  spy optics will give WFIRST much better vision, but the telescope’s bigger  size means it needs a larger spacecraft and rocket, adding to the  observatory’s cost. But it would cost even more if NASA developed the  2.4-meter telescope from scratch, according to agency officials.
    在WFIRST上一台宽视场仪器,拍摄照片的清晰度将媲美哈勃望远镜提供的图像,但是却有100倍的视野。  WFIRST会看到近红外波段的宇宙,与哈勃和JWST所观察到的光谱区段重叠  ,它们狭窄的视觉比WFIRST更加敏锐(眼尖)。
A  wide field instrument on WFIRST will take pictures with sharpness comparable to imagery from Hubble, but with 100 times the  field of view. WFIRST will see the cosmos in near-infrared wavelengths, overlapping with a segment of of  the spectrum observed by Hubble and JWST, which is even more sharp-eyed in narrow vision than WFIRST.
   但是WFIRST可以探测天空更广阔片处 以在更大的规模上研究宇宙。
But  WFIRST can survey a wider swath  of the sky to study the universe at a larger scale.
     在国家研究委员会2010年发布的十年调查中,WFIRST位于NASA天体物理学计划的顶端建议中。 该机构的政策遵循 来自这个科学团体封装在十年调查报告中的提示信号。  
WFIRST  was the top recommendation  for NASA’s astrophysics program in a National Research Council decadal survey  released in 2010. The agency’s policy is to follow  cues from the science community encapsulated in the decadal survey  reports.
     该天文台也将携带一个恒星日冕仪,这是飞行于太空的第一台这样的设备,去遮住恒星耀眼的光芒直接成像潜伏在附近行星。直接成像将允许天文学家开始测量系外行星的结构和组成,是确定该尘世间是否可以居住的一个关键步骤。
The  observatory will also carry a stellar coronagraph, the first such device ever flown in space, to blot out the bright light of stars  to directly image planets lurking nearby. Direct imaging will allow astronomers to begin  measuring the structure and composition of exoplanets, a key step in  determining whether the worlds are habitable.
      NASA开普勒太空望远镜,是到目前一架最多产的行星猎人(望远镜),无法检测到(某种类型)的系外行星,除非他们横在自己的母星前面,暂时变淡其星光。
NASA’s  Kepler space telescope, the most prolific planet-hunter to date, is unable to detect exoplanets unless  they cross in front of their parent star and temporarily dim the starlight.
       WFIRST可以发现20000颗系外行星本(影),根据一份任务科学定义团队2015年3月的报告说。至今,开普勒数据已经贡献出围绕在其它恒星约1000个世界的发现。
WFIRST  could discover about 20,000 exoplanets itself, according to a March 2015  report by the mission’s science definition team. So far, Kepler data have contributed to the discovery of  about 1,000 worlds around other stars.

StdNormDist 发表于 2016-2-4 23:02 | 显示全部楼层
WFIRST, the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope
建议念成wai(拼音)-first,简称可以改成WiFIRST,便于直接念出来
feynfan 发表于 2016-2-19 01:19 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 feynfan 于 2016-2-19 01:22 编辑

NASA的报导:发射时间在2020年代中期。官方页面也已经开放啦
农民宇航员 发表于 2016-2-19 08:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 农民宇航员 于 2016-2-19 08:50 编辑

无标题.png

功能和SPICA类似?不过SPICA要晚几年
PS:刚才查了下,美国的是近红外波段,SPICA为中,远红外波段,不一样。
wsl2005 发表于 2016-2-19 09:10 | 显示全部楼层
NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), illustrated here, will carry a Wide Field Instrument to capture Hubble-quality images covering large swaths of sky, enabling cosmic evolution studies. Its Coronagraph Instrument will directly image exoplanets and study their atmospheres.
wfirst_space.jpg

http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-introduces-new-wider-set-of-eyes-on-the-universe
林晓弈 发表于 2016-2-19 12:25 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 林晓弈 于 2016-2-19 12:28 编辑

NASA GETS SERIOUS ABOUT ITS NEXT BIG TELESCOPE

WITH A VIEW 100 TIMES LARGER THAN HUBBLE'S, THE WFIRST SCOPE COULD DISCOVER THOUSANDS OF EXOPLANETS AND MILLIONS OF GALAXIES


wfirst.jpg
Artist's concept of WFIRST

With the James Webb Space Telescope finally looking like it might meet its 2018 launch deadline, NASA is already looking ahead to the next great telescope.


The space agency is moving forward on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). Slated to launch in the mid-2020s, WFIRST is designed to measure the effects of dark energy, while potentially discovering millions of galaxies and providing a glimpse into the atmospheres of alien worlds.

WFIRST recently passed a key design review, allowing the scientists on the team to move forward with their mission planning. Although it's not an official mission yet, WFIRST has moved from being “a mission under study” to “a mission NASA is pursuing/intends to execute,” said a NASA spokesperson in an email to Popular Science. A 2016 spending bill provided $90 million toward developing WFIRST.


WFIRST would be made in part from a leftover spy satellite. It's about the size of Hubble, allowing it to capture the same awe-inspiring depth and quality of images, but WFIRST's mirror design allows it to capture 100 times more of the sky in a single snapshot. Not bad, for a second-hand satellite.

The scope also includes a coronagraph, which uses a disk to block out the glaring light of a star in the telescope's viewfinder, making it easier to spot smaller and dimmer planets that might be orbiting the star. The coronagraph will also make it possible to look for signs of life in the atmospheres of distant planets.


Although WFIRST will surely provide an amazing new view of the universe, it won't see as deep into space or as far back in time as the James Webb Space Telescope. And there's at least one other proposed telescope, the High-Definition Space Telescope, whose inventors also hope it could become "the next Hubble." We shall see.




DF21 发表于 2016-2-19 19:34 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 DF21 于 2016-2-19 19:36 编辑

它想怎么探测暗能量?
 楼主| cmj9808 发表于 2016-2-19 19:49 | 显示全部楼层
DF21 发表于 2016-2-19 19:34
它想怎么探测暗能量?

通过持续观测大量星系和超新星的分布变化来反推暗能量的time-course演化,同时验证广义相对论在宇宙尺度上是否成立。
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-2-20 09:59 | 显示全部楼层
2月份的正式立项仪式什么时候举行?
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-2-20 10:13 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-2-20 09:59
2月份的正式立项仪式什么时候举行?

看来昨天的就是了:
http://spacefellowship.com/news/ ... n-the-universe.html

After years of preparatory studies, NASA is formally starting an astrophysics mission designed to help unlock the secrets of the universe — the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST).
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