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[战略战术导弹] 俄导弹预警雷达系统研发和建设专题

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 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 00:43 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 00:45 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 JSTCVW09CD 于 2012-2-14 00:47 编辑

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 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 00:45 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 JSTCVW09CD 于 2012-2-14 00:47 编辑

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lxf11711 发表于 2012-2-14 20:46 | 显示全部楼层
俄国防部投入空天防御的资金将达武器计划的20%
俄新网RUSNEWS.CN萨兰斯克(莫尔多瓦)2月14日电 俄罗斯国防部第一副部长亚历山大·苏霍鲁科夫14日表示,俄罗斯国防部将把2020年前国家武器计划不超过20%的资金用于发展空天防御部队。

他在萨兰斯克对记者说:“空天防御部队已经成立,这是个新的军种,为发展这个部队准备了大量资金。发展这个部队的资金约占整个2020年前国家武装计划的15-20%。”

他还在萨兰斯克电视机厂主持了会议。该工厂是为空天防御系统生产雷达信息工具的综合体。该工厂还生产“沃罗涅日”高度工厂预制化雷达站。苏霍鲁科夫说,工厂已经获得这种雷达站未来数年的订单。他说:“我们的合同期限很长,在2017-2018年到期,这是为我们及时提供所有导弹袭击预警雷达站设备的保障。”

http://rusnews.cn/eguoxinwen/eluosi_anquan/20120214/43330281.html
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 23:46 | 显示全部楼层
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雷达的各个基本单元在工厂的制造图
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已建成的雷达天线上密密麻麻的基本单元
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 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 23:52 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 JSTCVW09CD 于 2012-2-14 23:56 编辑

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沃列涅茨-M雷达天线的基本构成实图简析

注: 不得不说, 这个真是极致简约的典范。


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lxf11711 发表于 2012-2-15 07:16 | 显示全部楼层
JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-14 23:52
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沃列涅茨-M雷达天线的基本构成实图简析

就这样简单的天线结构居然能探测6000KM范围内500个目标,并且精度保持在5cm??
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-15 09:02 | 显示全部楼层
lxf11711 发表于 2012-2-15 07:16
就这样简单的天线结构居然能探测6000KM范围内500个目标,并且精度保持在5cm??

精度不知道。  

这个天线可不简单。

点评

这个M型是米波吧,DM是分米波,5cm是俄新网上军方的消息看到过,一直很好奇米波雷达有这样的精度  发表于 2012-2-15 09:09
btxqxp 发表于 2012-2-15 09:05 | 显示全部楼层
印证了那句话:简约而不简单!
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-2-16 07:28 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-3 17:43 | 显示全部楼层
http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20120302/171688248.html
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Russia to bargain for Gabala with scan with on alternatives

Russia has been bargaining with Azerbaijan about a key station in its ballistic missile early warning system (BMEWS). Should the negotiations fail, the station may be pulled out and replaced by a new one to be built in Russia. This meets the recently endorsed new approaches to BMEWS radar field configuration.


The growing appetite

The case in point is the currently modernized Daryal-type BMEWS radar station (RS) located in the vicinity of Gabala, Azerbaijan. For Russia, Gabala is of strategic importance as controlling the sector to the south of its borders.

“The talks on Gabala continue. The first round was quite constructive,” Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov told RIA Novosti Tuesday. “Soon we will agree with our Azerbaijani colleagues on the dates when the Russian delegation can leave for Azerbaijan for further talks.”

Earlier Kommersant reported with reference to its sources in the Defense Ministry that Baku wants to increase the annual lease payment from $7 to $300 million. Just a few months ago, its appetite did not extend beyond $15 million
“This amount is exorbitant and totally unjustified; we will press for its considerable reduction. We still hope to come to an agreement,” a Defense Ministry source told Kommersant. According to another source, Russia might as well evacuate Gabala, “If Baku fails to moderate its appetite.”

For now, Gabala has an essential role to play, watching the strategically important southern sector (including possible missile launches from the Indian Ocean), and registering Iranian missile launches (also significant in the current geopolitical situation).

But a hypothetical and highly unlikely pullout scenario may still be on the cards, and then, as a stopgap, Russia will have to speedily commission the second stage of its new-generation RS near Armavir, Krasnodar Territory.


A hole-ridden net as inheritance

But how has it come about that the Russian BMEWS is dependent on a foreign state’s whims?

The disposition of BMEWS radars in the USSR obeyed the language of art. 6 of the Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (1972), which prescribed to deploy outward-oriented BMEWS radars solely in the periphery of each country’s national territory.

This explains why the radar field came to include stations at Mukachevo and Mys Khersones, Ukraine; Gabala, Azerbaijan; Skrunda, Latvia; and Sary-Shagan, Kazakhstan.

After 1991, this entire infrastructure was inherited by the newly independent countries that sprung up in the territory of the former USSR. Russia was left with one station near Olenegorsk, Kola Peninsula, one in Pechora and two abandoned projects – Mishelevka and Abalkovo – near Irkutsk. Oriented in the northwestern direction so that it might watch the airspace over Yakutia and beyond, Abalkovo, in addition to everything else, was being built in violation of the ABM Treaty, something that caused protracted squabbles with the United States.

To plug the hole in the Western sector, the military command speedily put back into service and licked into shape the Volga RS at Gantsevichi, Belarus. It had been under construction since 1981 with an eye to meeting the challenge posed by U.S.-owned Eurostrategic Pershing-2 missiles. But after the signing of the Treaty on the Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (1987), it was no longer urgently needed to have the station and the project was allowed to drift. It again emerged as a priority after 1998: completed in a rush, the radar was put on combat duty in 2000.


Voronezh to replace Daryal

Russia’s top military officials were greatly concerned about the situation where only the northern and northwestern sectors were protected, while the narrow sectors in the west and south were being leased and largely dependent on the stance of post-Soviet governments.

The potential for funding the national nuclear missile forces was stretched to the utmost both in the 1990s and thereafter. The Kremlin knew only too well that the deterrent was the sole thing that ensured Russia’s independence and territorial integrity even while the rest of the country was openly enthusiastic about the newly found Western allies. This is why the radar-field problem was addressed at the earliest opportunity.

The available BMEWS radars were in effect mammoth construction projects boasting huge reinforced-concrete shells, inside which active devices and equipment were installed. These ziggurats took a long time to build, which was followed by an equally protracted start-up period. Reorienting a station to another sector (let alone redeploying it to a different location) was out of the question. It was easier to blow it up and build a new one.

A high depot readiness concept (HDR) was proposed as a new approach that envisaged the installation of easy-to-assemble frames for hanging large prefabricated radar modules.

This made it possible to achieve three effects at once with the very first batch-produced Voronezh station.
First, the construction time was curtailed, as were the construction costs, which is of no small importance under present-day circumstances. According to available data, the turn-key cost of one Voronezh installation is 1.5 billion rubles in 2005 prices. Moreover, it takes 12 to 16 months to assemble 23 prefabricated units on a prepared site.

To compare: Daryal-type radar like the one at Gabala is made up of 4,000 units of equipment. Its cost in comparable prices would amount to 19.8 billion rubles and the time span required for its construction under the most favorable conditions is anywhere between 5 and 6 years.

Second, the module approach provides for easy scaling and modernization. None of the former models lent themselves to modernization since numerous problems cropped up when it came to installing equipment and laying the service lines inside a shell.

Third, a new-generation station can be disassembled and redeployed to a new location relatively quickly. That is not a sign of HDR radars’ new mobility, but an option like this can be easily contemplated several years in advance.
High depot readiness morphing into full readiness

Currently Russia is operating three Voronezh-type HDR radars: Armavir, Lekhtusi (near St. Petersburg), and, since recently, Kaliningrad (this one will become fully operational only in 2014). The fourth radar of the same type is under construction at Mishelevka near Irkutsk on the site of a demolished Daryal shell.

The fifth radar will actually be the second stage of Armavir, which is Russia’s main hope for the hypothetical eventuality of having to withdraw Gabala from the BMEWS. The first stage is going to handle the southwestern sector, while the second stage, to be built directly behind Gabala and next to its twin, will control the southern and southeastern sector.

In the meantime, the high depot readiness concept has been upgraded for more flexibility, with A.L. Mintz Radio Institute announcing its MARS project (Multifunctional Adaptive Radar System) also known as FDR RS (full depot readiness).

This radar is being designed as a mobile and universal affair. As is cautiously specified, it is a “redeployable” model, which means that it is not a fully mobile vehicle-based radar, like those used by the air defense forces. Moreover, it should easily integrate with both the BMEWS and other related information systems involved in monitoring outer space, securing missile defense, and supporting non-strategic antimissile defenses, including ship-based components.

Given this approach, Gabala will certainly retain its significance as an element of Russia’s BMEWS, but it will gradually lose its critical importance.


The views expressed in this article are the author’s and may not necessarily represent those of RIA Novosti.

g6-52l 发表于 2012-3-3 19:59 | 显示全部楼层
lxf11711 发表于 2012-2-15 07:16
就这样简单的天线结构居然能探测6000KM范围内500个目标,并且精度保持在5cm??

作战管理雷达也不可能达到5cm的测距精度,预警雷达不可能追求这么高的精度。
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-3 20:07 | 显示全部楼层
JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-3 17:43
http://en.rian.ru/analysis/20120302/171688248.html
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Russia to bargain for Gabala with scan with o ...
Currently Russia is operating three Voronezh-type HDR radars: Armavir, Lekhtusi (near St. Petersburg), and, since recently, Kaliningrad (this one will become fully operational only in 2014). The fourth radar of the same type is under construction at Mishelevka near Irkutsk on the site of a demolished Daryal shell.

The fifth radar will actually be the second stage of Armavir, which is Russia’s main hope for the hypothetical eventuality of having to withdraw Gabala from the BMEWS. The first stage is going to handle the southwestern sector, while the second stage, to be built directly behind Gabala and next to its twin, will control the southern and southeastern sector.

bargarn的空间也是越来越小。暂时缓过这两年建设期吧。

 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-9 20:35 | 显示全部楼层
南部的沃列涅茨-DM的覆盖范围( 二期工程很快开工)
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点评

120度扇面怎么从非洲出发的啊  发表于 2012-3-9 20:58
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-21 18:26 | 显示全部楼层
http://www.itar-tass.com/c9/370403.html
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Began testing the Irkutsk radar system for missile warning

Began testing a new warning radar system of missile attack in Irkutsk, told Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov at the enlarged meeting of the board of the military.
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c2RlbGFub3VuYXMucnUvdXBsb2Fkcy80LzEvNDExMTMzMjI3NTg1My5qcGVnP19faWQ9MTUyOTA=.jpg

点评

是的。 6大块。  发表于 2012-3-21 18:50
伊尔库次克的是VP型?  发表于 2012-3-21 18:32
 楼主| JSTCVW09CD 发表于 2012-3-22 12:59 | 显示全部楼层
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西边的三座新建雷达覆盖范围,

其中南部的那个准备进行二期建造,扩大预警空域范围。
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lxf11711 发表于 2012-3-27 16:30 | 显示全部楼层
走近俄罗斯空天防御部队:新雷达将精确到分米
不久前,俄罗斯宣布完成空天防御部队组建工作,并立即开始执行战斗值勤任务。俄组建空天防御部队这个重大战略举措,旨在进一步推进军事改革,增强俄军空天防御和战略预警能力,提高战略集团军的作战效能,以应对来自天空和太空的威胁。几个月过去了,俄空天防御部队在编制体制方面有什么新举措?装配了哪些新式武器装备?未来发展又将何去何从?请看科技日报特约专稿——

随着俄罗斯大选落下帷幕,普京的富国强军计划正在有条不紊地进行。据报道,俄未来10年将投入23万亿卢布(合7700亿美元)发展军事力量,将装备400枚洲际弹道导弹、约100架军用航天器、1000多架直升机、能装备28个团的S-400地空导弹系统及2300多辆新式坦克,从而全面革新其军队抵御现代化威胁的能力。其中,空天防御部队建设是俄军未来发展重点。

俄最新一期《空天防御》杂志近日披露,俄已经在加里宁格勒、列宁格勒州和克拉斯诺达尔地区部署了3个“沃洛日涅”新型雷达,第4个新型雷达将部署在伊尔库次克地区。据称,俄罗斯国防部还计划在俄罗斯联邦的5个地区建设新一代导弹攻击预警系统,新雷达将精确到米甚至分米,这将大大拓展预警范围,提高预警能力。

为了更好地发挥空天防御系统的效能,俄武装部队正加快信息化建设的步伐,检测命令和传输信息的数字通信标准正向第六代过渡,计划2016年内全部完成。在迎接世界新军事变革的挑战中,俄罗斯继续将军事航天作为优先发展的领域,并力保其太空优势。

顺应改革创新编制体制

俄罗斯正在进行新一轮的军事改革,但遇到了诸多困难和来自各方的阻力。在裁军的大趋势下,组建一个新军种——空天防御部队,一个重要目的就是深化空天防御力量的改革,并以此为契机推进其他方面的军事改革进程。

俄罗斯组建新军——空天防御部队,实质上是对军事力量的整合,对军兵种体制的创新。早在去年年初,俄罗斯前总统梅德韦杰夫就要求国防部在年底前将现有防空系统、反导系统、导弹预警系统及太空监视系统整合为空天防御部队。新军种的编成中包括太空司令部、防空和反导司令部以及普列谢茨克航天发射场。太空司令部包括太空监视部队和装备、航天器和导弹袭击预警系统指挥机构。

俄空天防御部队的组建,使俄军有了统一的空天防御组织管理机构。过去,俄空军、航天兵以及海军航空兵,防空兵和陆军防空兵等军兵种共同负责实施空天防御任务,这也是空天防御体系建设工作进展缓慢的重要原因。新组建的空天防御部队负责统一管理空天防御建设、发展和兵力兵器使用,以及装备采办、组织工业科研生产、培养专业人才等方面一系列工作。

俄空天防御部队的组建理顺了空天防御力量的指挥关系。按职能划分,俄空天防御力量分为防御和进攻2部分。防御力量包括空间防御与反卫星部队、防空部队、反导部队、电子战部队;进攻力量包括突击航空兵和特种飞机部队。同时,对应不同的部队,俄把之前4个指挥中心(即空间防御与反卫星指挥中心、防空反导指挥中心、电子战指挥中心和航空兵指挥中心)改组为太空司令部、防空司令部、反导司令部和普列谢茨克航天发射场。在这几个司令部和发射场之上,又设立了一个空天防御部队司令部(作战指挥中心),该中心是在俄空军中央指挥所的基础上组建的。这种垂直与平等相结合的指挥体制既确保了指挥权的集中统一,又保持了一定的指挥灵活性。

这种对编制体制的创新整合了俄罗斯的空天防御力量,有利于提高作战效率;将全部空天作战兵力和装备置于统一领导之下,有利于保证信息系统和与空天敌人对抗的打击系统的作战效能。

lxf11711 发表于 2012-3-27 16:30 | 显示全部楼层
武器装备大幅升级

为了提高空天防御部队的作战能力,俄重视研发新式武器装备,着力提高毁伤压制武器装备性能。俄计划研制和装备超高音速武器、空天飞行器、侦查突击无人机等空天进攻兵器,以使俄空天武器装备技术与世界先进水平同步,并在关键技术领域处于领先地位。

目前,建立在航天兵部队基础上的新的空天防御部队配备了S-300、S-400远程地对空导弹系统,并将使用飞机在30千米高空拦截导弹。俄军事专家透露,更为先进的 S-500战略战术防空反导系统正在紧锣密鼓的研制中,它不仅是在S-400的基础上的升级版,而是全新的武器系统,其发现目标的距离将增加150-200公里,能够几乎同时击毁10个目标(S-400最多可同时击毁6个目标),独特的设计使其有能力消灭任何弹道导弹和高超音速飞行器。

俄空天防御毁伤压制武器系统是一个多层次的拦截系统。在积极发展和部署S-400和S-500地空导弹、地面高炮火力和歼击航空兵等多种防空反导系统的同时,俄空天防御部队还将继续改进A-135战略反导系统,提高其与防空和非战略反导系统的协同作战能力。俄还计划在第四代空天防御系统的基础上发展各军兵种通用的“第五代防空反导一体化地空导弹武器系统”。另外,为了应对未来复杂的电磁环境,俄也在发展多功能电子对抗装备;为了对付敌卫星装备,还将发展地基或空基反卫星武器。

目前,位于加里宁格勒的导弹袭击早期预警雷达站已经投入使用,这大大扩展了导弹袭击预警系统的情报收集范围。它能对欧洲大陆全纵深和北极地区的导弹发射活动进行有效的监控,并能监控欧洲反导系统。

俄罗斯空天防御部队计划在未来几年再将一些新一代雷达站列入导弹袭击预警系统的编成。仅在最近几年就在列宁格勒州、克拉斯诺达尔边疆区和加里宁格勒州建成了这样的雷达站。目前在乌索里耶—西比尔斯基(伊尔库茨克州)正在建设一个雷达站,已经完工50%。根据导弹袭击预警系统发展计划,还要在俄罗斯其他地区建设新的雷达站,以更新现役雷达装备,对所有可能遭到导弹袭击的方向保持不间断的雷达监控。

由此看来,空天防御部队已经做好了列入俄罗斯联邦武装力量作战编成的准备。

打造“三位一体”空天防御系统

从阿富汗、伊拉克战争和北约在利比亚的军事行动中,不难发现美军由空中打击和太空作战支援的“空天一体战”主导了战争的进程及结局,以太空卫星系统为主的空天作战平台为美军部队提供了准确的侦察、监视、预警、通信、导航、定位、气象、测地等作战信息和情报。

鉴于外国空天进攻手段的发展,俄军提出了抗击空天袭击的“空天防御”理论,并计划分阶段建立“集防空、反导和太空防御为一体”的“国家空天防御系统”。为抗击敌方长时间的、密集的高精度武器突击,建立具有防空、反导和太空防御“三位一体”能力的、强大的战略性全国空天防御系统势在必行。

在未来战争中,俄军将结合使用反导和防空兵力兵器与空天之敌对抗。新组建的空天防御部队,将成为俄空天防御体系的基础,保证和平时期能与俄联邦武装力量其他军中合作,遏制全球和地区的潜在侵略者,战争时期能够以常规武器和核武器击溃武装侵略。

从历史上看,俄罗斯一直非常重视防空力量建设。俄前总统叶利钦颁布实施了俄军第一部“空天一体”建设的法规性文件,即《关于建立俄联邦防空组织》,首次提出了建立“俄空天一体防御”的构想。2001年1月25日,俄罗斯总统普京在克里姆林宫主持召开了航天工作会议,决定用一年的时间,将俄军事航天部队和空间导弹防御部队从战略火箭军中分离出来,组建一个新军种——俄罗斯航天部队。2006年4月5日,俄罗斯总统批准了新的《空天防御构想》,明确了俄军空天防御体系的建设原则、结构组成、作战目标、建设步骤、未来发展方向等一系列重要的事宜。2011年12月1日成立空天防御部队,取消了航天部队。

虽然近年来动作频频,但俄罗斯的空天防御领域目前仍存在着重复建设现象突出、武器系统老化落后、防空系统兼容性差、容易遭精确武器打击等缺陷。此次宣布组建空天防御部队也是为了扭转这一局面。

然而,俄正处于经济恢复时期,受综合国力的限制和国际形势的影响,暂时无法支持消耗巨大的空天技术研究。况且前苏联有被“星球大战计划”拖垮的前车之鉴,俄罗斯当前并不会与美国展开大规模的太空军备竞赛。所以,在高调提出组建空天防御部队的同时,俄罗斯也积极主张和平利用太空,反对太空军事化,希望推进与其他航空航天大国的合作。(陈童马建光 作者单位:国防科技大学)
http://www.china.com.cn/military ... ontent_24995693.htm

点评

理解就行,现在权利其实已经交接好了O(∩_∩)O  发表于 2012-3-27 16:45
俄罗斯前总统梅德韦杰夫--震惊了,什么时候退下来了?  发表于 2012-3-27 16:41
空天防御杂志披露沃罗涅日M雷达的精度能达到分米级别,雷达波束是米波的,可能使用了特殊的信号处理技术  发表于 2012-3-27 16:34
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