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[专题专项] NASA商业载人航天(CCP)进程:NASA公布新的时间表

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月神号特快 发表于 2012-8-3 21:19 | 显示全部楼层
结果很正常....

Aug. 3, 2012

Trent J. Perrotto
Headquarters, Washington
202-358-0321
trent.j.perrotto@nasa.gov

Candrea Thomas
Kennedy Space Center, Fla.
321-867-2468
candrea.k.thomas@nasa.gov

RELEASE: 12-263

NASA ANNOUNCES NEXT STEPS IN EFFORT TO LAUNCH AMERICANS FROM U.S. SOIL

CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -- NASA Friday announced new agreements with
three American commercial companies to design and develop the next
generation of U.S. human spaceflight capabilities, enabling a launch
of astronauts from U.S. soil in the next five years. Advances made by
these companies under newly signed Space Act Agreements through the
agency's Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) initiative
are intended to ultimately lead to the availability of commercial
human spaceflight services for government and commercial customers.â?¬

CCiCap partners are:

-- Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colo., $212.5 million
-- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, Calif., $440
million
-- The Boeing Company, Houston, $460 million


"Today, we are announcing another critical step toward launching our
astronauts from U.S. soil on space systems built by American
companies," NASA Administrator Charles Bolden said at the agency's
Kennedy Space Center in Florida. "We have selected three companies
that will help keep us on track to end the outsourcing of human
spaceflight and create high-paying jobs in Florida and elsewhere
across the country."

CCiCap is an initiative of NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) and an
administration priority. The objective of the CCP is to facilitate
the development of a U.S. commercial crew space transportation
capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable and
cost-effective access to and from the International Space Station and
low Earth orbit. After the capability is matured and expected to be
available to the government and other customers, NASA could contract
to purchase commercial services to meet its station crew
transportation needs.

The new CCiCAP agreements follow two previous initiatives by NASA to
spur the development of transportation subsystems, and represent the
next phase of U.S. commercial human space transportation, in which
industry partners develop crew transportation capabilities as fully
integrated systems. Between now and May 31, 2014, NASA's partners
will perform tests and mature integrated designs. This would then set
the stage for a future activity that will launch crewed orbital
demonstration missions to low Earth orbit by the middle of the
decade.

"For 50 years American industry has helped NASA push boundaries,
enabling us to live, work and learn in the unique environment of
microgravity and low Earth orbit," said William Gerstenmaier,
associate administrator for the Human Exploration and Operations
Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "The benefits
to humanity from these endeavors are incalculable. We're counting on
the creativity of industry to provide the next generation of
transportation to low Earth orbit and expand human presence, making
space accessible and open for business."

While NASA works with U.S. industry partners to develop commercial
spaceflight capabilities to low Earth orbit, the agency also is
developing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Space
Launch System (SLS), a crew capsule and heavy-lift rocket to provide
an entirely new capability for human exploration. Designed to be
flexible for launching spacecraft for crew and cargo missions, SLS
and Orion MPCV will expand human presence beyond low Earth orbit and
enable new missions of exploration across the solar system.

For more information about NASA's Commercial Crew Program, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew


-end-


P.S. 自由号落选了,果然邪不能胜正
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-3 21:39 | 显示全部楼层
全资助每个多达4.5亿, 比起CCDev阶段不到1个亿,多不少哩(尽管合同期也长了)。
   
http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/ ... _CCiCAP_Awards.html
  
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黑与白 发表于 2012-8-3 21:56 | 显示全部楼层
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zhang 发表于 2012-8-3 22:02 | 显示全部楼层
今天的事情不少啊

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没事儿 发表于 2012-8-3 22:51 | 显示全部楼层
月神号特快 发表于 2012-8-3 21:19
结果很正常....

CCiCap partners are:

-- Sierra Nevada Corporation, Louisville, Colo., $212.5 million
-- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), Hawthorne, Calif., $440 million
-- The Boeing Company, Houston, $460 million

意料之中.
joki 发表于 2012-8-4 10:26 | 显示全部楼层
CST100的优势已经很明显了,可以看出NASA对其进度和可靠性的青睐。不出意外,商业载人发射载具的头把交椅非CST100莫属,至于老二恐怕仍需追梦和Dragon今后数年轮番恶斗一决胜负。目前从进度看,Dragon优势极大。但追梦毕竟是HL20的后裔,且具备低过载和跑到降落的能力,是航天飞机之后不错的选项,NASA已经是尽力支持。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-4 12:38 | 显示全部楼层
如果国会预算跟不上,这些公司说不定哪一个还要半路上落马。

The administration asked for $800 million for commercial manned spaceflight in its fiscal 2012 budget request, but Congress approved just $400 million, a cut that pushed the first NASA flight to the station back one year to 2017.

This year, the administration requested $830 million in its fiscal 2013 budget. Early debate in the House called for limiting the scope of the contract to a single company but a compromise eventually was reached that would provide $500 million.

But the full $900 million needed for the three CCiCap contracts is required if all three companies are to proceed with development. If a budget including full funding is not approved, or if a continuing resolution is required because of a budget impasse, one of the companies likely would fall by the wayside.


http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n1208/03ccicap/story.html

点评

这说的是追梦么?龙还有货运飞船合同支撑,怎么说有钱落袋了。追梦现在可是全靠完成节点换钱  发表于 2012-8-4 13:11
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黑与白 发表于 2012-8-4 15:00 | 显示全部楼层
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cmj9808 发表于 2012-8-4 23:23 | 显示全部楼层
黑与白 发表于 2012-8-4 15:00
ccicap之后是什么阶段?还是这几个就是未来的载人飞船?

CCiCap相当于COTS phase 2,是一系列SAA合同的最后阶段,结束后NASA会进行Commercial Crew合同的正式招标,只能说CCiCap的中标者在未来的合同竞标中更有优势,参见CRS竞标过程。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-10 08:16 | 显示全部楼层
NASA勾勒 商业载人运载器认证过程
NASA Outlines Commercial Crew Vehicle Certification Process
Posted by Doug Messieron August 9, 2012, at 12:51 pmin News.
                 
Space News reports that NASA has begun to outline the process under which the space agency will certify commercial human space vehicles:
空间新闻报道NASA已经开始勾勒该太空机构的商业 载人太空飞行器认证中的过程
      
With an eye toward buying its first astronaut taxi services by 2017, NASA on Aug. 8 unveiled details about a safety certification process that will be conducted in parallel with the industry-led development of new crewed space transportation systems.
对于开发的新型载人 太空运输系统,计划中的一个2017年购买第一位宇航员出租飞船服务的目标,NASA 8月8日披露了在并行的主导产业进行安全认证过程的详细信息
      
Under more than $1 billion Space Act Agreements awarded Aug. 3, Boeing Space Exploration, Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Sierra Nevada Space Systems are developing crew transportation systems designed to carry astronauts to the international space station. These development efforts will be almost entirely guided by industry, with input from NASA. In parallel with the design phase, however, NASA plans to conduct a government-run safety certification process under separate agreements it calls Certification Products Contracts, or CPCs….
在8月3日的超过十亿美元空间法授予协定,波音太空探索部,太空探索技术公司(SpaceX)和内华达太空系统正在进行开发为运输宇航员到ISS设计的乘员系统。这些 开发工作将几乎完全由行业指导,从NASA输入。在并行设计阶段,无论如何,NASA计划实施 在 政府运行的安全认证过程下的 单独的协定,它被称为认证产品合约,或CPCs....
      
A synopsis of the CPC solicitation is due out this month, with a formal request for proposals to follow in September, Mango said at the Aug. 8 forum at Kennedy. Five days after it releases the formal request, NASA will hold another industry day for companies interested in proposing. Awards for these contracts, which will not exceed $10 million, are expected in February, Mango said. NASA expects to make two to four awards under the first phase of CPC. The three companies that just won commercial crew Space Act Agreements do not automatically qualify for a CPC award, Mango said.
CPC 征集大纲出本月到期,正式请求建议在随后的九月,这是Mango在8月8日肯尼迪论坛上说。五天后,它发布正式请求,NASA将举行的另一个行业日为感兴趣的公司在建议中。 资助这些合同,这将不超过0.1亿美元,预计在2月,Mango说。 NASA预计在CPC的第一阶段内,安排资助两到四个。这三家公司刚刚获得 商业载人太空行动协议不会自动获得CPC资格,Mango说。
      
Read the full story.阅读完整的故事。


PS:CCP下的CPC。




 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-14 17:50 | 显示全部楼层
波音、SpaceX和内华达山脉公司继续获得NASA商业乘员计划投资(上)
  
新闻发布时间:2012-08-14
   
  [据美国太空新闻网近日报道] 波音公司和太空探索技术公司目前显然在NASA商业乘员出租车服务中处于领先位置,内华达山脉公司处于被淘汰的边缘,蓝源公司则已经被淘汰。
  
  8月3日NASA宣布了选择波音太空探索公司和SpaceX公司为其商业乘员计划进行最终阶段的研究。波音公司将在商业宇航员综合能力(CCiCap)太空活动协议之下获得4.6亿美元,SpaceX公司获得4.4亿美元。内华达山脉公司则获得了一份2.125亿美元的协议。蓝源公司的“太空飞行器”方案则没有继续获得经费支持。
  
  如果波音公司和SpaceX在CCiCap太空活动协议21个月时间框架内实现了所有的里程碑,他们的载人运输系统将进入关键设计评审阶段。内华达山脉公司的乘员运输系统不会进入关键设计评审阶段。
  
  内华达山脉公司的合同将允许该公司在设计“追梦者”飞行器时,“去掉较多的技术风险。技术风险被去掉后,一旦有系统出现问题,NASA可能会允许追梦者进入关键设计评审阶段。”(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 侯丹 陈菲)  

-------------

波音、SpaceX和内华达山脉公司继续获得NASA商业乘员计划投资(下)  

新闻发布时间:2012-08-14


  [据美国太空新闻网近日报道] NASA官员表示该局无力承担三个商业乘员系统全部进入关键设计评审阶段。选择一个后备方案,以防两个快速实施的系统遇到问题,这样对美国政府最为有益。
     
  所有参与CCiCap竞标的公司都需要提交一套完备的系统,包括运载火箭和可运送宇航员往返国际太空站的乘员飞行器。NASA希望这些系统中至少有一套能在2017年前就绪。
  
  三家公司此前都从NASA获得了经费,从事各自乘员运输系统的相关工作。波音公司研制了名为CST-100的太空舱,计划由联合发射联盟“宇宙神”-5火箭发射。内华达山脉公司的“追梦者”也将由”宇宙神”-5发射.
  
  SpaceX公司采用已经经过飞行验证的“龙”太空舱执行乘员任务。“龙”太空舱将由该公司“猎鹰”-9火箭发射。目前三家公司都表示能在2015或2016年之前完成首次演示验证飞行,CCiCap初始合同中并不包含飞行试验的经费。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 侯丹 陈菲)  



  

点评

果然追梦还是逃脱不了其前辈中途夭折的命运啊,杯具。。。  发表于 2012-8-17 13:53
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-14 17:51 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-14 17:50
波音、SpaceX和内华达山脉公司继续获得NASA商业乘员计划投资(上)
  
新闻发布时间:2012-08-14

    看来,NASA真正的载人合同要在波音和SpaceX之间选了,和商业货物运输的数目一样,都是2个。
追梦要想获得合同,还有再多等若干年,到那时ISS要退役了。
   话说,ISS退役后,NASA还能有自己的LEO空间站吗?呵。


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黑与白 发表于 2012-8-14 19:10 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-14 19:55 | 显示全部楼层
黑与白 发表于 2012-8-14 19:10
最后是会选几家供应商?是龙和cst-100都会运送nasa宇航员吗?

     如果他们都能按时达到合格标准,我觉得至少他们2家都会运送nasa宇航员,就象现在的SpaceX和OSC运货一样。理论上也不能排除大于3家,象ATK等自己投资的载人项目。
   
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-17 12:31 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-10 08:16
NASA勾勒 商业载人运载器认证过程NASA Outlines Commercial Crew Vehicle Certification ProcessPosted by  ...

商业乘员安全鉴定将与航天器研发并行  
   
新闻发布时间:2012-08-17
  

  [据美国spacenews网站2012年8月9日报道]  NASA希望2017年以前首次购买宇航员“出租车”服务。8月8日,NASA公布了关于安全验证流程的详细内容,该流程将与工业界领导的新乘员太空运输系统的研发并行。

  根据NASA在8月3日授出的价值10亿美元的“太空活动协议”,波音太空探索公司、太空探索技术(SpacX)公司和内华达山脉太空系统公司将研发能将宇航员送往国际太空站的乘员运输系统。利用NASA的投入,这些研发工作将几乎全部由工业界主导。然而,在设计阶段的同时,NASA计划根据独立的“验证产品合同”(CPC)制定一个政府运行的安全验证流程

  NASA商业乘员计划经理艾德•芒裹表示,有两个原因致使我们启动该项工作。我们相信工业界正在思考需要如何决定他们的设计。现在就是决策的时机。没有航天器能访问国际太空站,除非NASA验证它是安全的。

  CPC征询的摘要将于8月发布,9月发布正式提案申请。根据CPC第一阶段的内容,NASA期望授出2~4份合同。上述三家获得商业员“太空活动协议”的公司不能自动晋级CPC合同。

  主要支撑CPC合同的将是数据,将包括航空航天承包商熟知项目,如证明记录和风险分析报告。风险报告是通过NASA安全评审流程的基础,所以那些风险报告非常重要。尽早采用就能使用这些风险报告进行验证和分析来影响设计,最大可能程度地消除风险。

  与控制工业运行乘员“出租车”设计与研发的“太空行动协议”不同,CPC工作将在联邦采购规定(FAR)的传统合同管理下执行。采用FAR合同意味着NASA免于控制设计需求。 (中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 陈菲 侯丹)

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-17 12:49 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-17 12:31
商业乘员安全鉴定将与航天器研发并行  
   
新闻发布时间:2012-08-17

‘并行’也就意味着‘提前’?


 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-8-30 13:47 | 显示全部楼层
CCDev-2的60天报告 ,基本上都完成了:

    http://www.parabolicarc.com/2012/08/28/boeing-blue-origin-and-sierra-nevada-work-to-complete-final-ccdev-milestones/#more-42317





           
                  
下面分别列出了各个公司的完成情况表:
    http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/679671main_CCDev2_Public_August2012_508.pdf


   http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/679670main_August_2012_60_Day_Report_508.pdf



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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-9-5 17:06 | 显示全部楼层
出于技术上的担忧NASA放弃ATK的商业乘员项目议案  
  
新闻发布时间:2012-09-05
   

  [据美国spacenews网站2012年9月4日报道] 由于阿联特技术公司(ATK)未能提供关于将现有火箭与航天器设计集成到单一运输系统上的充分技术规划,因而NASA在其太空站乘员运输项目精选名单中放弃了该公司的议案。
  
  相关人士表明,对ATK技术方案缺少某些细节表示非常担心。其方案缺少能用以判断“是否能按时并以具有成本效益的方式研发一套安全的乘员运输系统”的足够细节。
  
  NASA选择了波音、SpaceX和内华达山脉航天系统公司,签署了共计110亿(错:应11亿)美元的“商业乘员一体化能力”(CCiCap)合同。
  
  CCiCap是第三轮商业乘员计划,该计划将开发并验证私人运行的宇航员运输系统,到2017年使美国独立往返国际太空站。目前NASA依靠俄罗斯提供的运送服务。 (中国航天系统科学与工程研究院   许红英  侯丹)  
   


also:
   http://www.parabolicarc.com/2012 ... election-statement/
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-9-8 06:21 | 显示全部楼层
CCiCap的三个赢家是怎么被选中的

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
A Closer Look at the CCiCAP Selection Decisions  Posted   by    Doug Messier  on September 7, 2012, at 5:45 am


Earlier this week, NASA published a Selection Statement explaining how and why it awarded $1.1 billion in commercial crew contracts to Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corporation and SpaceX last month. The 13-page document, written by William Gerstenmaier, NASA’s associate administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, lays out how the NASA rated the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCAP) proposals submitted by these three companies and ATK, which did not receive funding.


A summary of the document with the ratings and rationale is below.
                    

EVALUATION METHOD
NASA evaluated proposals from ATK, Boeing, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Proposals from three other companies — American Aerospace, Space Operations and Spacedesign — were not evaluated because they failed to meet basic proposal requirements.
NASA’s Participant Evaluation Panel (PEP) evaluated each of the four proposals according to the following criteria.  There are Effectiveness and Confidence levels associated with each proposal’s technical approach and business information (plan).
EFFECTIVENESS



   
CONFIDENCE

   
   
   The PEP conducted initial evaluations in which they rated each proposal. Final evaluations with due diligence were then conducted on all four proposals, resulting in higher ratings in most cases. The chart below shows the final ratings with contract award amounts.
FINAL EVALUATION AFTER DUE DILIGENCE
COMPANY
SYSTEM
TECHNICAL APPROACH
BUSINESS INFORMATION
AWARD (MILLIONS)
Effectiveness
Confidence
Effectiveness
Confidence
ATK
Liberty
White (Moderate)
Low
Green
(High)
Medium
-0-
Boeing
CST-100/
Atlas V
Blue
(Very High)
High
White (Moderate)
High
$460
Sierra Nevada Corporation
Dream Chaser/
Atlas V
Blue
(Very High)
Medium
Blue
(Very High)
Medium
$212.5
SpaceX
Dragon/
Falcon 9
Blue
(Very High)
Medium
Blue
(Very High)
High
$440
TOTAL:
$1,122.5
Below are key excerpts from the Selection Statement. The first section includes Gerstenmaier’s comments on the individual proposals. The second section examines how he decided to allocate the funding among the three companies selected. My bottom line summaries are in italics.
EVALUATION BY COMPANY
ATK — No Funding
The Bottom Line: Strong business case and financial commitment, but insufficient technical information and higher risks result in no joy in Utah.

“ATK’s proposal had a strong business case that leveraged Liberty’s characteristics and capabilities, such as the ability to support a wide variety of missions beyond crew transport, including non-NASA customers, through multiple vehicle configurations for crew and cargo, and the proposal showed a significant financial investment by the ATK team as compared to the requested NASA contribution, which gave me confidence in the company’s commitment to this activity.
“However, I had serious some significant concerns about the lack of detail in some areas of ATK’s technical approach that outweighed its strengths in the Business information section. In reviewing the PEP findings, ATK was rated the lowest of the four proposals in Level of Effectiveness for Technical Approach, with a rating of WHITE (Moderate). The PEP also identified more technical weaknesses (3) for ATK than for the other proposals. The first two of these three weaknesses would have a significant effect on the ability of ATK to meet the goals of the Announcement. The PEP also had a Technical Level of Confidence rating of LOW, which was the lowest of all proposals….
“Basically the proposal lacked enough detail to determine if a safe crew transportation system could be developed in a timely and cost effective manner out of the heritage components ATK selected for this concept.”
Boeing — $460 Million

CST-100 crew transport. (Credit: Boeing)

The Bottom Line: This company knows how to build spacecraft, but its failure to put more skin in the game could cause problems down the line.
“A significant factor to me in Boeing’s proposal was the comprehensive approach Boeing has to its overall integrated vehicle development plan which includes an incremental approach to the detailed design and development effort, including subsystem-level Critical Design Reviews (CDRs) culminating in its integrated CDR. This approach did a good job of tying the milestones to completion of certification and qualification activities and will allow for greater review and understanding of technical products prior to advancing to later development milestones…
“Also, it’s proposed use of heritage systems at the subsystem levels provides confidence that design and development can be executed per the proposed schedule….
“It is important to note that Boeing’s proposal has a single weakness in the Business section after due diligence for not achieving the significant financial investment strategic goal laid out in the Announcement. While this is only one of 13 Goals, I did consider it. However, Boeing met all the other goals and had a strong technical design; therefore, I did not find the lack of significant corporate financial commitment to be a major discriminator in my assessment of the Boeing proposal….
“[The] proposed corporate investment during the CCiCAP period does not provide sufficient industry investment and there is increased risk of having insufficient funding in the base period….”
Dragon on the end of the space station’s Canadarm2. (Credit: NASA)

SpaceX — $440 Million

The Bottom Line: Best business plan of the bunch, but more information needed on how to get from cargo to crew.
“I find SpaceX’s ability to leverage its existing Dragon/Falcon cargo system with incremental targeted design upgrades reduces the overall scope of the development effort going forward. Furthermore, their ground systems and mission control capability will be demonstrated several times on cargo mission prior to making the step to crewed missions, which is an advantage….
“Leveraging the CTS off of the current cargo systems offers SpaceX a strong technical advantage. However there is a technical weakness identified by the PEP in this area. The PEP was concerned about the lack of sufficient detail provided to show how SpaceX will mature the integrated CTS from the current cargo configuration to a human configuration. I share that concern, but temper the concern with the advantages of having flown the basic cargo system. Flight experience with the cargo version will show areas of the design that need additional work….
“SpaceX’s Business Information received the highest allowable Effectiveness rating of BLUE (Very High) with the Highest allowable Confidence rating of High. SpaceX’s ability to utilize significant hardware elements of its existing cargo system, infrastructure and processes is consistent with it having the lowest overall development cost of all the proposals. The proposal sets out a credible business plan on how SpaceX will capture different markets to LEO and ISS and how it will utilize existing revenue streams associated with its current manifest to fund the CCiCAP effort.”
Sierra Nevada Corporation — $212.5 Million
The Bottom Line: A winged lifting body has unique capabilities and unique challenges; the latter make this a higher-risk (and lower-rated) proposal.

Technical approach “does not adequately address the risk associated with spacecraft Thermal Protection System (TPS damage).”
“SNC has many more technologies that need to be matured in order to reach a CDR and its winged lifting body design presents some unique challenges not found in a capsule design. This technology development and the rest of its development activities within the CCiCAP base period makes SNC’s proposal a higher risk choice.
“However, there are some distinct advantages to keeping SNC and its winged vehicle approach in the portfolio. The use of a winged lifting body offers lower entry and landing g-forces, which can be easier on humans and can enable more scientific payloads that require a smoother landing to be brought back from space, cross range capability (ability to deorbit on orbits not directly aligned with the runway), and ruway landings which enable quick crew egress. These significant technical advantages could result in a larger customer base for SNC than a capsule design and more capability for users…
“SNC had significant risks because of design complexity that could impact the business approach. This resulted in a Medium Confidence rating for SNC’s business approach.”
PORTFOLIO SELECTION
The Bottom Line: Boeing has the best technical chops, SpaceX can get to a crewed flight fastest and cheapest, and SNC still has a bit of work to do.
“In reviewing the remaining three proposals, while all three received a Very High Level of Effectiveness rating for the Technical Approach, it seemed clear to me that SpaceX and Boeing had the stronger technical proposals. This is evidenced by the Medium technical Confidence rating for SNC.
Even though SpaceX also received a Medium technical Confidence rating, I do not consider these technical Confidence ratings of Medium for SNC and SpaceX as equivalent. The SNC Confidence rating is driven by several factors; complexity of heat shield design, complexity in abort conditions, controlling weight of the design, and ability to bring green propellents on line in a cost effective and timely manner. Whereas the SpaceX design is driven predominantly by a single consideration: design changes from the current cargo vehicle to a crew vehicle and human rating. Boeing had a higher technical Confidence rating….
“This portfolio provides for a diversity of spacecraft designs (capsule and winged lifting body) as well as capturing the proposal that provides the earliest crew demonstration flight under a credible schedule at the lowest development cost (SpaceX) with the proposal that represents the highest Level of Effectiveness and Confidence ratings on the technical approach (Boeing). Carrying a third company in the portfolio also adds robustness, if one of the three were to run into significant technical or financial trouble. Carrying a third company would keep competition even if one company needed to drop out….
“SNC has the most significant amount of risk reduction and technology development work to do before reaching CDR, and I would like to see what kind of progress SNC can make on increasing the maturity of of some of its key technologies before providing them with additional funding. For this reason, I have decided that SNC will receive a significantly reduced award. In order to have sufficient funding, further reductions were also needed in Boeing’s and SpaceX’s original proposals. The reductions were moderate and determined to not adversely affect the proposals.”



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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-9-11 15:59 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-9-8 06:21
CCiCap的三个赢家是怎么被选中的

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NASA的商业(航天)三重奏:胜出者的实力概述
NASA's commercial trio: Winning strengths outlined
BY STEPHEN CLARK -- SPACEFLIGHT NOW -- Posted: September 10, 2012
        
NASA cited SpaceX's flight experience with the Dragon spacecraft and Boeing's methodical approach to designing a crew capsule in its decision to award the companies $900 million to develop a human-rated commercial spaceship, according to a document released last week.
NASA表扬资助SpaceX的龙航天器和波音公司的有条不紊的方法,去设计进行飞行,决定授予这些公司9.00亿美元,以开发一个 载人等级的 商业载人太空舰,根据上周公布的文件。
     
图:SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft completed a cargo demonstration mission to the International Space Station in May. Credit: NASA
SpaceX的龙航天器完成货物 演示任务的 ISS五月。来源: NASA
     
Proposals by Boeing and SpaceX were the strongest received by NASA in the commercial crew competition, which bypassed a bid submitted by rocket-builder ATK and selected Sierra Nevada Corp. for a partial award of $212 million, according to a selection statement posted on a NASA website.
由波音和SpaceX提出的建议 受到最强的 NASA审查,在 商业载人竞争中,绕过了一个火箭制造商提交的投标 ATK和选定的内华达山脉公司的部分裁决的$ 2.12亿,根据一个NASA网站选择张贴声明。
     
The 21-month agreements with Boeing, SpaceX and Sierra Nevada were signed to fulfill NASA's Commercial Crew Integrated Capability, or CCiCap, phase of the commercial crew program, which aims to develop a privately-owned human space transportation system to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station by 2017.
这个与波音, SpaceX和Sierra Nevada 公司达成的21个月的协议,将去实现完成NASA的 商业载人综合能力,或CC​​iCap, 它是商业载人计划的一个阶段,其目的是开发一个民营的载人 太空运输系统,在2017年提供宇航员 到ISS。
     
"It is a capability that includes the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the ground operations, as well as the flight operations," said Ed Mango, NASA's commercial crew program manger, during the Aug. 3 announcement of the CCiCap winners.
这是一个能力,它包括了航天器,运载火箭,地面操作,以及飞行操作。” ED.Mango说,NASA的 商业载人计划经理,在8月3日公布的CCiCap者。
     
The selection document, which details the strengths and weaknesses considered in NASA's decision, was signed by Bill Gerstenmaier, associate administrator for the space agency's human exploration and operations directorate.
选择的证明文档,在NASA的决定中详述了长处和短处考虑 ,由比尔葛斯坦迈亚签署,他是太空机构的 载人探险和业务指挥长 副主管。
     
"I find SpaceX's ability to leverage its existing Falcon/Dragon cargo system with incremental targeted design upgrades reduces the overall scope of the development effort going forward," Gerstenmaier wrote.
“我觉得 SpaceX的能力,利用其现有的猎鹰/龙货运系统与增量有针对性的设计升级,降低了开发努力前进 整体的范围 ,“ 葛斯坦迈亚写道。
   
SpaceX plans up to 25 flights of the Falcon 9 rocket before the launcher's first crewed mission. Nine unmanned Dragon cargo flights are scheduled before astronauts fly in the capsule, according to SpaceX.
SpaceX计划在猎鹰9号火箭一直到25次的飞行发射后,再发射其第一个载人任务在宇航员飞行飞船前,(现在)已经有9个无人龙货运飞行计划,根据SpaceX。
According to the selection document, the flight heritage of Falcon 9 and Dragon is a "strong technical advantage" and will reveal what parts of the spacecraft and ground systems need additional work.
根据选择文件,猎鹰9号和龙的飞行遗产是一个“雄厚的技术优势” 将揭示航天器和地面系统的哪些部分需要额外的工作。
      
?A mock-up of Boeing's CST-100 capsule parachutes to a landing in the Nevada desert during a helicopter drop test in May. Credit: Boeing Co.
一个波音公司的CST-100模型太空舱降落伞的跌落试验,5月期间,直升机降落在内华达州的沙漠。波音公司:
The Boeing proposal was marked by a "comprehensive approach" for the development of the CST-100 crew capsule, including incremental design milestones leading to a critical design review - when the spacecraft's design will be frozen - in April 2014.
波音公司建议为CST-100乘员舱 开发的特点是“综合广泛的接近方法”,其中包括增加设计的里程碑,一个关键的设计评审 -20144月,航天器的设计将冻结 -。
"This approach did a good job of tying the milestones to completion of certification and qualification activities and will allow for greater review and understanding of technical products prior to advancing to later development milestones," Gerstenmaier wrote.
“这个方法 搭售的里程碑,完成认证和认证活动做了很好的工作,并允许加强审查和理解推进到后来的技术产品开发的里程碑。” 葛斯坦迈亚写道
Boeing and SpaceX received agreements worth up to $460 million and $440 million, respectively. NASA will make payments upon the completion of predetermined design and testing milestones.
波音和SpaceX收到的协议价值分别高达$ 4.6亿美元和4.40亿。 NASA将在完成预定的设计和测试里程碑后付款。
In the statement, Gerstenmaier wrote that SpaceX's proposal had the lowest overall development cost of the winning bids, and Boeing's corporate investment was less than any of the firms.
在声明中,葛斯坦迈亚写道,SpaceX的提议具有最低的总体中标开发成本,波音公司的投资是不到任何公司和。
   
NASA's strategy for commercial crew development focuses on cost-sharing between the government and private industry.
NASA的商业载人开发战略专注于政府和私营行业​​之间的费用分摊。
   
Boeing's agreement includes 19 milestones with significant progress in the CST-100 capsule's propulsion system, avionics and wind tunnel testing.
波音公司的协议包括19 CST-100太空舱的推进系统的显着进步的里程碑,航空电子设备和风洞测试。
SpaceX will work on the Dragon capsule's side-mounted abort system, test the abort system with on-pad and in-flight demonstrations, upgrade the Falcon 9 rocket with more powerful engines, and culminate in a critical design review. The SpaceX agreement includes 14 milestones.
SpaceX将继续开发龙太空舱的侧置式中止系统,发射台和飞行中止系统测试演示,与更强大的发动机,升级的猎鹰9号火箭,并在一个关键设计评审中达到顶点。 SpaceX协议包括14个里程碑。
SpaceX is targeting a mid-2015 crewed Dragon test flight, and Boeing's schedule calls for a piloted CST-100 demo mission in late 2016.
SpaceX的目标是2015年中期载人龙飞行试验,波音公司的计划要求CST-100的驾驶演示任务在2016年底。
Artist's concept of a Sierra Nevada Dream Chaser lifting body spacecraft on an Atlas 5 rocket on the launch pad. Credit: Sierra Nevada Corp.
艺术概念图的内华达山脉追梦升力体 [航天器“宇宙神”5型火箭上的发射工位。内华达山脉公司:
Sierra Nevada's agreement features nine milestones to advance the design of the company's Dream Chaser lifting body spacecraft, including risk reduction work on propulsion, attitude control, and other subsystems.
内华达山脉的协议具有9个里程碑,以推动设计公司的追梦升力体 航天器,包括降低风​​险的推进工作,姿态控制,等子系统。
Sierra Nevada will also conduct atmospheric landing tests of a Dream Chaser test article.
内华达山脉也将进行追梦测试体的大气着陆试验。
In his decision to award Sierra Nevada less than half the amount received by the other CCiCap winners, Gerstenmaier highlighted the complexity and risk of the Dream Chaser's design, which could cause delays and cost growth.
在他的决定资助中,内华达山脉收到不到一半的金额比其他CCiCap获胜者,葛斯坦迈亚突出显示了追梦设计的复杂性和风险性,这可能会导致延误和成本增长
   
But NASA kept Sierra Nevada in the program due to the unique Dream Chaser concept. The winged lifting body would return to Earth for a runway landing, giving crews and science payloads a smoother ride than capsules.
但 NASA在计划中保持内华达山脉,是由于独特的追梦概念。有翅的升力体将返回地球着陆跑道,人员和科学有效载荷比太空舱更流畅平顺。
      
CST-100 and Dream Chaser flights would blast off aboard United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rockets from Cape Canaveral, Fla.
CST-100 和追梦次飞行升空船上联合发射联盟阿特拉斯-5火箭卡纳维拉尔角,美国佛罗里达州
      
All three systems approved for government funding would carry up to seven astronauts on each flight.
这三个政府资助的系统被批准,每次飞行可运载七名宇航员。
                  
In addition to the Liberty proposal by ATK, NASA received bids from Spacedesign Corp., American Aerospace Inc. and Space Operations. Those three proposals were not considered because they were late or did not meet fundamental criteria set for the competition, according to the selection statement.
在除了到自由由ATK建议中,NASA(还)收到Spacedesign公司,美国航空航天公司和空间操作公司的投标。这三个建议都没有考虑,因为他们迟到或不符合基本标准的竞争,根据选择声明。
   
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