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[专题专项] NASA商业载人航天(CCP)进程:NASA公布新的时间表

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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-8-4 15:47 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2013-8-4 15:48 编辑

NASA举行商业载人预征集会议

NASA Holds Pre-Solicitation Conference onCommercial Crew
Posted by Doug Messier on August 2, 2013,at 2:48 pm in News
Tags: commercial crew, human spaceflight,nasa.


Commercial Crew Program Manager Ed Mangospeaks to aerospace industry representatives at the Commercial CrewTransportation Capability (CCtCap) Pre-Proposal Conference on Aug. 1. (Credit:NASA/Jim Grossmann)  Rebecca Regan  John F. Kennedy Space Center
8月1日,在商业载人运输能力(CCtCap)前期建议会议上,商业载人计划经理 ED Mango 对航空航天行业的代表讲话。 (来源:…

No oneperson, no one company, no one government agency, has a monopoly on thecompetence, the missions, or the requirements for the space program.”
“没有一个人,没有一家公司,没有一个政府机构,具有垄断能力,这个任务,或对于该太空计划的要求。“
                .. …

Since its inception, the procurementstrategy of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been based on reachingcommon ground with industry partners as they work together to establish safeand cost-effective American crew launch capabilities to low-Earth orbit and theInternational Space Station.
自开始以来,NASA的商业载人计划(CCP)采购策略一直是基于达到共同点,与业界合作伙伴和他们携手合作,去建立安全和符合成本效益的美国乘员发射低地球轨道和到ISS的能力。

The success of this program isdirectly related to the success of our industry partners,” said CCP Manager EdMango. “While our program priorities have not changed, it’s important that wehave this open dialogue now and set expectations together so that NASA can havethe highest quality crew transportation system come 2017.”
“这一计划的成功与否,直接关系到我们的行业合作伙伴的成功,”CCP经理ED Mango .说。“虽然并没有改变我们的计划优先级,这一点很重要,我们有这个公开的对话,现在一起设定期望值,使 NASA可以有乘员运输系统最高质量的2017年。“


As the program prepares to enter its finalphase of NASA certification efforts, agency officials met with companyrepresentatives who are interested in competing for a contract during this nextCommercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) phase. Held at NASA’sKennedy Space Center in Florida on Aug. 1, the Pre-Solicitation Conference wasmeant to keep the line of communication flowing and ensure the official Requestfor Proposals (RFP) is right on target when released this fall.
随着项目的准备进入其 NASA认证工作的最后阶段,机构官员们有兴趣与公司代表会面 ,他们将在下一个商业载人运输能力(CCtCap)阶段 期间 争夺这个合同。8月1日在NASA佛罗里达KSC举行的(这个)预先征集会议是为了保持通讯交流线路(畅通),确保官方征求建议(书)(RFP)在今年秋天的目标发布日期是正确的。

The CCtCapwill be a full and open competition and all offerors will be evaluated equallybased on the criteria outlined in the official RFP that will be released thisfall,” said Maria Collura, CCP certification manager.
“CCtCap将是一个全面和公开的竞争,同样将评估所有的 基于正式的RFP中列出的标准的要约人,将在今年秋季发布,“  玛丽亚Collura说,他是CCP的认证管理者。


Beginning in summer of 2014, when awardsare anticipated for one or more contractors, CCtCap efforts will be focused ondeveloping, verifying and validating an integrated system that is safe for crewtransportation. A CCtCap contractor also will plan, manage and execute long-termproduction and operational plans for its crew transportation system (CTS).
从2014年夏天开始,那时预计资助一个或多个承包商,CCtCap工作将专注于开发、验证和确认一个综合系统,它对乘员运输来说是安全的。一个CCtCap承包商也将计划、管理和执行长期的生产和经营计划,为其乘员运输系统(CTS)。

We’reencouraging competition, which allows industry to provide the safest system, ina cost-effective manner, while pushing technology development and innovation,”Mango said. “Down selecting to a single provider could limit these benefits.”
“我们鼓励竞争,这使得行业提供最安全的系统,在一个符合成本效益的方式下,同时推动技术开发和创新,“  芒果说。“减少选择到一个单一的供应商可能会限制这些好处。

The certification portion of CCtCap willinclude a contractor completing at least one crewed flight test to theInternational Space Station. NASA plans to award at least two and up to sixadditional post-certification missions during the CCtCap period of performanceprior to a follow-on space station services contract.
CCtCap的认证部分将包括一个承包商完成至少一次到ISS的载人飞行试验。 NASA计划奖励至少两个,以及CCtCap实施期间多达六次的附加的认证后任务在后续的空间站服务合同之前。

This nextphase brings us closer to accomplishing our dual strategies at NASA,” said PhilMcAlister, director of NASA Commercial Spaceflight Development at the agency’sHeadquarters in Washington. “To launch our astronauts from U.S. soil and continue criticalresearch aboard the International Space Station, while venturing deeper intospace than ever before.”
“在NASA,这个下一个阶段带领我们更接近实现我们的双重战略 “ 菲尔·麦卡利斯特说,他是NASA商业太空飞行开发主任,该机构华盛顿总部。“要从美国本土发射宇航员,并继续搭乘的关键研究 ISS,而冒险深入的空间比以往任何时候。“


The CCtCap draft RFP is a culmination ofefforts from experts across the agency, including procurement specialists,program representatives, engineers, technicians, safety, health and medical,spacecraft, expendable launch vehicle experts and NASA’s Flight Crew Office.
这个CCtCap 初步RFP 是一个跨机构的专家努力大成,包括采购专家,方案代表,工程师,技术人员,安全,健康和医疗,航天器,一次性的运载火箭专家和 NASA的飞行乘员组办公室。


Questions and answers from the Aug. 1Pre-Proposal Conference can be found as they are posted on the NASA AcquisitionInternet Service (NAIS) website at:
81预建议会议的问题和答案,因为他们可以发现张贴在 NASA收购互联网服务(NAIS)的网站:

For more information about NASA’sCommercial Crew Program, visit:






 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-8-7 17:19 | 显示全部楼层
关于CCtCap的RFP(征求建议)草案等,比较详细。
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NASA概述它的 商业载人认证计划
NASA Outlines its Plans for Commercial CrewCertification
August5, 2013 by Yves-A. Grondin
               
Ina recent conference with its industrypartners, NASA outlined the next phase ofits strategy to enable thecertification of commercial crew transportationsystems to and from theInternational Space Station (ISS). The goal is to returndomestic launch andtransportation capability by the year 2017.
在最近的一次与行业合作伙伴的会议上,NASA概述了下一个阶段的战略,以给力商业载人运输系统往返ISS的认证。这个目标是到2017年恢复国内发射和运输的能力
                 
CertificationStrategy:
认证策略:
           
Phase1 of the certification strategy, theCertification Products Contract (CPC)phase, was awarded last December toSpaceX, SNC and Boeing for amounts that didnot exceed $10 million per company.
认证策略的第1阶段,(是)认证产品合同(CPC)阶段,去年十二月被授予SpaceX,SNC和波音公司,每家公司金额不超过$0.10亿。
            
Thisprocurement contract is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) andits deliverables include earlylife-cycle certification products (alternatestandards, hazards analysis, andverification, validation, and certificationplans).
该采购合同基于联邦采购条例(FAR)  以及可交付成果包括早期生命周期认证产品(替代标准,危害分析,和验证,验证,和认证计划)。
   
Phase2 of the strategy, the CommercialCrew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) phase,should also be a FAR-basedprocurement contract – more specifically, it shouldbe a Firmed Fixed PriceContract under Part 15 of FAR.
战略 的第2阶段,商业载人运输能力阶段(CCtCap),也应该是基于FAR-采购合同  -更具体地,根据FAR15节,它应该是一个稳定的固定价格的合同
               
Thiscontract should be awarded in the summer of 2014 and involves the final Design,Development, Test, and Evaluation(DDTE) activities that are necessary toachieve NASA’s certification of a crew transportation system (CTS) to the ISS,along with execution of post certification missions (PCM) to the ISS.
这个合同应当在2014年夏天售出,(它)涉及最终的设计、开发,测试,和评估(DDTE活动, 对于实现NASA乘员运输系统(CTS)去到ISS的认证是必要的,随同认证后执行(PCMISS的任务是一道(进行)。
                    
Achievingcertification under CCtCap means that the contractor’s transportation systemhas met the Agency’s safety requirements for transporting NASA’s crew to theISS.
在CCtCap下完成认证,意味着承包商的运输系统已经满足该机构(NASA)的乘员去到ISS的安全运输的要求。
                     
Asdetailed in a recently issued draft request for proposal (draft RFP), CCtCapshould include four separate items:The first item relates to theDDTE/Certification of the crew transportationsystem and the purpose of thisitem is to complete DDTE activities and certifythe company’s system to NASA’srequirements for safely transporting NASA crew to the ISS.
就象最近发布的草案征求建议(书)(RFP草案)详述的,CCtCap应该包括四个独立的项目:第一项条款涉及到乘员运输系统DDTE/认证 以及 条款的目的是去完成DDTE活动 以及 认证 公司的系统 NASA要求 为安全运输NASA乘员组去到ISS
   
Itmust include at least one crewed testflight to the ISS. However, NASA expectsthat most companies will propose morethan one test flight including an unmannedtest flight.
它必须包括至少一次到ISS的载人测试飞行。 但是,NASA预期,大多数公司将提出一次以上的测试飞行,包括无人驾驶测试飞行。
                 
EdMango, program manager of NASA’s commercial crew program, indicated at theconference that the base period for the DDTE/Certification item is planned tobe from July 2014 to September 31,2017. However, he emphasized that the actualend date will depend on the proposals.
埃德芒果,NASA商业载人计划项目经理,在这次会议上表示,关于DDTE /认证条款 的基本期限 计划为从20147月至 2017931 但是,他强调说,实际结束日期将取决于有关建议。
                 
Thesecond item relates to post certification missions (PCMs) and its purpose is toperform missions to theISS.
第二项条款涉及 认证后的任务(PCMs ,其目的是为了执行到ISS的任务。
                     
After CCtCap award and after certaincriteria are satisfied, NASAmay request a proposal for a PCM. The minimum quantity of missions guaranteedto be ordered for this item is two.
CCtCap发售后,并且若干条件满足后,NASA可能要求一个PCM的提案。为此条款订购的任务担保的一个最小量是两个。
        
The maximum number of allPCMs awarded to all CCtCap contractors is six. To the extent that they do notoverlap with the existing Soyuz contract, post-certification missions areexpected to be used to rotate crews on the ISS. Ed Mango mentioned at theconference that post-certification missions can be ordered thru December 31,2020.
   PCMs被授予到所有的CCtCap承包商的最大数量是六(次)。在一定程度上,他们与现有的联盟合同不重叠,认证后任务预计 被使用在 轮换ISS乘员组上。 EDMango在会议上提到的,认证后任务可以一直订购到20201231PS: 6次,2018-20203年,2/?
                        
The third item relates tospecial studies and its purpose should be to perform special studies, tests andanalyses, as needed by NASA to perform risk reduction-type activities that arenot required under the other items. The maximum potential total value of allspecial studiestasks which may be ordered for a contract is $150M.
第三项条款涉及专项研究,其目的应该是进行专项研究、测试和分析,作为NASA执行降低风险类型活动的需要,(这些活动)并不需要根据其他项目(而定?)。所有专项研究任务 的 最大合同潜在 总价值  为一个合同可以 订购  1.5亿美元。
                 
  The fourth itemis aimed at allowing a contractor to provide cargo in addition to the minimumNASA requirements that is required from commercial crew providers – undersection 3.1.3of the 2011 draft CCT-REQ-1130Document, the requirement was for a minimum ofpressurized cargo of 100 kg and 8 cubic feet of stowage volume;and for an additional 100 kgfor any seat not occupied by a crewmember.
第四项条款是旨在 使一个承包商去提供附加货物  去最小化NASA要求,(该要求)需要来自商业载人提供商  - 根据2011年初步的CCT-REQ-1130 文件 第3.1.3节,要求100公斤的最低加压货物 和8立方英尺的存储容积; 同时(这)附加的100公斤 不为 任何 一个 乘组乘员的座位(所)占用。
              
   This item isoptional and thus does not have to be proposed by a commercial crew provider,and can be ordered inconjunction with post-certification missions orcertification flight tests.
这一项是可选的,因此不是非有要 由一个商业载人提供商 提出,同时 可以责令结合认证后任务或认证飞行测试。
                     
     It is not intended to be areplacement for existing cargo services, but should allow NASA to establish anunderstanding of the full capacity and pricing of the proposed crewtransportation system. However,Ed Mango specified at the conference that thereshould be “no negative impact to the evaluation for not proposing this capability”given that it is not arequirement.
   它的目的不是要替换现有的货运服务,但应该使NASA建立一个理解的充分完全的能力 以及 建议的乘员运输系统的定价。 但是,埃德芒果在发布会祥述说,应该是 对评估没有任何负面影响 ,关于没有提出这种能力  因为这不是一个要求。
   
Docking System of the Spacecraft:
航天器对接系统:
              
An item of interest in theRFP that could impact the timing of the certification test flights and of thepost certification missions is the docking system that will be used on the spacecraft.
在RFP中一个有趣的条目,(它)可能会影响认证测试飞行时间和认证后任务,这就是将被航天器使用的对接系统。
                        
Each commercial crewprovider must determine their approach to enable docking their spacecraft withthe ISS, with the draft RFP documentation indicating that one option is for thegovernment to provide NASA DockingSystem (NDS) units to commercial crew providers as Government FurnishedProperty (GFP).
每个商业载人供应商必须确定他们的交汇方法以给力航天器与ISS的对接,RFP草案文档表明,一个选项是关于政府提供NASA对接系统(NDS)单元给商业载人供应商,作为政府提供的物业(GFP)。
            
The Government will makeavailable a total of four NASA Docking System Block 1 units on a nocharge-for-use basis. If there are multiple contract awards, the availableunits will be distributed equitably.
政府将提供可用的一共四个NASA对接系统 第一版 单元 使用不收费的基础上。如果有多个合同售出,可用的单元将被合理分配。
                  
The first NDS flight unitwill be available in February 2016 (the other units will be available later inthe same year).The commercial companies will be responsible for any NDS systemabove this quantity and must determine their approach to obtain or buildadditional NDSunits.
第一个NDS飞行单元将在20162月可用(稍后在同一年度将提供其他单元)。商业公司将负责任何超过此数量的NDS系统,必须确定他们的交汇方法获得或建设另外NDS单位。
            
Another option is forgovernment to provide NDS Engineering Data for the commercial crew provider tobuild the NDS. The preliminary data (build-to-print) would be available inNovember, 2014 and the final data would be available by June 2016.
另一种选择是商业载人供应商建立NDS,而政府为此提供NDS工程数据 。(建立到印刷电路板上)的初步数据 将在2014年11月可用,最终数据将在2016年6月有效。
            
Another potential optionwould be for thecommercial crew provider to design and build its own uniquedocking system thatis compatible with NASA requirements (under the SSP 50808Document). If thisoption is chosen by a commercial crew provider, theGovernment would notfurnish any hardware, data, or services for the dockingsystem of the company.
另一个潜在的选择将是关于商业载人供应商设计和建立自己独特对接系统,(它)兼容NASA要求(根据SSP 50808文件)。如果 由 商业载人提供商 选择此选项,政府不会为公司的对接系统提供任何硬件、数据、或服务。
                     
   
Crew Search and Rescue (SAR) Services:
乘员搜索和救援(SAR)服务项目:
               
Mr.Mango indicated during the conference that “NASA retains the responsibility toensure a crew (search and rescue)capability exists for ascent and reentryphases of flight”.
芒果先生在会议期间表示说“NASA保留的责任,以确保乘员(搜索和救援)能力存在上升和再入飞行阶段
   
However,the company still has certain responsibilitiesas it is required to ensure safelanding in emergency situations (pad/ascentaborts or emergencyre-entry/landings), is required to provide crew survivalcapability for 24 hoursafter landing and must also provide for operationalinterface and coordinationwith NASA for the search and rescue capability.
但是,公司仍然有一定的责任,因为它是需要确保在紧急情况下安全着陆(发射台/上升中止或紧急 再入/着陆),需要提供24小时后登陆的乘员生存的能力,还必须提供操作界面与协调
搜救能力的NASA
   
Thecompany’s design will be required tointerface with the search and rescueservices in order to ensure the survivalof the crew.
公司的设计将需要搜索和救援服务的接口,以确保乘员的生存。
   
The commercialcrew provider will also berequired to provide items which are specific to theirdesign such as proceduresto extract the crew from the vehicle (e.g., hatchopening, hazards to avoid),training support for search and rescue forces (e.g.,vehicle mockups, trainers)and rescue equipment (e.g., floatation collar, seaanchor, ascending ladder).
商业载人供应商也将被要求提供他们的设计,如程序特定的物品从运载器(例如提取乘员,舱口开幕,以避免危险),搜索和救援部队的培训支持(例如,运载器 模型?,教练员)和救援设备(例如,浮选领,海锚,升梯)。
   
Third Party Liability:
第三方责任:
      
Anitem of interest in the draft RFP that could have an impact on the price of thecertification test flights and of thepost-certification missions is therequirement to obtain third party liabilityinsurance for activities that arenot covered by the licensing of the FederalAviation Administration (FAA). Thirdparty liability includes damage to or loss of property owned by a third party or third party personal injury orcasualty.
RFP草案的兴趣,可能影响价格的认证项目 测试飞行和认证后的任务是要求获得第三者责任险的活动不包括由美国联邦航空管理局(FAA)的许可。第三者责任包括由第三方或第三方人身伤害或拥有的财产损坏或遗失。
   
Thedraft RFP indicates that FAA licensingis not required for certification testflights but should be required forcontract launch and reentry operationsperformed under post certificationmissions.
RFP草案表示不需要认证,FAA许可 测试飞行,但应要求合同发射和再入操作下进行认证后的任务。
      
Thecommercial crew provider’s liabilityassociated with activities related tolaunch and reentry operations under apost-certification mission will begoverned by the FAA license and its relatedlaws and regulations.
商业载人提供商的责任与发射和再入操作后的认证任务相关的活动将受FAA执照和其相关的法律法规。
      
Forall contract activities not subject toan FAA license, the draft RFP includes aclause on third party liability thatrequires the commercial company to obtain,for each flight or mission, themaximum amount of insurance below $500Mthat isavailable in the commercial marketplace at a reasonable cost.
对于所有合同的活动并没受到FAA执照,RFP草案包括第三者责任的条款,要求商业公司获得,每个飞行任务,最大的保险金额低于5亿美元,可在商业市场上以合理的成本。
      
Thedraft RFP indicates that third-partyclaims above this insured amount but notexceeding $1.5 billion can besubmitted to the government for payment.
RFP草案表明,这个投保金额以上的第三方索赔,但不超过1.5美元十亿可以提交给政府支付。
   
   
Commercial Passengers and Non-NASA Cargoand Payload:
商业乘客和非NASA的货物有效载荷:
                          
Another item of interest inthe draft RFP that could impact the price of a post certification missions isthe presence of commercial passengers or of non-NASA cargo or payloads.
在RFP草案中另一个有趣的条款,可能会影响后期认证任务的价格,(这) 是 有 商务旅客 或者非NASA货物或有效载荷 这种情况出现
                  
According to the draft RFP,a commercial crew provider can propose to manifest a commercial passenger on apost certification mission.
根据RFP草案,一个商业载人供应商 可以在 认证后期任务上 提出一个 商用乘客名单
            
It can also propose non-NASA cargo orpayload. The draft RFP indicatesthat NASA maintains the right to approve or disapprove the passenger(s), thenon-NASA cargo or the payload proposed to bemanifested on a post certificationmission.
它也可以提出非NASA的货物或有效载荷。 RFP草案表明,NASA坚守着有权批准或不批准该客运服务(s)、非NASA货物或有效载荷建议在认证后任务加以体现(中)。
                       
The commercial crew providermust addressthe post-certification mission price adjustment or other in-kindconsiderationfor NASA in exchange for allowing the commercial passenger or thenon-NASAcargo or payload onboard.
商业载人提供商必须解决 的认证任务后调价或其他实物交换NASA在允许商业旅客或非NASA的的货物或有效载荷板载代价。
     
Competition during CCtCap:
CCtCap期间的竞赛
            
Mr. Mango indicated at theconference that NASA ideally would like to maintain competition by having morethan one provider during the CCtCap phase. “We’re encouraging competition,which allows industry to provide the safest system, in a cost-effective manner,whilepushing technology development and innovation. Down selecting to a single providercould limit these benefits.”
芒果先生在会上表示,NASA理想中 想维持有一个以上的供应商在CCtCap阶段的竞争。“我们鼓励竞争,这使得行业提供最安全的系统,在一个符合成本效益的方式中,同时推动技术开发和创新。降低选择到单一的供应商可能会限制这些好处。“
                     
Phil McAlister, Director ofthe Commercial Spaceflight Development, echoed these sentiments during a recentpresentation to the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory Council(NAC). Heindicated that “prematurely eliminating competition is one of theprimary risks to NASA satisfying the goals and objectives of the (CommercialCrew) Program.”
菲尔. 麦卡利斯特,商业太空飞行开发总监,在最近一次演讲中,对NASA的咨询委员会(NAC)商业太空委员会,回荡了这些情绪。他表示,过早地消除竞争,对于 NASA满足的(商用乘员)计划目的和目标,是主要的风险之一。”
                 
Mr. McAlister also addedthat “competitionamong more than one industry partner during the developmentphase is importantto safety and cost effectiveness.”
麦卡利斯特先生还补充说,一个以上的行业合作伙伴之间的竞争开发第一阶段s重要的安全性和成本效益。
  
He indicated that acompetitive environment“provides strong incentive for companies to meet andexceed NASA’s safetycertification requirements,” that it “prevents NASA from becomingdependent ona sole provider regardless of safety or cost implications” and thatit“supports cost-sharing by industry which augments government fundsandencourages industry partners to “stay in the game” whenencounteringdifficulties.”
他表示,竞争激烈的环境提供了强有力的激励企业满足并超越 NASA的安全认证要求,防止 NASA从唯一供应商越来越依赖于不顾安危或成本的影响”  并且它   “支持费用分摊增强政府资金的行业,并鼓励业界合作伙伴   “留在游戏中”   当遇到困难。
     
However, Mr. McAlisteradmitted that NASA is unlikely to continue carrying three providers during theCCtCap phase.
但是,麦卡利斯特先生承认, NASACCtCap阶段不太可能维持三个供应商运转。
                  
Interestingly, the draft RFPhas a clause that could allow, under certain circumstances, new entrants afterthe initial 2014 CCtCap awards. The clause indicates that “NASA may conduct asubsequent(CCtCap) competition due to the loss of an existing (crewtransportation system) provider or if there are additional future NASArequirements for certified crew transportation.”
有趣的是 ,RFP草案有一个条款,可以允许,在某些情况下,在最初的2014 CCtCap 发售之后 新的加入者。该条款表明,由于现有(乘员运输系统)供应商的缺失,或者如果NASA对于认证乘员运输 需要有 附加的未来,NASA可能进行后续(CCtCap)的竞争
     
The final version of the RFPshould take into account feedback from industry on the draft version and shouldbe releasedin October 2013. Interested companies should have a few months torespond to the request since proposals for CCtCap should be due in December2013.
RFP的最终版本应该考虑到来自行业界对此草稿版本的反馈意见,并应在201310月发布。有兴趣的公司,应该有一个几个月来响应请求,因为建议CCtCap应于201312月到期。
  
PS:RFP,2013-08发布草案,2013-10发布正式版本,2013-12截止反馈日期?
                  
Awards for CCtCap arecurrently planned forJuly 2014.
CCtCap(合同)目前计划于20147月(开始)资助。
  



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-8-16 08:25 | 显示全部楼层
NASA,商业载人合作伙伴投资额外的开发里程碑
NASA, Commercial Crew Partners FundAdditional Development Milestones
Aug. 15, 2013    -- RELEASE 13-251

      
NASA announced Thursday it is adding someadditional milestones to agreements with three U.S.commercial companies that are developing spaceflight capabilities that couldeventually provide launch services to transport NASA astronauts to theInternational Space Station from U.S. soil.
NASA周四宣布,它在与正在提供航天能力开发的三家美国商业公司的(合同)协议中, 增加了一些额外的里程碑 ,这(种能力)最终能够 从美国本土发射摆渡NASA宇航员到ISS。
                        
NASA is supporting the development of thesecapabilities through its Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap)initiative. As part of this initiative, NASA is exercising and funding specificadditional milestones for these next generation space transportation systems.The agency has extended the Space Act Agreements (SAAs) for The Boeing Companyof Houston, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) of Hawthorne,Calif., and Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) ofLouisville, Colo., to include one or two additionalmilestones each under CCiCap.
NASA正在通过其商业载人综合能力(CCiCap)倡议去支持这些能力的开发。作为这一举措的一部分,NASA针对该下一代太空运输系统,训练和资助特别的附加里程碑。该机构已经延长了 与 休斯敦的波音公司,加州霍桑的太空探索技术公司(SpaceX),科罗拉多州路易斯维尔的内华达山脉公司(SNC)的 太空行动协议(SAAs),在每个CCiCap(协议)下(增加)计入一个或两个附加的里程碑
                     
"Our commercial partners are on-trackdeveloping innovative, new space systems that can safely, reliably andaffordably transport astronauts and end the gap in U.S.human spaceflight capabilities," said William Gerstenmaier, associateadministrator for Human Exploration and Operations at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "Theseadditional milestones are specifically targeted by NASA and our partners toreduce risk and improve development efforts."
“我们的商业合作伙伴是赛道上的发展创新,新的太空系统,可以安全地,可靠,经济的运输宇航员和美国的间隙到底 载人航天能力,“ 威廉葛斯坦迈亚说,副主管 载人探险与业务  在华盛顿NASA总部。“专门针对这些额外的里程碑 NASA和我们的合作伙伴,以降低风险和提高 开发力度。“
     
  
In their respective CCiCap SAAs, which wereawarded in August 2012, NASA's partners listed optional milestones that couldbe exercised to continue the development and maturation of their space systems.After negotiation with the partners, NASA decided to fund revised portions ofexisting CCiCap optional milestones and extend the period of performance forthe CCiCap SAAs from May 2014 to August 2014. The industry partners also willbe contributing financially to the execution of these milestones. Therevisions, in the form of amendments to the SAAs, are posted online at:
2012年8月被授予的,在他们各自的CCiCap SAAS中,NASA的合作伙伴列出了可以实行的可选里程碑,以继续开发和成熟化其太空系统。经过与合作伙伴的谈判, NASA决定资助经过修订的现有CCiCap可选里程碑,同时 延长CCiCap SAAs的履行期间,从20145月至20148。行业合作伙伴,也将对执行这些里程碑提供财政捐助。这些修订,SaaS的形式修订,贴在网上:
     
        
Themilestones are:
-- Boeing Spacecraft Safety Review. NASA'sinvestment is $20 million and the milestone is planned to be accomplished inJuly 2014.
-- SpaceX Dragon Parachute Tests. NASA'sinvestment is $20 million and the milestone is planned to be accomplished overseveral months culminating in November 2013.
-- SNC Incremental Critical Design Review#1. NASA's investment is $5 million and the milestone is planned to beaccomplished in October 2013.
-- SNC Incremental Reaction Control SystemTesting #1. NASA's investment is $10 million and the milestone is planned to beaccomplished in July 2014.
这些(额外的)里程碑是:
- 波音飞船安全评审。 NASA的投资为0.20亿,同时该里程碑计划将在20147月完成。
-  SpaceX龙降落伞测试。 NASA的投资为0.20亿,同时该里程碑计划最终将在201311月(前)的几个月内完成。
-  SNC增加的关键设计评审#1 NASA的投资为500万,该里程碑计划到201310月完成。
-  SNC增加的反作用控制系统测试#1 NASA的投资为1000万,同时该里程碑计划将在20147月完成。
                           
These milestones each reduce risks, advancethe partners' development efforts or accelerate schedules consistent with thegoals of CCiCap. NASA plans to use fiscal year 2014 funding for the totalgovernment investment of $55 million. Funding these optional milestones doesnot alter or affect NASA's acquisition strategy for the agency's CommercialCrew Program.
这些里程碑 与  降低风险、推进合作伙伴的开发力度、加快CCiCap时间表  的目标一致。 使用NASA计划2014财年经费占政府总投资0.55亿美元。资助这些可选的里程碑,并不会改变或影响 NASA代理公司的收购策略 商业载人计划。
     
While NASA works with U.S. industry partners to developand advance new commercial space capabilities, the agency also is developingthe Orion spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS), a crew capsule andheavy-lift rocket to provide an entirely new capability for human exploration.Designed to be flexible for launching spacecraft for crew and cargo missions,SLS and Orion will expand human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and enable newmissions of exploration in the solar system, including to an asteroid and Mars.
NASA与美国产业界合作伙伴的发展和推进新 商业太空能力的,该机构还正在开发 猎户座飞船 太空发射系统(SLS),一个乘员舱和 重型起飞的火箭提供了一个全新的能力 载人探索。设计是灵活的发射 航天器的乘员和货物的任务,SLS和猎户座将扩大人类的存在超越低地球轨道 给力的新任务探索 太阳系,包括小行星和火星。
     
For more information about NASA'scommercial space initiatives, visit:



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-16 08:52 | 显示全部楼层
政府关闭影响猎户座(飞船)、商业载人的工作

Government Shutdown Affects Orion,Commercial Crew Work
Posted by Doug Messier on October 15, 2013,at 10:34 am in News
       Tags: boeing, cst-100, dragon, dream chaser, falcon 9, lockheed martin,nasa, orion, sierra nevada corporation, spacex.
Tags :波音公司,CST - 100,龙,追梦,猎鹰9,洛克希德·马丁公司,美国航空航天局,猎户座,内华达山脉公司,SpaceX公司。

Space News has a couple of reports on howthe two-week long government shutdown is affecting America’s efforts to develop newhuman spacecraft:
太空新闻有2篇报告,是关于长达两个星期的政府关闭如何影响美国新载人太空航天器开发努力的:

Sierra NevadaCorporation “has hit a literal wall in its test program because of theshutdown…..A full-scale test article of the company’s Dream Chaser lifting-bodyspacecraft is locked up and inaccessible at NASA Dryden Flight Research Centerinside Edwards Air Force Base in California.”
内华达山脉公司:“因为(政府)关闭,其测试程序已经撞上一面横墙 ..... 公司追梦升力体航天器的一个全尺寸测试体,锁定在人迹罕至NASA德莱顿飞行研究中心,(地点位于)加州爱德华兹空军基地内。“

The company had planned a series of fivemore captive-carry flights, including an automated descent and landing test.Those tests, which are worth $15 million, will be conducted after the shutdownends.
该公司曾策划了一系列五个系留飞行测试,包括一个自动的下降和着陆试验。这些测试,目前的价值为0.15亿,将在(政府)关门结束后实施

SpaceXhas had to delay a safety review scheduled for thismonth that is worth a $50 million payment from NASA. The company says thefunding is easier to handle than the lack of access to NASA’s experts who areproviding input on the Dragon spacecraft the company is human rating.
SpaceX不得不推迟一个定于本月实施的由NASA支付价值$0.50亿的安全评审。该公司表示,相比于缺乏NASA专家,资金更容易处理,(这些专家)提供该公司载人级别龙航天器的输入

“‘Anyfinancial impact from the government shutdown is manageable on our end,’”SpaceX spokeswoman Emily Shanklin told SpaceNews in an Oct. 9 email. ‘We are ina good place with respect to the October milestone, but an extended governmentshutdown prevents the day-to-day interactions with our NASA counterparts thatkeep the program moving forward.’”
“任何来自政府关闭的财务影响对于我们的(最终)结果是可以控制的”,“ SpaceX 发言人艾米莉尚克林在10月9日的电子邮件中告诉SpaceNews。 “就十月里程碑(来说?)我们处在一个好位置, 但是延长了的政府关门,阻碍了NASA同行与我们一天一天的互动,(这些互动)保持该项目向前发展。“

Boeing does not have any CST-100 milestonesscheduled for October, so it is not affected very much by the governmentshutdown.
波音CST – 100在10月份没有任何里程碑,所以政府关闭对它不是很受影响。

Lockheed Martin is trying to get NASA togive it access to the Kennedy Space Centerso it can continue to prepare the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle for a 2014unmanned test flight.
洛克希德·马丁公司正在试图使NASA给予它利用KSC的权利,这样它可以继续准备“猎户座”多用途载人飞船在2014年的无人测试飞行。


Read the full stories:
·                                Shutdown’sEffect on Three Commercial Crew Companies Varies
·                                 
·                                Government Shutdown Ripples Out to Work on Orion Capsule
·                                 



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-11-3 10:14 | 显示全部楼层
NASA发布下一个阶段商业载人(合同)RFP草案
NASA Release Draft RFP for Next Phase of Commercial Crew
Posted by Doug Messieron November 2, 2013, at 9:37 amin News.
Tags: commercial crew, human spaceflight, NASA, NASA KSC.
               
NASA Kennedy Space Center has released a draft RFP for the next phase of the Commercial Crew Program. The agency expects to release a final RFP on or about November 19, 2013, with proposals due on or about January 22, 2014. A pre-proposal conference is set for on or about December 4, 2013.
NASA KSC已经发布了下一个阶段商业载人计划RFP草案。该机构预计20131119或前后发布最终的RFP2014122或前后建议到期。一个预备建议会议准备在2013124前后(召开)。
               
Synopsis
简介
               
NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) plans to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) to compete requirements for Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) Phase 2 of the Commercial Crew Program. The CCtCap contract is the second phase of a two-phased procurement strategy to develop a U.S. commercial crew space transportation capability to achieve safe, reliable and cost effective access to and from the International Space Station (ISS) with a goal of no later than 2017.
NASA KSC计划发布一个征求建议(书)(RFP),去竞争商业载人计划的商业载人运输能力(CCtCap )第2阶段的资格。 CCtCap合同是两个阶段的采购策略的第二阶段,制定了美国 商业载人太空运输 实现安全、可靠和具有成本效益的往返ISS的能力目标,(时间)不迟于2017年。
               
...      ...

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-11-20 10:34 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2013-11-20 10:35 编辑

NASA努力推动再次从美国本土发射宇航员到空间站(发布最终RFP)
NASA Advances Effort to Launch Astronauts Again from U.S. Soil to Space Station
Nov. 19, 2013 RELEASE 13-344
http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/november/nasa-advances-effort-to-launch-astronauts-again-from-us-soil-to-space-station/
           
Commercial Crew Request for Proposals Finalizes Development and Certification Process
商业载人征求建议(书)敲定开发和认证过程
                     
NASA took another step Tuesday to restore an American capability to launch astronauts from U.S. soil to the International Space Station by the end of 2017, subject to the availability of adequate funding. The agency's Commercial Crew Program (CCP) requested proposals from U.S. companies to complete development of crew transportation systems that meet NASA certification requirements and begin conducting crewed flights to the space station.
NASA周二采取了另一个步骤,提供适当充足的资金,以恢复从美国本土在2017年底发射美国宇航员到ISS的能力。该机构的商业载人计划( CCP )要求美国公司完成建议开发该乘员运输系统,以满足NASA认证的要求,并开始进行载人飞行到空间站。
                        
…          …

This phase of the CCP, called Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap), will enable NASA to ensure a company's crew transportation system is safe, reliable and cost-effective. The certification process will assess progress throughout the production and testing of one or more integrated space transportation systems, which include rockets, spacecraft and ground operations. Requirements under CCtCap also will include at least one crewed flight test to the space station before certification can be granted.
CCP的这一阶段,叫做商业载人运输能力( CCtCap ),将 给力 NASA ,以确保公司的乘员运输系统安全,可靠和具有成本效益。认证过程将评估一个或多个综合太空运输系统的生产和测试的进程,其中包括火箭、航天器和地面操作。在CCtCap要求下,将包括至少一个到ISS 载人飞行测试,然后可以授予认证。
               

…    … …
     
As with all of NASA's human spaceflight activities, astronaut safety will be a priority. CCtCap ensures a strong emphasis on crew safety through its requirements, including NASA insight throughout development and thorough testing of the space transportation systems.
与所有NASA载人航天活动一样,宇航员的安全将是一个优先(考虑)。 CCtCap确保乘员的安全非常重视通过其要求,包括 NASA洞察整个 开发和全面测试 太空运输系统。
     
…      …       …
     

NASA expects to award one or more CCtCap contracts no later than September 2014.
NASA预计不迟于20149发售一个或多个CCtCap合约。
                     
CCtCap is the second phase of a two-phased effort that began last year. It builds on the accomplishments of a first certification phase, called Certification Products Contracts (CPC). CPC required companies to deliver a range of products that establish a baseline for their integrated system certification. CCtCap is open to any company with systems at the design maturity level consistent with the completion of the first certification phase.
CCtCap是从去年开始的两个阶段工作的第二阶段。它建立在第一阶段认证所取得的成就之上,(即)所谓的认证产品合约( CPC )。CPC需要公司(们)为其集成体系认证提交一系列建立一个基线的产品。CCtCap开放给任何公司,(前提是一致与首次认证阶段完成的设计成熟度水平的系统。
                  
CCtCap contractors will plan, manage and execute long-term production and operational plans for their systems. The firm-fixed price contracts, based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations, will include at least one crewed flight test to verify the spacecraft can dock to the space station and that all its systems perform as expected. CCtCap contracts also will include at least two and as many as six crewed, post-certification missions to enable NASA to meet its station crew rotation requirements.
CCtCap的承包商将为他们(自己)的系统制定计划、管理和执行长期的生产经营。一个固定价格合同,基于联邦采购条例,将包括至少一次载人飞行测试来验证航天器可以停靠到该空间站,并且其所有系统达到预期效果。 CCtCap合同还将包括至少两人以及多达六人的乘组,认证后的任务使NASA满足其空间站乘员轮换要求。
                  
While CCtCap will enable NASA to acquire a capability to transport crews to the space station, systems developed by U.S. industry can be marketed and used by other customers.
CCtCap将给力NASA获得运输乘员到空间站的能力,由美国产业界开发的系统可以推销给其他客户使用。
                  
…        … …
http://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

----------------------

http://www.parabolicarc.com/2013 ... rcial-crew-program/


 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-11-21 08:16 | 显示全部楼层

曾经主管NASA  CCP的Ed Mango 犯了经济错误?
  http://www.parabolicarc.com/2013/11/20/shocker-ed-mango-pleads-guilty-federal-felony-charge/
   

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-12-24 06:49 | 显示全部楼层

    商业载人公司们仍在预定的轨道上展开竞争

      PS: 距离 上一次 60天报告有 7个月了(3.5*60天).
  
Commercial Crew Companies Stay on Track for Milestone Completions                     on December 23, 2013, at 12:08 pm



   
      
   
WASHINGTON (NASA PR) — NASA’s Commercial Crew Program partners continue to meet all scheduled milestones, bringing the nation closer to its goal of having a U.S. capability for human access to space and ending reliance on foreign vehicles.
SpaceX recently completed five milestones:
  • The Human Certification Plan Review, which laid out SpaceX’s plans for certification of the design of the spacecraft, launch vehicle, and ground and mission operations systems.
  • The On-Orbit and Entry Preliminary Design Review, which successfully demonstrated that the overall system preliminary design for orbit, rendezvous and docking with the ISS and entry light regimes met the company’s requirements with acceptable risks and within schedule constraints.
  • The In-Flight Abort Test Review, which demonstrated the maturity of the in-flight abort test article design and the concept of operations for the abort test.
  • The Safety Review, which demonstrated the crew transportation system design and SpaceX processes.
  • The Falcon 9 Flight Review, which demonstrated Falcon 9 launch vehicle performance, including structures, dynamics, propulsion, avionics and software.
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) recently completed three milestones:
  • The Engineering Test Article Flight Test, which was SNC’s final Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) milestone.
  • The Integrated System Safety Analysis Review #2, which demonstrated that the Dream Chaser Space System Safety documentation maturity had advanced to a post-preliminary design review level.
  • The Certification Plan Review, which defined SNC’s top-level certification strategy and detailed verification and validation planning.
Boeing CST-100 engineering simulator. (Credit: Boeing)

Boeing recently completed six milestones:
  • The Dual Engine Centaur LO2 duct test, which characterized subsystem functionality and will inform the overall system design.
  • The Orbital Maneuvering and Attitude Control Engine Development test, which supports component, subsystem and integrated spacecraft development efforts.
  • The Mission Control Center Interface Demonstration Test, which demonstrated data links between the Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center and Boeing’s Avionics Software Integration Facility as a precursor to future integrated simulation capability for flight operations training.
  • The Certification Plan Review, which enabled Boeing to define its strategy leading to a crewed flight test.
  • The Avionics Software Integration Lab Multi-String Demo Test, which successfully demonstrated the closed loop Guidance, Navigation and Control flight software for the ascent flight phase.
  • The Service Module Propulsion System Critical Design Review, which tested the complex system of thrusters, engines and control network for production and integration with the CST-100 spacecraft.
Blue Origin, which extended its CCDev2 agreements with NASA on an unfunded basis earlier this year, completed the Engine Mission Duty Cycle test milestone. This test demonstrated that the primary launch vehicle propulsion can support all phases of flight, including launch, coast phase and engine relight for launch vehicle landing.

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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-12-24 06:56 | 显示全部楼层
padamsli 发表于 2014-1-19 23:47 | 显示全部楼层
美航天局:2014年是商业载人航天“关键年”
来源: 新华网        日期:2014/01/16        字体:【大】【中】【小】

美国航天局14日说,2014年将是美国商业载人航天项目的“关键年”,希望到8月能与一家或多家美国公司签署商业载人航天项目合同。到目前为止,这一计划正“稳步推进”。

美国航天局当天发表声明说,美国商业载人航天项目的目标是发展新一代载人航天运输系统,并在3年内利用它们把美国宇航员送上太空。为此,美国航天局正与蓝色起源公司、波音公司、内华达山公司和太空探索技术公司紧密合作,支持他们研发新一代载人航天器。

据美国航天局介绍,由亚马逊公司创始人杰夫·贝索斯创建的蓝色起源公司去年成功测试了其BE-3液氢火箭发动机。今年,该公司计划评估其他系统设计。波音公司的CST-100航天器已于去年完成了细节设计评估工作,而今年将评估其推进系统,以确认它能否投产。

内华达山公司的“追梦者”空天飞机也取得“显著进展”,在去年的首次自由飞行测试中,尽管它降落时滑出跑道,但整个飞行过程堪称完美。今年,“追梦者”将进行更多飞行测试。太空探索技术公司同样“走在正轨上”,今年其“龙”货运飞船将测试载人飞行时发生意外情况下的逃逸系统。

在航天飞机2011年退役后,美国航天发射严重依赖俄罗斯。为改变这一局面,美国大力推进私营企业进入商业发射领域,太空探索技术公司的“龙”飞船已多次承担货运发射任务。(记者 林小春)

http://www.spacechina.com/n25/n144/n208/n232/c629208/content.html
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-1-29 07:07 | 显示全部楼层

航天顾问团对商业载人航天的 投资和采购策略表示担心
ASAP Worried About Commercial Crew Funding, Acquisition Strategy    on January 28, 2014,

  
.
     The commercial crew gap: the Obama Administration’s requested funding is in blue, with Congressional amount in red. (Credit: ASAP, FY 2014 budget data)

  PS: 再次 表示国会的吝啬威胁到CCP进度。
   
  


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 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-2-27 15:15 | 显示全部楼层
  CCiCap 60天报告:
   http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/02/26/commercial-crew-partners-continue-progress-milestones/
   
   
  

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点评

看看SpaceX能不能继续创造奇迹吧。波音实力最强,但也最中规中矩。  发表于 2014-2-27 15:51
所以相对来说,在CCiCap比赛跑道上,波音是排在最前面的运动员。  发表于 2014-2-27 15:22
到结束,虽然都差5个里程碑,但是波音的分母最大(20)。而且对于SPX和SNC,剩下的都是硬骨头。  发表于 2014-2-27 15:20
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-3-4 20:11 | 显示全部楼层

美国《大众机械》高级编辑谈NASA和私营航天公司关系

美国《大众机械》高级编辑谈NASA和私营航天公司关系(上)

新闻发布时间:2014-03-03

  [本站2014年3月3日综合报道]很多航天人看到2014年预算的详细内容时都很高兴,NASA的高预算项目免于被国会削减。“猎户座”飞船获得12亿美元,航天发射系统(SLS)获得19亿美元,这两个项目将共同将人类送上火星或小行星。
  
  但有一部分人却高兴不起来——那些竞争2017年前载人入轨的私营航天公司,三家公司为波音、太空探索技术和内华达山脉公司。白宫为商业载人项目申请的8.21亿美元最终被削减为6.96亿美元。
  
  迄今为止,私营航天的试验表现良好。太空探索技术公司和轨道科学公司都在其向国际太空站发射的飞船中,使用了未在NASA严格监管下设计的硬件。三家公司实现了多个里程碑,并为多次飞行设定了日期,使得利用新的私营运输飞船替代航天飞机的工作也进展顺利。NASA从航天器研发者向真正的太空飞行服务用户的转变能实现多少,考验将从2014年开始。
  
  美国依靠私营公司研制和运营航天器的目的是打破官僚作风造成的僵局,比如承担主要政府项目的NASA经常延期并增加成本。另外,美国急需获得载人入轨能力。在2011年航天飞机退役后,NASA以7000万美元的价格向俄罗斯购买“联盟”号一个座位。但也要警惕NASA的私营航天项目将会变得和从前的大型政府项目一样。国会拒绝投资新的方案,却又以大量资金来维持SLS项目的行为,使得2014年成为一个一触即发的爆发点。

  投资“一个半”公司
  
  关于预算的消息对这项工作(依靠私营公司研制和运营航天器)来说并不是个好兆头。对于三家争夺下一份合同(商业载人运载能力,CCtCAP)的公司来说,再少的削减也是坏消息。CCtCAP合同覆盖的下个阶段不只要研发航天器,还要真正地将它们发射入轨。合同要求至少要通过一次飞行试验,来验证航天器与国际空间站的对接能力,此外还要完成2到6次搭载NASA宇航员的载人任务,以满足国际空间站乘员轮换需求。
  
  最令人担忧的问题是NASA还未决定是否能投资一个以上的项目。NASA打算在“缩小选择范围”的过程中踢掉一个竞标者。这对那些正在努力达到NASA要求的任务里程碑的公司而言绝对是一个紧张而严峻的时刻。包括查尔斯·博尔登局长在内的NASA官员都已公开表示,将投资两家公司,或一家公司并为另一家公司提供部分经费,该决定将于2014年夏季出台。
  
  谁将出局?是在接受NASA规章制度严格考验方面素有经验的波音,还是极高效费比著称,拥有正在验证的火箭和组合太空舱的太空探索技术,亦或是研究“追梦者”太空飞机(由“宇宙神”-5火箭发射)的内华达山脉?无论哪家都难以接受投资被削减。
  
  NASA监察长办公室官员在2013年发布的一份报告中警告,不要将所有鸡蛋放在一个篮子里。投资一家公司意味着,如果该公司出现意外状况,NASA将失去仅存的载人航天能力。另外,竞争的缺失必将引起项目价格的上升。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 李金钊 侯丹)  

------------------------


美国《大众机械》高级编辑谈NASA和私营航天公司关系(中)

新闻发布时间:2014-03-03

  [本站2014年3月3日综合报道]
  帮助、妨碍还是两者兼有?
  
  另个令人担忧的问题是,2014年起,NASA可能将迫使私营航天公司按照传统方式建造航天器。目前为止,私营航天公司在设计火箭和航天器时一直拥有充足的自由度。但CCtCAP合同将重新加强NASA的监督力度,这将提高冲突、延期和成本超支的风险。
  
  NASA载人探索及任务运行部的副部长葛斯坦迈亚(William Gerstenmaier)表示,美国商业航天工业在研发下一代低地轨道载人运输系统上取得了巨大的进步,但要按照NASA认证需求完成这些系统并不容易。
  
  早在2008年,NASA和私营航天公司就曾经就PopMech合同存在争论。公司官员曾抱怨合同中并未明确哪一方拥有工程的最终决定权。新政府审查委员会有权否决硬件设计。一些内部人士将密集的NASA控制同联邦航空局的简单飞机适航性的认证作对比。NASA时任商业航天部部长菲尔·麦卡利斯特(Phil McAlister)表示,由于这些系统涉及宇航员们的安危,而NASA在确保载人航天器安全方面的经验是不可或缺的,因此NASA希望、也有必要深度参与到这些系统的研发过程中来。
  
  当时航天私营公司并未受到PopMech合同的影响,但这次的新CCtCAP合同中明确了NASA将像原本希望的那样插手更多。比如,2007年NASA曾想将自己的员工安排在私营公司工厂中监管设计方向。这份2014年合同中给联合测试小组(JTT)安排的正是这一任务。
  
  NASA的大幅参与是一件坏事吗?毕竟,NASA在载人航天器方面有深厚的知识储备,在安全和保障方面曾有着深刻教训。但NASA依旧是一个大型官僚机构,素有超支延时的倾向。据NASA监察长称,NASA已拖慢了交付给公司载人评级要求(开展NASA载人航天时必须遵循的规则)的进度。
  
  航天公司希望在2-3个月内,得知其自主研制的硬件是否符合NASA发布的规格要求。但NASA却习惯于“停止”各项活动。监察长的报告指出,花费4个月制定“一大串”要求中,却没有解决方案,这种反复比私营公司的所期望的时间要长得多。而延期则意味着要浪费更多纳税人的钱,因为航天飞机已经退役了,NASA只能以每位7000万美元的高价,依靠俄罗斯的“联盟”号将宇航员送入国际太空站。另外,延期还将使国会更有机会和理由对预算进行削减。
  
  最后一个令人担忧的问题是合同的形式。由于CCtCAP采用固定价格合同,意味着中标公司将获得固定费用,也就意味着成本上涨会使波音、太空探索技术或内华达山脉公司的利润下降。而成本加成模式的合同则会承担所有开销,并提供保障利润的额外资金。如果NASA要求进行更多的测试,公司将不得不牺牲利润开展额外的测试。2007年,NASA官员尝试通过分担测试成本的方式消除这类担忧,而且CCtCAP也似乎对此类做法进行限制。但当载人任务即将开展之时,工程争端将变成权力斗争。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 李金钊 侯丹)  

-----------------------------

美国《大众机械》高级编辑谈NASA和私营航天公司关系(下)  

新闻发布时间:2014-03-03


  [本站2014年3月3日综合报道]
  尝试些新方案
  
  葛斯坦迈亚表示NASA的采购策略是为了让具有创新能力的工业界最大程度地从NASA那里获得经验、技能和深刻教训。
  
  这是NASA的一项新工作,在国会不支持的情况下,NASA正在坚定地这样做。国会议员也许喜欢花费数十亿美元的大型项目(尤其是当政府将这些钱用在他们的选区时),但纳税人却没有这样的想法。就本次预算来说,国会在没有特定任务需求的SLS上,花费数十亿美元,却忽视真正存在的2017年的发射需求。
  
  比起太空站物资补给,还有更多的严峻问题。如果NASA多“放手”的方法奏效,将为美国保住数亿美元的资金和许多工程师的岗位,还能通过降低入轨费用,重振美国发射业务。如果NASA有希望在保证宇航员任务期间安全的前提下,找到明智的方式工作,其他政府机构将能以更精简、更明智的方式开展工作。 (中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 李金钊 侯丹)   

  

padamsli 发表于 2014-3-7 18:34 | 显示全部楼层
NASA商业乘员项目取得新的里程碑进展
http://www.spacechina.com/n25/n144/n208/n232/c654835/content.html

据美国国家航空航天局网站2014年2月28日报道,美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的工业合作伙伴正在NASA的“商业乘员项目”(CCP)协议下持续开发将人类送往低地球轨道的航天器和火箭,并不断获得里程碑进展。

商业乘员项目简况

NASA意图认证和使用商业系统从美国本土发射航天员至国际空间站,并从空间站返回。在NASA“商业乘员项目”(CCP)协议下,蓝源公司、波音空间探索公司、内华达公司和美国空间探索技术公司(SpaceX)分别开发了各自的运载系统,每家公司将在2014年接受严格的评估和试验。

波音公司CST-100飞船

在NASA的“商业乘员国际能力”协议下,波音公司和内华达公司在2013年12月末和2014年1月份取得关键里程碑进展。波音公司与联合发射联盟为“宇宙神”5火箭发射波音公司CST-100飞船做准备,合作完成了应急探测系统和运载火箭适配器的开发。波音公司副总裁兼商业项目经理约翰•墨尔霍兰德称,联合发射联盟在两项工作的整个过程中发挥作用,确保了运载火箭适配器和应急探测系统的全面运行及未来乘员的安全。

内华达公司“追梦者”飞船

内华达公司团队近期完成了“追梦者”升力体飞船及相关系统的增量关键设计评审,还完成一项数据库(基于公司2013年10月首次自由飞行试验所采集的数据)确认评审,评审确认了“追梦者”可按设计发射和航行,并可执行受控下的下降和着陆。

项目其他进展

所有四家NASA合作伙伴都在努力达到所设定的里程碑,蓝源公司正在非资助的第二轮“商业乘员开发”计划下准备完成剩余的里程碑工作。波音公司CST-100的主结构设计将进行关键设计评审,决定飞船整体是否已做好了进行生产的准备。内华达公司正准备评审大量的风洞试验数据,之后将进一步成熟化“追梦者”空间系统设计。在未来几个月,SpaceX将对公司的集成系统及地面系统所取得的进展进行更多详细评审。

NASA和四家合作伙伴正引领新一代空间运输能力,他们的工作将为人类在太空生活和工作带来新机遇。(刘蕊蕊 编译)

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-3-10 14:34 | 显示全部楼层
美国内华达山脉公司完成对“追梦者”航天器飞行剖面数据的审查  
  
新闻发布时间:2014-03-07
  

  [据每日航天网2014年3月6日报道]   美国内华达山脉公司(SNC)达成了“追梦者”航天器的一项里程碑:完成了飞行剖面数据的审查。
  
  按照“商业载人飞行综合能力”(CCiCap)项目协定,SNC与NASA德莱顿飞行研究中心在加利福尼亚州的爱德华空军基地合作开展了这次飞行测试(里程碑-4a),工程师们对这次测试中的数据进行了审查。迄今为止,SNC已完成了CCiCap项目中70%的款项,并完成了每一个里程碑中的所有款项。
  
  在里程碑-4a飞行测试中,工作团队搜集了“追梦者”航天器飞行剖面中所有名义下滑角数据和其它关键气动参数数据。此外,航天器上还额外装有特定的气动建模传感器工具,工作团队将优先处理和评估这些传感器获取的数据。
       
  SNC团队和NASA“飞行数据后处理分析”的结果验证了“追梦者”航天器优异的气动表现,并显著扩充了亚声速飞行区域的空气动力学数据库。此外,为了演示验证航天器在里程碑-4a中的自主飞控系统,工作团队证实了对航天器所做的气动预测中(经过大量数据分析)超过40%是与航天器实际性能相匹配的。
  
  SNC与NASA商业载人项目进行合作,发展适应21世纪的安全、创新、现代、灵活和可行的载人系统。“追梦者”航天器作为目前唯一的具有商业跑道着落起降能力的可重复使用载人升力体航天器,走在了商业载人飞行产业的前沿,能安全、可靠和高性价比地进行低地球轨道提供载人飞行和关键货物运输。(中国航天系统科学与工程研究院 孙棕檀)  
  
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-4-1 15:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2014-4-1 15:26 编辑

    4个伙伴完成一些里程碑
   ----------------------------------------
  
    主要是:
        boeing - CST-100基本结构关键设计评审。
  

Boeing wrapped up a critical design review of the primary structures for its CST-100 spacecraft in late February that advances the design of many of the spacecraft structures to a point at which fabrication can begin. The primary structures are comprised of two major components

SpaceX -地面系统早期评审。

Also in February, SpaceX completed an early design review for the ground systems it anticipates using at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to launch the company’s crewed Dragon spacecraft on the company’s Falcon 9 rocket.

  蓝源和SNC也有所成就。



   

  http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/march/nasa-commercial-crew-partners-complete-space-system-milestones/

  http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/03/31/nasa-commercial-crew-partners-complete-space-system-milestones/
  http://spacefellowship.com/news/art37817/nasa-commercial-crew-partners-complete-space-system-milestones.html

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-4-14 20:35 | 显示全部楼层

PS: 一些零碎信息

-----------


NASA及其合作伙伴 提供的 一些 有关商业载人的 更新(消息)
NASA, Partners Provide Updates onCommercial Crew
Posted by Doug Messier on April 10, 2014, at5:04 am in News
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2014/04/10/nasa-partners-provide-updates-commercial-crew/

      
During last week’s Space Tech Expo in Long Beach, Calif., apanel of NASA and private sector partners gathered to discuss their progress onreturning U.S.crew launches to American soil.
上星期,在加利福尼亚州长滩 举行的 航天科技产业博览会上, 一个由NASA和私营部门合作伙伴(组成的)小组齐聚一堂,讨论他们的(关于)恢复在美国本土发射美国乘员的 进展。
                     
...  ...     
...    ...
  ...   ....  

SpaceX DragonRider
SpaceX龙飞船骑士
         
Garrett Reisman
加勒特 赖斯曼

… ……

…  … …
     
Commercial crew worked well because themodel allowed for rapid decision making. NASA got a lot of value for investment
商业乘员(合同)运作良好,因为该模型允许快速做出决策。NASA的投资得到了很多价值
            

Very excited about NASA’s efforts tocommercial cargo/crew model for deep space exploration
对于NASA深空探索商业货物/乘员运输模型的尝试(感到)很兴奋
                           

Boeing CST-100
Christopher Ferguson
                波音公司 CST - 100
克里斯托弗·弗格森
                  
Boeing has three milestones to meet by August underthis round of the commercial crew program, including an integrated CriticalDesign Review scheduled for July
波音公司有三个里程碑八月下这一轮的满足 商业载人计划,包括一个集成的关键设计评审定于7
              
CST-100 vehicle designed for repeated reuse
CST- 100运载器是被设计为可重复再利用的
               
Need more destinations to make crewservices feasible
需要更多的目的地,使乘组(有?)可行的服务
      
People won’t want to just orbit for a fewdays in small craft
Boeing has a partnership with BigelowAerospace, which is developing private space stations
人们不会希望 在这个小型飞船内 仅仅绕行几天(的时间).
波音与Bigelow宇航公司有一个合作关系,这是正在开发的民营空间站
                    
Boeing has some “wonderful ideas” for apermanent name for CST-100, which is an abbreviation for Crew SpaceTransportation
Won’t rename CST-100 vehicle until afterthe next round of commercial crew awards, which is expected later this year

对于CST -100的永久名称,波音公司有一些 “妙点子”  这是一个对于乘员太空运输 的简化(处理?)

(但是) 一直到下一轮商业载人资助之后,不会重命名CST - 100运载器,(这)预计要到今年晚些时候.
                     
Boeing, NASA and Space Florida planning a ceremony inearly June for the hand-over of the former Orbital Processing Facility 3 at theKennedy Space Center for use in assembly CST-100 vehicles
波音公司,NASA和太空佛罗里达计划在六月初为前轨道处理设施3KSC在装配体(组装) CST - 100 运载器的使用的交接仪式

Boeing is interested in using CST-100vehicle for cargo delivery runs in the future
Ferguson, a former space shuttle astronaut, was initially skeptical ofcommercial crew but has been quite amazed by what Boeing has been able toaccomplish with a limited budget
波音公司有兴趣在未来使用CST - 100运载器作为货物递送运营.
弗格森,前航天飞机宇航员,最初对商业载人是怀疑的,但 由于 在有限的预算下 波音已经能够做到了,(所以)感到相当惊讶.
                       
Ferguson noted that Friday, April 4 marked the 1,000th day since the launchof the last U.S.human space mission from American soil – the STS-135 space shuttle mission thathe commanded
弗格森指出,44周五,标志着 从美国本土发射的最后一个 美国载人航天任务以来的  1000 - (这是)一个由他作为指令官的STS -135航天飞机任务.
                     
            
Sierra Nevada Corporation
Dream Chaser shuttle. (Credit: NASA)
John Curry
内华达山脉公司的追梦班车。(来源:NASA
约翰咖喱
               
…  …  …
            
Significantly upgraded Dream Chasersystems, thermal protection to avoid Columbiaaccident
显著升级追梦系统的热保护,以避免哥伦比亚事故.
         
UnmannedDream Chaser orbital flight scheduled for November 2016
SNCis interested in using Dream Chaser for cargo flights to the InternationalSpace Station
定于201611月无人追梦轨道飞行

SNC是兴趣使用追梦的货运飞行的ISS


Engine work with Virgin Galactic’sSpaceShipTwo suborbital space plane is going very well
维珍银河公司太空船2号亚轨道太空飞机发动机的工作进展非常顺利
                  
SpaceShipTwo engine is a commercial “spin in” for DreamChaser, which uses two smaller hybrid motors
太空船2号发动机是一个商业 “中纺”   为追梦,它采用两个较小的混合动力车马达
        

Expects SpaceShipTwo to enter commercialservice in the next year or so
   预计太空船2号在明年左右投入商业运营

                 

  


着急上火1 发表于 2014-4-14 21:30 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 着急上火1 于 2014-4-14 21:38 编辑

这次乌克兰事件,有没有可能使商业载人项目收益?比如追加投资、特别拨款、加速进程之类。有相应的风声么?
说到这里想起了一个4月1号的笑话,俄罗斯宣布:因美欧与俄航天合作的中止,所以美欧航天员将被禁止乘坐联盟飞船,他们得自己想办法回家。

对于一个大国,这确实是一个尴尬。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-4-14 22:02 | 显示全部楼层
着急上火1 发表于 2014-4-14 21:30
这次乌克兰事件,有没有可能使商业载人项目收益?比如追加投资、特别拨款、加速进程之类。有相应的风声么 ...

        和俄罗斯的载人合同已经签到了 2017年了,如果关系没有太拧,这合同估计是不会变化的。
而美国商业载人最终走上轨道,按现在的计划也是2017年,所以,追加投资等加速行为已经为时已晚,除非美俄彻底翻脸  -- 这是我的一点看法。
  
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-4-24 16:37 | 显示全部楼层


  这次 的60天报告还比较及时 :

   总:
   http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/ ... y.html#.U1jLxlWSxyw

   本次:  
   http://www.nasa.gov/sites/defaul ... eport_April2014.pdf



  
  CCiCap milestone completion status: Boeing: 17  of 20; SpaceX: 13 of 17; Sierra Nevada: 8 of 13.


• Successfully Completed
        •Boeing M17, Pilot-in-the-Loop Demonstration
        Boeing M10, Spacecraft Primary Structures Critical  
Design Review

        •SpaceX M7a, Delta Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review


• Near-Term Work In Progress
      • Boeing M18, Software Critical Design Review
      •Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) M8, Wind Tunnel Testing
       SNC M9a, Main Propulsion and Reaction Control System Risk Reduction and Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
Advancement Testing

      •SpaceX M13, Integrated Critical Design Review





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