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[其他主题] NASA主导的环月DRO/NRO轨道站

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F-117 发表于 2012-2-12 21:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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本帖最后由 cmj9808 于 2016-12-14 12:10 编辑

       依据2月3日美国宇航局人类探索和操作研究组副主管威廉-葛斯坦迈亚(William Gerstenmaier)的一份备忘录,该研究小级正在研究“地月拉格朗日点-2(EML-2)”太空探索计划。  美国宇航局官员称,之前美国宇航局的一份EML-2评估备忘录指出在月球远地侧附近将作为近期太空探索的“首选”目的地,EML-2还可作为太空探索多元化目的地的通道,例如:近月太空轨道、小行星、月球、火星的卫星,以及火星。
  有驱动能力的美国宇航局太空架构应当使用美国宇航局设计的重型推进太空火箭发射系统和猎户多功能航天器作为“基础元素”。
       安静的太空区域
  依据太空策略规划师,EML-2航站在月球远地侧具有重要的科学遥感意义,能够作为太阳和地球科学观测、月球后方射电天文学和其他科学研究平台。
  此外,EML-2航站还能作为大型望远镜和人造卫星装配和检修平台,如果美国宇航局能够成功地建立一个宇航员航站,这将意味着这里将是迄今人类所能抵达的最远太空区域。
  科学家称,EML-2航站将提供保护地球的范艾伦辐射带之外的执行更为持久的生命科学和辐射保护任务。
  下一阶段
  葛斯坦迈亚强调称,国际、商业和学术研究的紧密结合要求详细具体的发展和整合规划。此外,他还指出,EML-2航站是一个沿月球轨道运行的复杂太空区域,它作为太空探索原始站点具有一定的优势,但同时它所具有的一些劣势也是必须需要理解的。
  美国宇航局一支研究小组被指定研究近期EML-2航站任务,这份备忘录解释称,伴随着我们继续加强理解认识EML-2航站的深远意义,将把EML-2航站作为更广泛探索太空策略的一部分。据悉,这项评估研究预计于2012年3月30日完成。
  近日,国际空间站成员小组会议将于法国巴黎召开,全球多国宇航机构将参与此次会议,届时很可能在会议上会讨论美国宇航局的EML-2航站计划。
  太空实验站
  美国科罗拉多州大学天体物理学研究月球大学网络中心(LUNAR)主管杰克-伯恩斯(Jack Burns)看好EML-2航站遥控探索发展前景,据悉,LUNAR由美国宇航局月球科学协会提供研究资金。
  伯恩斯和研究小组与美国洛克希德马丁公司合作一年多,共同策划前期猎户任务,计划抵达月球远地侧的EML-2航站。
  伯恩斯说:“这项太空计划从太空探索和科学研究角度来讲均具有深远意义,是令人感到兴奋的太空计划。这一太空项目实现概率很大,因为它是独一无二的,并且在未来十年内对于探索低地球轨道外部空间具有深远意义。”
  在美国洛克希德马丁公司的合作下,当前LUNAR中心正在研究分析EML-2航站人类任务的实际意认,它可以作为未来远太空任务的实验站,同时也可以进行具有重大科学意义的太空研究。
  月球的公路?
  在LUNAR中心的一份白皮书报告中,研究人员强调称,EML-2航站任务将使宇航员比阿波罗宇航员的太空旅程多15%,在深太空中最大航行时间达到此前3倍。像这样的太空任务将验证猎户航天器生命维持系统的短持续性,并表明从深太空返航地球需要高速返回能力,同时有助于科学家测量估计宇航员接收宇宙射线和太阳耀斑的辐射剂量。通过这项太空任务将有助于核实猎户航天器提供充足的防辐射保护措施。
  在这样的太空任务中,猎户航天器宇航员能够在月球远地侧进行遥感控制,例如:月球基地机械硬件装置能够采取地质样本,或许从月球南极艾特肯陨坑进行采集,这里是太阳系最大、最深和最古老的陨坑。
  同时,月球机械勘测任务将部署低频无线电天线阵来观测宇宙早期出现的首批恒星,在一系列的研究计划中,LUNAR研究小组正在调查研究适当的机械装置如何用于融化月球表皮土层成为类似混凝土的物质,这样的土壤可用于建造较大的建筑物,从而不必从地球运送建筑物资抵达月球表面。
  如果基于月球表皮土层可以建造较结实的建筑物,那么也将有可能建造太阳能电池板、栖息场所、防辐射屏蔽场所,或许还有可能在月球表面建造公路。
hkhtg090201 发表于 2012-11-8 16:41 | 显示全部楼层
NASA可能会很快推出新的载人月球任务

NASA May Unveil New Manned Moon MissionsSoon
07 November 2012


NASA is serious about sending astronauts back to the moon's neighborhoodand will likely unveil its ambitious plans soon now that President Barack Obamahas been re-elected, experts say.
NASA派宇航员重返月球的附近是认真的,可能会很快推出其雄心勃勃的计划,现在,奥巴马总统已重新当选,专家说。


The space agency has apparently beenthinking about setting up a manned outpost beyond the moon's far side, both toestablish a human presence in deep space and to build momentum toward a plannedvisit to an asteroid in 2025.
该太空机构显然已经想在超越月球的另一边建立一个载人前哨,建立深空载人的存在,以及建立在2025年访问一个小行星计划的动力要素。



The new plans have probably already beencleared with the Obama Administration but have been kept under wraps in caseRepublican candidate Mitt Romney won Tuesday night's (Nov. 6) presidentialelection, said space policy expert John Logsdon, a professor emeritus at George Washington University.
奥巴马政府的新的计划可能已经被明确,但被严格保密,(假如)在共和党总统候选者米特·罗姆尼赢得了周二晚上(116)的总统大选情况下,太空政策专家约翰·洛格斯登,乔治华盛顿大学名誉教授的消息说。


"NASA has been evolving its thinking, and its latest charts haveinserted a new element of cislunar/lunar gateway/Earth-moon L2 sort of stuffinto the plan," Logsdon told SPACE.com. (The Earth-moon L2 is a so-calledlibration point where the two bodies' gravitational pulls roughly balance out,allowing spacecraft to essentially park there.) [Gallery: Visions of Deep-SpaceStation Missions]
“NASA一直在不断发展自己的思想,其最新的图表插入一个新的元素,地球和月亮之间/月球驿站(或关键通道)/地-月L2样的东西纳入计划,“  洛格斯登告诉SPACE.com。 (地球月亮L2 是一个所谓的平动点,其中两个天体的引力拉大致平衡,让航天器基本上停在那里。)图库:深空空间站任务的景色


"They've been holding off announcingthat until after the election," Logsdon added, noting that Romney hadpledged to reassess and possibly revise NASA's missions and direction.
“直到大选后,他们宣布” 洛格斯登补充说,指出罗姆尼曾承诺重新评估,并可能修订 NASA的任务和方向。

Anew vision of human space exploration
一个新的载人太空探索愿景


In 2010, President Obama directed NASA towork toward sending astronauts to a near-Earth asteroid by 2025, then on to thevicinity of Mars by the mid-2030s. To reach such deep-space destinations, theagency is developing a huge rocket called the Space Launch System (SLS) and acrew capsule named Orion.
2010年,美国总统奥巴马指示NASA尽力在2025年将宇航员送上近地小行星,然后在21世纪30年代中期到火星的附近。为了达到这样的深空目的地,该机构正在开发一种巨大的火箭称为 太空发射系统(SLS)和一个名为猎户座的乘员舱。



But astronauts likely won't head straightto a space rock when SLS and Orion are ready to fly together in 2021. In thelast year, word has begun leaking out that NASA wants to explore Earth-moon L2,a point in space that lies beyond the moon's far side, as a precursor.
但是,当SLS和猎户座准备在2021年比翼双飞的时候,宇航员可能不会直奔到一个太空岩石。在过去的一年,言词之间已经开始泄漏,NASA要探索地球月亮L2,在太空超越月球的另一边的一个点,作为一个先锋。

Rumors currently point toward parking aspacecraft at the Earth-moon L2 gateway, so NASA (and perhaps internationalpartners) can learn more about supporting humans in deep space. Astronautsstationed there could also aid in lunar exploration — by teleoperating roverson the moon's surface, for example.
传闻当前指向在地球月亮L2驿站(或关键通道) 停泊一个飞船,这样NASA(也许是国际的合作伙伴)可以学习更多的关于支持人类在深空(的知识)。驻扎在那里还可以帮助宇航员的月球探测 - 通过teleoperating(遥控制)在月球表面的漫游器,例如。



NASA officials think they can pull off suchmanned missions without busting their budget, which stands at $17.7 billion inthe proposed 2013 federal budget.
NASA官员认为,他们可以拉断如此的载人航天任务,在没有打破他们的预算(情况下),2013年提出的联邦预算为177亿美元。


"They're not talking about plans thatimply significant budget increases," Logsdon said. "It gives a morefocused use for SLS and Orion before an asteroid mission."
“他们在谈论的计划不是意味着显著增加预算,” 洛格斯登说。“它提供了更集中使用SLS和猎户座,在小行星飞行任务之前。“



Moonmissions coming soon?
月球任务马上到来吗?

Exploration of Earth-moon L2 could getstarted as early as 2021 with the first manned flight of SLS and Orion, whichNASA calls Exploration Mission 2. (Exploration Mission 1 is the initial, unmanned testlaunch of SLS, slated for late 2017.)
地月L2的探索可以早在2021年进行,与SLS和猎户座第一次载人飞行一起开始,那被NASA称为探索任务-2(探索任务1是初始,无人试验发射的 SLS,预计将于2017年底)。


"I'm not privy to the specifics ofthis, but one could conceive of the second SLS mission being the start ofactivity in cislunar space, rather than just being a lunar orbit mission,"Logsdon said.
“我并不知道细节,但人们可以设想的第二个SLS任务地球和月亮之间的空间中的活动的开始,而不是仅仅作为一个月球轨道飞行任务,“ 洛格斯登说。



We may know soon enough. NASA higher-upshave dropped hints recently that a big announcement may indeed be in the offingbefore too much longer.
我们可以很快知道。 NASA上级最近暗示,可能在很久前的确是在酝酿一个大公告。


"We just recently delivered acomprehensive report to Congress outlining our destinations which makes clearthat SLS will go way beyond low-Earth orbit to explore the expansive spacearound the Earth-moon system, near-Earth asteroids, the moon, and ultimately, Mars,"NASA deputy chief Lori Garver said at a conference in September.
“我们最近刚刚向国会递送了综合报告,清楚地概述了我们的目的地 ,SLS将去到远远超出低地球轨道,围绕地-月系统的探索广阔的空间的道路上,近地小行星,月亮,并最终火星“NASA副主任洛瑞.加弗,在9月的会议中说。




"Let me say that again: We're goingback to the moon, attempting a first-ever mission to send humans to an asteroidand actively developing a plan to take Americans to Mars," Garver added.
让我再说一遍:我们将重返月球,尝试第一次把人类送到一个小行星的任务,并积极制定一项计划,使美国人到达火星,“ 加弗补充说。





hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-1-10 11:49 | 显示全部楼层
波音公司讨论使用SLS实施鲁棒的登月计划
Boeing discusses use of SLS for robust lunar program
January 8, 2013 byChris Gebhardt
                                   

Asthe Space Launch System (SLS) rocket continues development for its debutmission in December 2017, the Boeing company has identified several explorationarchitectures that would be enabled by the superior capability of the HeavyLift Launch Vehicle (HLV) - ranging from missions to the Moon,through to expeditions to Mars.
随着太空发射系统(SLS)火箭为2017年12月首次登场的任务继续开发,波音公司已经确定了几个探索架构,这将使该重型运载火箭(HLV)的优越性能充分发挥 - 从月球任务到火星探险。
                    
SLS architecture paves the way for human return to lunaroperations:
SLS体系结构为人类重返月球行动铺平了道路:
                                
Capitalizingon the express capability of the SLS launch system to provide space-basedaccess to areas beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Boeing has identified severalexploration architectures that will provide a base for a set of spaceexploration missions between the 2020 and 2040 timeframe.
利用SLS发射系统的快递能力,以提供天基访问低地球轨道(LEO)以外的区域,波音公司已经确定了一些探索基础架构,2020年和2040年之间时间框架内的一组太空探索任务提供了一个基础。
               
Specifically,Boeing points toward large mission parameters and vehicle characteristics thatwill enable humanity to achieve and realize a step-by-step approach toward thecreation of reliable and cost-effective access to the lunar surface.
特别是,波音公司指向大型任务因素和运载器特征,将给力人类去成功实现一步一步的向建立可靠和具有成本效益的访问月球表面的接近方法。
                 
Asstated by the presentation “Space Launch System capabilities for enabling crewedlunar and Mars exploration,”available to download on L2. “The Boeingcompany has identified several exploration architectures that are enabled bythe new Space Launch System launch vehicle.
正如演示文稿(所述)太空发射系统性能,使载人的月球和火星探索,可下载L2波音公司已经确定了几个探索架构,给力D的新太空发射系统运载火箭。
     
The SLS is a national asset with performance capabilitiesfor enabling a promising set of space exploration missions.”
“ SLS是一个国家资产,(其)履行提供一个希望集合 探索任务的能力。
     
Tobegin full exploration, Boeing identified the most logical first place to visitas humanity begins to once again push outside of LEO and out into the otherregions of the inner solar system.
去开始全面的探索,波音公司确定了要访问的最合乎逻辑的第一个地方,一旦人类开始再次推出低地球轨道以外    进出内太阳系的其他区域。
     
Thatfirst destination is the Moon.
第一个目的地是月球。
                     

Building a base at the Earth-Moon Lagrangian points:
在地月拉格朗日点建设一个基地:
                        
Insteadof launching a mission directly to the Moon, as was the case with the Apollomissions, the Boeing presentation suggests using the Earth-Moon Lagrangianpoints (EML points) as regions to build in-space platforms – known as the previously reported Gateway - that can then be utilized asbases for lunar and non-lunar missions.
而不是发射一个直接到月球的任务,作为与阿波罗登月计划的情况下,波音公司演示表明,使地月拉格朗日点(EML点)作为领地去建立空间平台 – 就象此前公布的驿站 - 然后,可以利用(其)作为月球和非月球任务的基地。
                          

Placingany space-based work platform into any of the Earth-Moon Lagrangian pointswould provide a staging ground for not only lunar operations but would alsoallow for the departure of any spacecraft assembled at an EML point to anypoint in space via the use of “liberation manifold technologies.”
放置任何基于太空的到地球月亮拉格朗日点的工作平台  将提供一个集结地(策源地),不仅是月球行动,而且也允许任何在EML点组装(的)航天器,通过使用“释放歧管技术启程 到太空中的任意地方,”(PS:句子够长)
              
Thisapproach would significantly reduce the amount of propellant needed to push aspacecraft out of an EML point and onto course for a specific destination.
这种接近方法将显著减少所需的推进剂,(从而)去推动一个航天器离开EML,以及(把它)放入到一个指定目标的航线中。
                  
Moreover,EML point locations would provide an advantage to in-space spacecraft assemblyas spacecraft assembled at EML points would not have to contend with the LEOdebris field that currently requires spacecraft to have extensive shielding.
而且,EML点位置 将提供一个有利条件,在太空的航天器组合体 航天器组装在EML点,没有与之抗衡的低地球轨道碎片区域目前需要航天器有广泛的屏蔽。
     


Specificallythough, in the case of lunar exploration, a platform of this kind would enablemulti-functional operations and reusability of lunar architecture to provide areliable and cost-effective exploration platform to our closest celestialneighbor.
具体来说,就月球探测而言,这样的一个平台会 将给力月球体系结构(以)多种功能的操作和可重用性去提供一个可靠的和具有成本效益的探索平台,到我们(这个)最近的天体邻居。
                    
Asstated in the Boeing presentation, “The EMLP (Earth-Moon Lagrangian pointPlatform) provides the services necessary to allow reuse of the [lunar] lander.Consumables such as fuel, air, lithium hydroxide canisters, and water areprovided as well as the ability to make small repairs necessary to keep thelander operational.”
正如在波音公司介绍,“EMLP(地球月亮拉格朗日点平台)提供必要的服务,允许[月球]着陆器的重复使用。消耗品,如燃料,空气,氢氧化锂储箱,和水以及必要的小维修能力,以保持登陆器操作。
                    

Furthermore,the EMLP would allow a lunar lander to be serviced both internally andexternally based on mission requirements at the EMLP, thus negate the need forthe reusable lander to ever be returnedto Earth for servicing.
此外,该EMLP将允许一个月球着陆器基于任务要求EMLP 进行内部和外部维修,从而取消了这个可重复使用的着陆器可能要返回地球服务的需要。
                  
Forthis lunar-based stepping stone program, Boeing – as have NASA- identified the EML-2 point as the most logical placement for the EMLP assuch a location would allow any lunar lander mission access to “any site on thelunar surface with approximately equal propulsive energy, thus providingflexibility in the lunar science program.”
对于这个月球基地踏脚石计划,波音公司 – 还有NASA - 确定该EML-2点  作为 EMLP这样的位置 (是) 最合理的安置点 , 将允许任何月球着陆器任务 访问 “月球表面任何站点(whth消耗)大致相等推进能源,从而对月球的科学计划提供了灵活性。
                     
Using the EMLP as a base of operations:
使用EMLP作为一个行动基地:
Once in location at an EML point, the EMLP wouldsee the following set of three mission types, as proposed by Boeing, for lunaroperations – as presented to the 63rd International Astronomical Conference in Naples, Italy.
一旦定位在EML点的位置,该EMLP会看到下面的一组三个任务类型,由波音公司建议的,对于月球行动 - 在意大利那不勒斯举行的第63届国际天文学(会议)上。
               

               
Thefirst mission type would involve the launch of an SLS rocket and anaccompanying MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle) Orion capsule to the EMLP.
第一个任务类型将涉及 一个SLS火箭的发射和一个相应的MPCV(多功能载人飞船)猎户座太空舱到达该(已经建立起来的)EMLP
                       
Oncethere, the crew would use the EMLP for tele-operation of lunar surface assets.This kind of mission would allow astronauts to manipulate lunar surface roboticassets in near real-time communication – allowing instantaneous reactionbetween the surface instrument and the astronauts on the EMLP.
一旦在那里,乘员将使用EMLP 远程操作 月球表面资产。这种任务类型将允许宇航员 使用近距离的实时通信  操纵月球表面机器人资产 -使表面之间的仪器和宇航员的EMLP的瞬间反应。
     
Thistype of mission would give EMLP crews in-space training in tele-operation proceduresand reduce the requirement for Earth-based tele-operations that encounter longsignal lag time as the at-the-speed-of-light commands travel the vast distancesbetween planet and moons.
这种类型的任务将给予EMLP的工作人员在远程操作程序上的训练,并减少地球上的远程操作需求,遇到信号滞后时间长,在高速光的命令旅游的巨大距离的要求,在空间地球和月亮之间
     

Forprevious SLS Articles, click here: http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/tag/hlv/
                        
Moreover,it would provide astronauts the physical training experience of having tointeract with surface robotic assets that will be crucial in eventual Humanmissions to Mars where astronauts will, by the sheer distance separating themfrom Earth, have to have more authority to make decisions in real-time withoutthe immediate support of a mission control center.
而且,它会提供航天员的体能训练与表面机器人资产的互动经验,最终在那个位置的将是至关重要的载人火星任务宇航员,由纯粹的距离,他们从地球分离, 没有任务控制中心直接支持下,必须有更多的实时决定权
                    

Thesecond EMLP mission currently envisioned by Boeing would see the SLS rocketlaunch and Orion capsuleand the reusable lunar lander tothe EMLP. Under this mission, no lunar sortie missions would occur,only the delivery of materials to the EMLP for follow-on lunar surfaceoperations.
目前由波音公司设想的第二个EMLP任务,将看到 发射SLS火箭和猎户座太空舱以及(加)一个可重复使用的月球着陆器 到达该EMLP。在此任务下,没有月球突击任务发生,只是为后续月球表面行动把物料递送到EMLP
            
Thesefollow-on surface ops missions would occur during mission option three – whichactually involves two different options.
这些后续的表面操作任务会出现在任务选项三 - 这实际上涉及到两个不同的选项。

Thefirst option for mission three would be the launch of an SLS rocket with anOrion crew capsule and an In-Space Stage.
ThisIn-Space Stage would be complete with a refill of propellant for the lunarlander and would be used to transfer the Orion capsule and crew to the EMLP, ajourney expected to take approximately four (4) days.
任务3第一个选项将是发射 SLS火箭与猎户座乘员舱以及(加)一个太空级段这个太空级段将与充满推进剂的月球着陆器配套,将用于输送猎户座太空舱和乘员到EMLP旅途预计需时约四(4)天。
               

Onceat the EMLP, the crew would undock the In-Space Stage from the Orion andre-dock it to the already-present lunar lander.
一旦到达EMLP,乘员将解除这个太空级段和猎户座的对接,并重新对接到已经存在的月球着陆器上。
                     

Thiswould then be followed by the transfer of fuel (CH4 -methane- and LO2-liquidoxygen) from the In-Space Stage to the lunar lander and the transfer of anypre-stocked supplies to the lunar lander for a maximum seven (7) -day lunar surfaceoperation mission.
到此,接下来是,为了一个最多七(7 )天的月球表面操作任务,要把 燃料(CH4- 甲烷的 – 和LO2-液氧)从该太空级段转移到月球着陆器,还有 搬运 任何预先存放的物资到 这个登月舱。
                    
Onceall supplies have been transferred (an operation expected to take about oneday), the crew of three (maximum) would board the lunar lander and undock thevehicle from the EMLP.
一旦所有的补给用品被迁移(预计需要大约一天的操作),三个乘员(最多)将登上月球着陆器然后解除运载器和EMLP的对接。
                    
TheIn-Space Stage would then be used to propel the lunar lander toward the Moon –a 2.5 day journey.
该太空火箭级段将用来把月球着陆器 推向月球 - 一个2.5天的旅程
                  

Afterarriving in lunar orbit via a 631 m/sOrbit Insertion burn by the In-Space Stage, a Descent Orbit Insertion burn of 27 m/s half an orbit before landing wouldbe performed.
由该太空级段通过631米/秒轨道插入点火而到达月球轨道后,一个降落前将进行一个下降轨道插入点火27/秒一半的轨道。
     
Afterthis, the lander and crew would perform a Powered Descent Initiation maneuverto bring the lander/In-Space Stage to within 5km of the lunar surface.
在此之后,着陆器和乘员将执行动力下降初始机动 以使该着陆器/空间阶段 到达月球表面(之上)5公里内。
                    
Oncethis altitude was achieved, the lander’s engines would fire and the In-SpaceStage jettisoned (impacting the lunar surface some time later).
一旦达到这个高度,着陆器发动机就会点火然后该太空级段被抛弃(一段时间后撞击月球表面)。
                  
Atthis point, the lander would perform a 500 m/sterminal descent to the lunar surface.
在这一点上,着陆器将执行500 m / s的末期下降到月球表面。


Thistype of staged approach to landing was used back in the 1960s during theSurveyor series of missions by the United Statesand during the Luna landers missions by the Soviet Union.
这种类型的上演接近方法 着陆ING是在20世纪60年代,在测量系列的任务由美国和苏联在月亮登陆器任务。
      
Accordingto the Boeing presentation, “This approach has proven successful in pastrobotic lunar landings and allows a significant reduction in the required sizeand mass of the landing system. This staged descent approach, that jettisons alarge propulsion stage before touchdown, significantly reduces the dV (deltaVelocity) of the landing system, allowing a smaller and lighter lander.”
据波音公司介绍,“这种接近方法在过去​​的机器人月球登陆中已经被证明是成功的,可以显着减少着陆系统所需的尺寸和质量。这种分步下降接近方法,在着陆前抛弃一个大型推进级段,显著降低了着陆系统的dV(delta 速度),允许更小和更轻的着陆器“。
                 
Moreover,it would allow the lunar lander to have lower thrust engines and be lighter inweight than the Apollo lunar lander.
而且,它将使月球着陆器具有较低推力的发动机  比阿波罗月球着陆器 更轻的重量
                        

To this end, the EMLP-based reusable lunarlander would use threeLO2/CH4 engines “positioned under a single O2 tank and seven CH4 tanks.”
为此,这个以EMLP为基地的可重复使用的月球着陆器将使用三个LO2/CH4引擎放置在一个单个氧贮箱和7CH4贮箱之下。
                          
Eachengine would have an Isp of 370s vacuum thrust at a chamber pressure of750psia.
每一引擎将在750psia的 室压下 有一个 370Slsp的真空推力.
                             
Thelander would be designed to operate with only two functional engines, thusallowing mission completion and preservation of crew safety in the event of asingle-engine-out scenario.
该着陆器将被设计为只有两个功能引擎运行,从而 允许在单个发动机熄火的情况下保护乘员的安全并完成任务
                     
Enginesand other elements of the lunar lander could be replaced at the EMLP.
月球着陆器的发动机和其他元素可以在EMLP更换。
                        
However,this is just lunar surface mission option one. The second option involves theuse of a High Lunar Orbit (HLO)-based lander.
但是,这只是月球表面的任务选项之一。第二个选项涉及高月球轨道(HLO)为基地的着陆器的使用
                    
Thismission would involve constructing and outfitting the EMLP at an EML point andthen moving the entire EMLP from the EML point into a HLO position.
这个任务将涉及EML点建造和舾装EMLP,然后将整个EMLPEML点移动到HLO的位置。
                                 

Thisoperation would involve using an In-Space Stage from an SLS rocket to provide 120 m/s dV to accomplish a move of the EMLPover a 60 day period.
此操作将涉及使用从SLS火箭(而来)的太空级段去提供120米/秒的dV , 在超过60天的时间内,去完成EMLP的迁移
                  
Oncein a HLO, the EMLP would receive its HLO lunar lander – which would differquite significantly from its EML point-based counterpart described above.
一旦存入HLO,该EMLP会接收它的HLO月球着陆器 - 相当显著的差异基于EML对应上述。
Thislander would only be able to support a crew of two, not three, and wouldrequire the use of the storable propellants Monomethylhydrazine and NitrogenTetroxide.
这个着陆器将只能够支持两名乘员的,不是三个,同时将需要使用可储存的 单甲基肼和四氧化二氮 推进剂。
                  
Thesepropellants are more dense than the LO2/CH4 propellants used by the EMLP-basedlander.
这些推进剂比用于基于EMLP登陆器的LO2/CH4推进剂更致密
                  
Assuch, the HLO-based lander would be physically smaller (but not lighter inweight) than its EMLP variant.
因此,这个以HLO为基地的着陆器体积将更小(但重量不更轻)比其EMLP的变种。
               

Forthese missions, the HLO-lander would use a smaller, storable propellantIn-Space Stage, here called a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV).
对于这些任务,该HLO着陆器将使用一个较小的,易贮存推进剂的太空级段,这里称作一个月球转移飞行器(LTV
                     
TheLTV would be launched with the Orion capsule and crew by the SLS rocket anddocked to the HLO EMLP. It would then be used to take the HLO lander from theEMLP down to a Low Lunar Orbit (LLO).
LTV将推出猎户座太空舱和乘员的SLS火箭和停靠在HLO EMLP。这将被用来从的EMLP低月球轨道(LLO)采取HLO着陆器。
        
Thelander would then separate from the LTV and navigate to the lunar surface onits own. Meanwhile, the LTV would wait in orbit for lunar lander.
着陆器将分离的按揭成数,并导航到自己的月球表面上。与此同时,LTV月球着陆器在轨道上等待。
      

Aftercompletion of surface operations, the lander would return to the LTV and theLTV used to return the lander to HLO and the EMLP.
完成表面操作后,该着陆器将返回到LTV  LTV到返回登陆器HLOEMLP的中使用。
      
            
Thelander would then be preserved for future lunar surface missions, while the LTVcould either be discarded after each mission or reused.
未来的月球表面的任务,着陆器将被保留,而LTV在每个任务或重复使用后或者被丢弃。
                             
Boeing’sproposals for Martian missions will follow next week.
波音公司建议的火星任务将在 下个星期跟进
                    
              
PS:
进入经常性业务阶段后,将需要很多In-Space Stage被发射到月球空间,一次性地使用其把重复着陆器从月球空间推送到月球表面或附近。
zhang 发表于 2014-7-6 19:10 | 显示全部楼层
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=35115.0

Boeing 提出的全 SLS 发射, 电推拖船, EML2 组合的火星任务方案。没有什么新异,但有不少新的 CG 渲染图,可以看看。

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风之域 发表于 2014-7-6 21:06 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 风之域 于 2014-7-6 21:46 编辑

呵呵  波音月球载人方案与我的想法非常接近,而且我认为载人月球登陆应该作为载人火星计划的中间目标,以验证火星载人登陆电推,登陆居住舱等,这样做的好处是共用大部份技术,降低成本和风险,使用电推节省一半以上的发射费用。这个方案新的越少,共用部份越多。
风之域 发表于 2014-7-7 10:24 | 显示全部楼层
我希望更进一步,月球登陆舱完全复用,如果能够采集水最好,不能的话,可以使用月球矿分解制氧,自带甲烷。火星登陆,可以在火星和火卫一均设立燃料制取站(甲烷和液氧)。
hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-12-30 14:22 | 显示全部楼层



(2016)开支法案要加速NASA(地月空间)居住舱工作
Spending Bill To Accelerate NASA Habitation Module Work
 
by Jeff Foust — December 28, 2015
http://spacenews.com/spending-bill-to-accelerate-nasa-habitation-module-work/
 
 
 
 
     图片:波音公司正在开发一个简单的、低成本的、 NASA说是早期可负担得起的居住舱,使各种技术随着时间推移得到测试,并能够发展成为 一处 地月空间和火星探测 长期的载人支持系统 版:波音
Boeing is developing a simple, low cost habitat that NASA says is affordable early on, allowing various technologies to be tested over time, and that is capable of evolving into a long-duration crew support system for cislunar and Mars exploration.  Credit: Boeing
   波音是拿到NASA研究居住舱概念研究合同的四个公司之一。 资金在一份2016年的一揽子开支法案中提供,并且附加了报告术语,可能加速这一工作。
Boeing is one of four companies with study contracts from NASA to study habitation module concepts. Funding provided in the 2016 omnibus spending bill, and attached report language, could accelerate that work. Credit: Boeing
 
 
 
 
   华盛顿讯 - 本月,美国国会通过一项综合开支法案,指示NASA加快 可能被用于将来深空任务的居住舱 工作,虽然NASA将如何执行这个指示还不明朗。
WASHINGTON — An omnibus spending bill passed by Congress this month directs NASA to accelerate work on a habitation module that could be used for future deep space missions, although how NASA will implement that direction is unclear.
 
 
     该报告是2016财年综合拨款法案的一部份, 指示NASA为一个居住扩容舱至少花费 55百万美元,以支持该机构的探索力度。这笔钱将来自先进探测系统方案,是预算中探索研究和持续开发项目的一部分, (该项目)在法案中接收到 3.50亿美元
The report accompanying the fiscal year 2016 omnibus appropriations bill instructs NASA to spend at least $55 million on a “habitation augmentation module” to support the agency’s exploration efforts. The money would come from the Advanced Exploration Systems program, part of the Exploration Research and Development line item in the budget that received $350 million in the bill.
 
 
    "NASA应在先进探测系统计划(框架)内  在不晚于2018年开发一个雏形深空居住舱该报告指出。它也要求 NASA  在该法案颁布180天内  向国会提供一份报告, (报告)关于该计划的现状以及它如何花费提供的资金   
NASA shall develop a prototype deep space habitation module within the advanced exploration systems program no later than 2018,” the report states. It also requires NASA to provide Congress with a report within 180 days of the bill’s enactment颁布 on the status of the program and how it has spent the funds provided.
 
 
    该机构并没有说明它将如何使用那份资金。1216日在太空运输协会午餐会那儿的一个讲话中 NASA总部ISS主任山姆Scimemi,说,关于那份投资,他不能马上想到任何具体计划。
The agency hasn’t described how it will use that funding. Speaking at a Space Transportation Association luncheon here Dec. 16, Sam Scimemi, International Space Station director at NASA Headquarters, said he was not immediately aware意识到 of any specific plans for that funding.
 
 
    在过去的数月间,NASA越来越多地强调开发一个能够在21世纪20年代在地月空间测试的居住舱。然后那个舱段可以用于NASA期望于2030年代某一时间开展的 载人火星任务。
Over the last several months, NASA has increasingly emphasized development of a habitation module that could be tested in cislunar space in the 2020s. That module could then be used for human missions to Mars that NASA hopes to carry out some time in the 2030s.
 
 
   Scimemi说,他设想在21世纪20年代末,对这种位于地月空间的居住舱以及其他关键技术,通过一年之久的”试航”进行 彻底检验,以证明它们能够支持一项长期载人火星任务。这是我们的地月空间载人航天的宏伟目标,他说。
Scimemi said he envisions testing out the habitation module and other key technologies in a year-long “shakedown cruise” in cislunar space by the late 2020s, demonstrating that they are able to support a long-duration human Mars mission. “That is our big objective for cislunar space for human spaceflight,” he said.
 
 
    NASA一直拒绝提供有关其将如何开发这种居住舱的细节 或者甚至(是)它所需要的东西。这太早了点。” Scimemi说。当我把一张图片放在那里,马上有人将要假设配置是什么。
NASA has resisted providing details about how it will develop that habitation module, or even its requirements. “It’s much too early for that,” Scimemi said. “As soon as I put a picture up there, somebody is going to assume what the configuration is.”
 
 
   该机构反而是资助了几个企业去研究居住舱概念。根据其下一代空间技术探索合作伙伴(计划),或者叫NextSTEP,计划,NASA在三月份发售研究合同 给Bigelow宇航公司,波音公司,洛克希德马丁公司和轨道 ATK,去研究居住舱设计。它也授予Dynetics,汉胜公司和轨道技术公司 具体的(太空)舱技术 合同,如生命支持系统。
The agency has instead funded several industry studies of habitation module concepts. Under its Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships, or NextSTEP, program, NASA awarded study contracts in March to Bigelow Aerospace, Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Orbital ATK to study habitat designs. It also awarded contracts to Dynetics, Hamilton Sundstrand and Orbital Technologies Corp. for specific module technologies, such as life support systems.
 
 
    图片: 312日,威廉葛斯坦迈亚,NASA载人探险业务副局长,以及杰森Crusan,该机构先进探索系统事业部总监,在毕格罗公司拉斯维加斯基地 查看比奇洛可扩展活动舱段 ,图片版权:NASA /斯蒂芬妮Schierholz
William Gerstenmaier, NASA’s associate administrator for human exploration and operations, and Jason Crusan, director of the agency's advanced exploration systems division, view the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module at Bigelow’s facility in Las Vegas on March 12. Image Credit: NASA/ Stephanie Schierholz
NASA官员查看比奇洛扩展活动舱...。该舱段定于2016年年初发射到 ISS
NASA officials view the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module at Bigelow’s facility in Las Vegas in March. The module is scheduled for launch to the ISS in early 2016.
 
 
  NextSTEP合同,每份价值达$ 1百万,并持续一年,将知会NASA其后的居住舱开发工作计划 “我们计划利用这些研究的输出来塑造我们的计划,然后继续下一轮(工作),” Scimemi说,并补充,NASA还没有固定 下一阶段的 细节。
The NextSTEP contracts, valued at up to $1 million each and lasting for one year, will inform NASA’s plans for later habitat development work. “We plan to leverage the output of those studies to shape our plan and then go to a next round,” Scimemi said, adding that NASA hadn’t settled on the details of that next phase.
 
 
   资金在综合法案中提供,同时指导在2018年完成一个原型舱段,可能迫使NASA加快这些计划。一些企业,包括从事 NextSTEP研究的,欢迎这种由国会提供居住舱(开发)的新调门
The funding provided in the omnibus bill, as well as the direction to complete a prototype module by 2018, could force NASA to speed up those plans. Some in industry, including those working on NextSTEP studies, welcomed the new emphasis on a habitation module provided by Congress.
 
 
      我们很高兴国会带头,” Bigelow宇航公司 经营和业务增长主任迈克金 1216日的采访中说。“这是载人太空探索难题中缺少的部分。
We’re thrilled that Congress took the lead牵头,” said Mike Gold, director of D.C. operations and business growth for Bigelow Aerospace, in a Dec. 16 interview. “It is the missing piece of the human space exploration puzzle.”
 
 
   金 强调了综合报告中的术语,不仅需要NASA在180天内为国会提供一份居住舱工作报告,而且描述了计划”适当的管理结构。对于这种术语,Gold说,是国会想要一个 NASA要在这个项目上更快速移动的 信号。
Gold emphasized language in the omnibus report that not only requires NASA to provide Congress with a report on its habitation module work within 180 days, but also describe the “appropriate management structure” for the program. That language, Gold said, is a sign that Congress wants NASA to move more quickly on this project.
 
 
    除了NextSTEP研究合同之外,Bigelow宇航公司还开发一个原型扩展舱段,这 将要在2016年早期 安装在ISS上,这些努力,Gold说,可以提供给NASA需要的信息, 以允许它满足2018   国会设定开发原型 舱段的 期限。
Besides its NextSTEP study contract, Bigelow Aerospace has also developed a prototype expandable module that will be installed on the International Space Station in early 2016. Those efforts, Gold said, could provide NASA with the information it needs to allow it to meet the 2018 deadline set by Congress for developing a prototype module.
 
 
    NASA面对的决定之一,将是谁将会建造这个居住舱。公司如毕格罗有兴趣为NASA提供舱段,充分利用可以被使用在商业上的技术,如可能会在ISS取得成功的空间站
One of the decisions facing NASA will be who will build the habitation module. Companies like Bigelow are interested in providing the module for NASA, leveraging technologies that could be also used commercially, such as for space stations that could succeed the International Space Station.
 
 
     Scimemi,尽管,暗示NASA内部可能决定建造 这个居住舱。当在午宴会上被问及谁能够打造这个舱段时,他说,我想建造它。
Scimemi, though, suggested that NASA might decide to build the habitation module internally. Asked at the luncheon who could build the module, he said, “I want to build it.”
 
 
See more at:
http://spacenews.com/spending-bill-to-accelerate-nasa-habitation-module-work/#sthash.neiNgXVC.dpuf
 

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hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-12-30 14:24 | 显示全部楼层

一个问题: NASA的这个地月空间站一定要建立在拉格朗日点上吗?这是帖子的标题。
Lsquirrel 发表于 2015-12-30 16:34 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-12-30 14:24
一个问题: NASA的这个地月空间站一定要建立在拉格朗日点上吗?这是帖子的标题。

不可能在L2点,而是地月系第二拉格朗日点附近的Halo或Lissajous轨道。从降低轨道维持的开销说,Lissajous轨道更好
hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-12-30 17:09 | 显示全部楼层
Lsquirrel 发表于 2015-12-30 16:34
不可能在L2点,而是地月系第二拉格朗日点附近的Halo或Lissajous轨道。从降低轨道维持的开销说,Lissajous ...


      在月球背面且不正好在L2那个点上,而是在附近,那么这个‘附近’有多大范围?比方说,从地球望去,这个空间站能否被月面挡住?
Lsquirrel 发表于 2015-12-30 17:46 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2015-12-30 17:09
在月球背面且不正好在L2那个点上,而是在附近,那么这个‘附近’有多大范围?比方说,从地球望去 ...

无论是哪种轨道,半径大于5000公里的圈子都不少见,基本不会被挡住,否则嫦娥四号的中继星怎么用

点评

谢谢  发表于 2015-12-30 19:11
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-5-21 13:28 | 显示全部楼层
   有些事情看起来总是'赶堆儿': 前些日子,NASA与SpaceX达成火星探测协议,不久后洛马公司就披露了其火星轨道载人空

间站方案,紧接着,轨道ATK公司推出其月球空间站计划,向业界推销其天鹅飞船.

  几点内容:
  1. 供4个乘员(一组)居住的空间站.
  2. 首先在2020年发射无人舱段,特别提到在NASA的EM-2任务之前.
  3. 天鹅座作为主要居住舱,实验舱.
  4. OrbitalATK最近被NASA的 NextSTEP计划选中, 研究 这个地月空间平台的 初始版本.


链接:
NASA的前沿/创新/探索性航天技术概念/项目/合同:12个NextSTEP合同授出
http://bbs.9ifly.cn/forum.php?mo ... 4265&pid=470238

轨道ATK 倡导的 月球轨道基地
Orbital ATK Advocates Lunar Orbiting Base
Posted by Doug Messier  on May 19, 2016
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2016 ... thash.8a26jiwZ.dpuf

Orbital ATK unveils cislunar habitat plan, potential missions for SLS and Orion
May 19, 2016 by Chris Gebhardt
https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/ ... missions-sls-orion/





cmj9808 发表于 2016-5-21 14:12 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-5-21 13:28
有些事情看起来总是'赶堆儿': 前些日子,NASA与SpaceX达成火星探测协议,不久后洛马公司就披露了其火星轨 ...

洛马和OA提出的都只是各自公司的方案/concept,在NASA掏钱之前不会有进一步的行动。

NASA之前让这两家和波音研究deep space habitat,这时候提出方案是为了在即将到来NEXTstep phase 2竞标中占得先机。

HaleBoppComet 发表于 2016-5-21 23:43 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2016-5-21 14:12
洛马和OA提出的都只是各自公司的方案/concept,在NASA掏钱之前不会有进一步的行动。

NASA之前让这两家 ...

NEXTstep phase 2是什么?
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-5-22 06:59 | 显示全部楼层
HaleBoppComet 发表于 2016-5-21 23:43
NEXTstep phase 2是什么?

翻译就是 下一(波,代)探索技术伙伴  之第二阶段, 我想就如同NIAC,也有个第二阶段, 会在第一阶段合同商中 down select.

NEXTstep  - Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships.

jisuluntan 发表于 2016-5-22 08:57 | 显示全部楼层
还是spacex的火星龙靠谱些,自己干,顺便卖点服务给NASA,要是干的好,NASA一高兴就包费用全包了。
cmj9808 发表于 2016-5-22 16:50 | 显示全部楼层
楠宫晓风vn 发表于 2016-5-22 22:48 来自航空航天港手机版! | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2016-5-21 13:28
有些事情看起来总是'赶堆儿': 前些日子,NASA与SpaceX达成火星探测协议,不久后洛马公司就披露了其火星轨 ...

不是这么玩的吧?EM-1和EM-2要去的DRO轨道转移时间最快也要一个月,低能量转移轨道要100天左右,这个空间站提前发射到DRO轨道干什么?这东西不应该是和猎户座搭档发射,作为生活舱使用吗?
cmj9808 发表于 2016-5-29 12:50 | 显示全部楼层
能源设计局宣称已与NASA整理出一个初步方案,共同打造月球轨道站。

At an international conference on manned spaceflight in Korolyov outside Moscow RKK Energiya's Yuri Makushenko said today that RKK Energiya and NASA have worked out a preliminary concept for a joint lunar orbital station that could be deployed by the end of the 2020s. Agreement has been reached on a "basic orbit" for the station, which will consist of "habitation, energy and node modules" and also transport ships. Makushenko added that the station will become a base for "servicing and repair work, communication and navigation"' and could ultimately be used to launch unmanned missions to the asteroids and Mars.

http://ria.ru/science/20160525/1439368078.html
ssizz 发表于 2016-6-28 17:44 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2016-5-29 12:50
能源设计局宣称已与NASA整理出一个初步方案,共同打造月球轨道站。

 中新网6月28日电 据俄媒报道,科罗廖夫能源火箭航天集团(RSC Energia)报道,该集团和美国国家航空航天局将设计绕月空间站。
  科罗廖夫能源火箭航天集团新闻处主任罗曼诺娃表示:“已经开始就太空平台未来外形以及对组件的要求进行讨论。据悉,未来建造国际绕月空间站以及运行的计划将在2017年上半年展示给国际空间站伙伴航天机构的负责人。”
  据报道,绕月空间站将在2020年前投入运行。
  探索远太空的项目包括研究火星、小行星以及近月空间和月球本身。
  开发月球计划是俄罗斯载人航天的战略目标。计划在2030年实现载人登陆月球,之后将设置月球基地。月球基地的设计工作由科罗廖夫能源火箭航天集团和中央精密机械研究中心(TsNIIMash)负责。
  俄罗斯航天集团公司载人计划执行主任克里卡廖夫此前表示,有必要将月球上的基地建造成有人常驻的,而月球轨道上的基地只是临时的基地,因为那里的辐射水平比国际空间站要高很多。
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