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[专题专项] 欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统:ESA向OHB订购第三批12颗伽利略卫星

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 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-6-22 12:20 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”导航卫星的采购成本上涨了40%

PARIS AIR SHOW: Galileo faces 40% cost hike says EADS


By Rob Coppinger
DATE:18/06/09
SOURCE:Flight Daily News

The Galileo constellation of satellites could cost up to 40% more under dual procurement, claims EADS Astrium satellites chief executive Evert Dudok, one of the companies bidding for the contract.

His increased price estimate is based on greater costs resulting from a reduced volume for each manufacturer if both EADS Astrium and its German rival OHB System are awarded part of the overall satellite contract.

The total expected price for the European Union's navigation satellites is
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-6-22 12:25 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”计划虽取得进展但仍受很多问题困扰

Galileo still bedevilled despite progress


By Rob Coppinger
DATE:19/06/09
SOURCE:Flight International

Despite launch contract signings and production award announcements declared at the Paris air show the Galileo satellite navigation system is still a programme bedevilled by disputes and delays whose full deployment is likely to be more expensive and come years later than its stakeholders have been led to expect.

While Arianespace celebrated in Paris its contract signing for launching the Galileo satellites, questions were being asked about the role of its EADS Astrium Ariane 5 rocket - with suggestions that 13 Samara Space Centre Soyuz 2-1b boosters would also be needed, an eventuality that could extend the period needed to launch the entire constellation.

EADS Astrium is also now asking the European Space Agency why OHB - its smaller competitor to supply the constellation's spacecraft - was given a
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-6-22 18:19 | 显示全部楼层
成本上升40%???还在扯皮~~~~欧空局的同志们还要扯到啥时候呀,难道要等到3哥的区域导航系统都打完才不扯了么
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-6-23 12:01 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2009-6-23 12:19 | 显示全部楼层
wiki上的GPS,伽利略和北斗的频率分布
问个问题:在L1波段,GPS和伽利略岂不也重叠了?

1_Gps_compass_galileo_frequency_allocation_Asimsky_05_2008.jpg

31.81 KB, 下载次数: 14, 下载积分: 飞币 -1 飞币

Nighthawk 发表于 2009-6-23 13:51 | 显示全部楼层
L1波段调制的是民码(也就是C码),采用CDMA体制,大家不会互相串扰,反而可以采用复合式接收机,使卫星通道数由十几个增加到几十个,提高定位精度。
L2、Exx调制的都是军码P码,也是各大卫星导航系统的看家本领,自然争得你死我活的
cmj9808 发表于 2009-6-23 22:40 | 显示全部楼层
L1波段调制的是民码(也就是C码),采用CDMA体制,大家不会互相串扰,反而可以采用复合式接收机,使卫星通道数由十几个增加到几十个,提高定位精度。
L2、Exx调制的都是军码P码,也是各大卫星导航系统的看家本领,自 ...
Nighthawk 发表于 2009-6-23 13:51

原来是这样,多谢夜鹰兄解惑
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-6-24 08:46 | 显示全部楼层

GIOVE-A延寿一年

GIOVE-A operations extended for another year


23/6/2009  

GIOVE-A, the first test satellite for Europe’s Galileo navigation system, is to remain in service for a further 12 months.

The satellite, built by SSTL for ESA and already in orbit for 41 months – 14 months beyond its original mission design life - will continue to provide critical data to all of the ground users experimenting with Galileo navigation signals.

The European Space Agency (ESA) recently approved an extension of the GIOVE-A mission for a further twelve months, which provides for operations to be supported to the end of March 2010.

GIOVE-A carries radiation monitoring instruments which gather invaluable data which is processed and analysed to assist experts characterise the environment in the Galileo orbit, one of the primary objectives of the GIOVE missions.

During routine maintenance on 28th April, an anomaly was discovered onboard GIOVE-A, which required payload transmissions to be temporarily switched off. Full operations were returned on 27th May with the broadcast of L1-E5 navigation signals and there has been no impact on the ability of GIOVE-A to continue supporting payload operations.

Launched on 28th December 2005, GIOVE-A was designed and built by SSTL within a 30-month, 28M Euro contract. The 600kg satellite had four mission objectives: to secure the frequencies allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for the Galileo system; to demonstrate critical technologies for the navigation payload of future operational Galileo satellites; to provide representative Galileo signals in space to support experimentation activities and to characterise the radiation environment of the orbits planned for the Galileo constellation – all of which have been achieved. SSTL also played a significant role in the in-orbit testing of the second Galileo satellite, GIOVE-B, launched in 2008.

Recently, SSTL teamed with OHB–Systems of Bremen, Germany to submit a proposal to ESA for the provision of fully operational Galileo satellites to be launched before 2013. SSTL is utilising the experience gained from GIOVE A and GIOVE-B to help ESA and the EC ensure that Galileo will be a success for Europe.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-29 16:49 | 显示全部楼层

Galileo导航系统面临两个问题:发射载具的分配和28颗卫星研制工作的分配

28/08/2009

EUROPE. Problems creating a system Galileo

   
    At a late June 2009 Air Show at Le Bourget you were revealed divergent positions of European countries regarding the creation program the navigation system Galileo ( «rocketry» № 12, 2009, p. 3). The main contradictions relate to the production of both orbiters, as well as to the definition of launch vehicle (LV), which will be used to deploy a working orbital grouping.

    As is known, in 2007 it was agreed that all matters relating to the peculiarities of the use of rockets in the program Galileo, the consortium must decide Arianspace. It was found that all satellites of the Galileo should launch rockets "Ariane 5-ES" and "Soyuz-2-lb" from Kourou. A survey in the further analysis showed that the most cost-effective is the double launch of workers Galileo satellites weighing 750 kg missile "Union". Therefore, the ESA has proposed the deployment of the entire orbital grouping these rockets, and rocket "Ariane 5-ES", which allows you to simultaneously put into orbit three working satellite Galileo, keep in reserve.

    Opponents of the proposal argued that it is possible to refine the missile "Ariane 5-ES" by installing a new device on her breeding and introduction of some of the satellites of other technical solutions that will use it to deliver into orbit simultaneously 4 spacecraft (SC), the Galileo system and the thus reduce European dependence on Russia. In this case, the deployment of orbital grouping can be used 3.5 rockets "Ariane 5-ES". To this end have already begun corresponding improvements in the contract worth 50 million euros. However, as shown by further analysis, the cost reworked RN "Ariane 5-ES" will be twice the cost of the missile "Union".

    The second major problem relates to the production of 28 working satellites. For economic reasons, the most appropriate to entrust the appropriate one of the goals nomu contractor. However, the leadership of the Agency ESA and the European Commission is considering only this, but two other options, including the separation of the production of working systems between the two head contractors (firms NVG Systems and Astrium). This approach is motivated by the possibility of introducing new technical solutions and greater flexibility in the production process.

    In one of the options (option 16 + 12) provides for a contract for the delivery of the first 16 working satellites to one prime contractor with the condition of delivery of the other 12 satellites on a competitive basis. It is estimated that this option * value of one satellite will increase by 15%. Another option (8 + 12) based on the fact that both the contractors assigned to put on 8 working satellites, followed by an * contest for the remaining 12 satellites. In this case, the cost of producing one satellite can be increased by 35%, as it excludes the possibility of implementing the principles of mass (mass) production. It is also proposed to create a third prime contractor) for the supply of workers based on either satellite firm NVG Systems, an Astrium.

    Decision on allocation of work on the supply of working satellites is scheduled to take in the late summer of 2009 and the signing of the contracts may be held before 2010. It is also expected that contracts for facilities management system, Galileo and its operation will be signed in early 2010. Also noted that the June 15, 2009 Agency HSA to provide firms with NVG Systems and Astrium contracts worth 10 million euros and 7 million euros respectively, which provides for the development of labor-intensive (long-lead component elements for the satellites.

    By some estimates, the deployment of orbital constellation of Galileo to become a 4 intermediate units (phase IOV; rocketry № 22, 2008, p. 5), 26 workers and 2 spare satellites will not be completed in 2013. This is partly due to the aforementioned differences, as well as the likely increase in the cost of the program. In addition, it is reported that the European Commission delayed the payment of 376 million euros, which are intended to complete work on the creation of four satellites IOV, two of which must be put into orbit in the first half of 2010, while two others - in early 2011.

    Also reported that the developers of the Galileo system to determine the influence of her more powerful signals transmitted from the board of the Chinese satellite navigation system Beidoi (Compass). By some estimates, to eliminate such influence in the design of spacecraft Galileo system will need to make some changes. However, other estimates, this problem can be solved by small refinements ground vehicles or other means.

    Aviation Week and Space Technology, 2009, 29/VI, vol. 170, № 26, p. 22, 38
Flight International, 2009, 23-29/VI, vol. 175, № 5194, p. 42

( PKT№ 34, 2009, p. 5, 6)
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-8-29 16:51 | 显示全部楼层
Ariane 5-ES发射Galileo导航卫星的费用至少是Soyuz-2-lb的两倍,从经济角度考虑应该都用Soyuz来发射,但是这样做又会对俄方过于依赖
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-9-4 11:53 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”导航系统头2颗星的发射又推迟到2010年下半年了

Galileo: the background of differences of operating contracts for 2010

18:57 | 28 / 08 / 2009

MOSCOW, August 28 - RIA Novosti. Contracts on the operation of positioning system Galileo European satellite will be signed early in 2010 despite some differences between the partners and the financial crisis, said Friday the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos).

The Galileo system will complement positioning systems American GPS and Russian GLONASS, will be implemented by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the participation of European companies Astrium and OHB System. Differences between partners involve the production of satellites and the choice of who will launch into orbit.

In 2007, the parties agreed to use Russian carrier rocket Soyuz-2lb and French Ariane 5-ES to orbit the Galileo satellites from 750 kg from Kourou, French Guiana. An analysis has shown that the use of Russian launch vehicles capable of carrying two satellites at once is more efficient, and ESA has proposed to reserve the Ariane 5-ES capable of orbitaliser three satellites Galileo. Critics of this decision wishing reduce Europe's dependency vis-à-vis Russia has proposed to upgrade the Ariane 5-ES to enable it to carry four Galileo satellites. But the cost of a modernized European rocket was found twice higher than that of a Soyuz.

The second problem is related to the production of the 28 Galileo satellites (26 operational and 2 reserve). The deployment of the constellation will not be completed as scheduled in 2013 due to financial crisis and disagreement over the choice of producers. The 28 satellites can be created by one company, but ESA and the European Commission are also investigating the possibility of transferring their production to two groups - Astrium and OHB System - which would increase the cost of the 15% to 35%. A decision to this effect will be made until autumn 2009 and contracts will be signed before 2010.

Four Galileo satellites will be launched in the second half of 2010 by two Russian Soyuz launchers from Kourou-ST in accordance with an agreement signed by ESA and Arianespace in the aerospace show in Le Bourget in June. Two Soyuz has already placed two satellites into orbit to test Galileo in December 2005 and April 2008.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-3 15:23 | 显示全部楼层

首颗验证星Giove A已完成任务

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2009-10-3 15:48 编辑

First Galileo Test Sat Completes Mission


Oct 2, 2009   
By Michael A. Taverna  

PARIS - Giove A, the first Galileo test satellite, has been repositioned to a parking orbit after completing its planned mission.

Built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. and launched in December 2005, Giove A performed far beyond its two-year design life, securing international frequency filings, collecting data to characterize Galileo's medium Earth orbit and demonstrating atomic clocks and other key system technologies.

The spacecraft remains operational and will continue broadcasting test signals from its new position, 113 kilometers (70 miles) above the planned orbit of the Galileo operational satellites, until it is finally decommissioned.

A second test satellite, Giove B, built by an Astrium-led team, remains in operation.

The first four operational spacecraft, known as the In-Orbit Validation satellites, are under construction by a European consortium including Astrium, Thales and Finmeccanica. They are to be launched in two pairs, one in the first half of next year and the other in early 2011.

European space industry executives say they expect system, satellite and launch awards for the other 26 operational spacecraft, known as Full Operating Capability satellites, to be issued by year's end. These contracts are on the critical path and the European Space Agency, which is running the procurement process on behalf of the European Commission (EC), says they must be finalized this year if the system is to meet the ECs 2013 in-service objective.

The other three awards - for satellite and mission control and operations - are to be issued early next year. Two teams are vying for the system and satellite awards. Arianespace was selected for the launcher contract, but two rockets, the Ariane 5 and Soyuz, are in competition. According to industry officials, best and final offers for these three contracts are to be opened on Nov. 11 and the winners officially announced on Dec. 21.
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-3 15:37 | 显示全部楼层
俺的天呀,扯皮的伽利略计划,都要把地下的老人家气活过来了
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-3 15:47 | 显示全部楼层

GIOVE-A仍有充足的星上燃料可作进一步的轨道操作

First Galileo satellite makes way for operational satellites


Thu, 01 Oct 2009

Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has successfully completed the planned repositioning of the first Galileo test satellite, GIOVE-A, to a higher orbit to make way for the operational satellites of Europe’s satellite navigation constellation.

From the GIOVE-A operational headquarters in Guildford, UK, SSTL’s operating team executed a series of precisely planned manoeuvres during July and August that have repositioned the satellite 113km above the orbit that the 27 operational Galileo navigation satellites will occupy.


Since its launch in December 2005, GIOVE-A has achieved all of its mission objectives and remains in excellent condition well beyond its design life of 2 years. The test satellite has secured the Galileo frequency filings with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), facilitated the experimental reception of navigation signals from Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and collected data to characterise the MEO environment using two different radiation-monitoring instruments. The mission has also flight-proven the main technologies developed for Galileo such as the highly accurate atomic clocks.

GIOVE-A remains fully operational, and has sufficient propellant remaining for further manoeuvres. During transit to its new orbit, the Galileo navigation signal broadcasting was temporarily suspended because the precise orbit determination that is required to generate usable navigation data for the GNSS user community was not possible, There are two optimal windows during the year to perform repositioning manoeuvres. No further manoeuvres are planned in the current window, therefore the payload has been successfully switched on again and the spacecraft has now resumed broadcasting navigation signals from its new orbit.

A further repositioning exercise may be performed to raise the orbit higher still before GIOVE-A is finally de-commissioned
.

GIOVE-A was developed and manufactured by SSTL within a 30-month, 28m Euro contract. SSTL continues to operate the satellite from its Guildford, UK facilities and has also undertaken or contributed to the GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B testing programmes that are the foundations of the future Galileo satellite navigation system and the operational satellite development.

OHB and SSTL jointly form one of the two consortia now bidding for the development and construction of 28 satellites for the operational Galileo service. By allowing two consortia to build spacecraft for this important European undertaking, ESA and the EU would ensure that the full operational capability can be put in place as soon as possible and at best value to the taxpayer. The system is to be fully operational by 2013 following full contract signature expected in late 2009.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-10 09:38 | 显示全部楼层

由于Soyuz-ST发射台建设延误,欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统的部署又推迟了

10/9/09 02:09 PM ET

Launch Dates Slip for Galileo Validation Satellites


By Peter B. de Selding

PARIS — Deployment of Europe’s Galileo satellite navigation system has slipped again, with the European version of Russia’s Soyuz rocket now scheduled to carry four Galileo in-orbit validation satellites into orbit in two launches scheduled for late 2010 and early 2011, European Space Agency (ESA) Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain said Oct. 9.

Both launches, from Europe’s Guiana Space Center in French Guiana, had been scheduled for 2010, but have suffered delays following last-minute difficulties with the satellites, which are being built by a European consortium led by Astrium Satellites and Thales Alenia Space.

Introduction of Russia’s Soyuz rocket at the French Guiana site has also been delayed repeatedly, with an inaugural launch now tentatively set for April 2010.

Dordain conceded that the new launch dates represent another delay but said he has written assurances by the chief executives of the two principal contractors that the satellites will meet the new schedule — November 2010 for the first launch, and early 2011 for the second.

The 27-nation European Union’s executive commission is financing the 30-satellite Galileo program and expects, with ESA assistance, to select a builder for the remaining satellites late this year. The 11 companies bidding for one or more of the six Galileo work packages are expected to submit final bids by Nov. 11.
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-10 12:54 | 显示全部楼层
真要哭了,欧洲人太能扯皮和拖延了
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-10 12:58 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略验证卫星的发射日期再次推后  

新闻发布时间:2009-10-10


[据美国太空新闻网2009年10月9日报道] 欧洲伽利略卫星导航系统的部署将再次推迟,因为计划将携带四颗伽利略在轨验证卫星入轨的两枚欧洲型俄罗斯联盟火箭计划在2010年末和2011年初发射。原本两次发射都准备在2010年进行。  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_谢慧敏
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-19 14:27 | 显示全部楼层
欧洲委员会将裁减伽利略卫星的起始订单  

新闻发布时间:2009-10-19


[据太空新闻网2009年10月16日报道] 欧洲政府和工业界官员称,欧洲委员会已经减少了预计在2009年为伽利略导航计划订购的卫星数量——由以前的28到32颗卫星削减为最多22颗。该决定将还有助于欧州委员会节约资金,因为伽利略计划受到突破预算限制的威胁。  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_谢慧敏
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-10-28 12:42 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”系统首批卫星订购数比预期少6颗,发射从2012年开始

Commission cuts Galileo satellites by six

By Rob Coppinger
DATE:22/10/09
SOURCE:Flight International

Europe's Galileo satellite navigation system could be forced to operate with fewer satellites than planned, with orders being lined up for just 22 of the 28 spacecraft that were to be procured this year. No decision has yet been taken by the European Commission on when it will buy the rest.

The 22 would be added to the first four operational spacecraft being launched in 2010 to make up 26, two more than the 24 needed for global coverage. The 22 will be orbited over a series of launches from 2012. The EC revealed the cut in spacecraft numbers to industry on 2 October when it asked the two companies selected to compete for the space segment, Germany's OHB System and EADS Astrium, for their "best of final offers". These have to be submitted by 13 November and the procurement decision is expected by the end of the year.

OHB chief operating officer Fritz Merkle told Flightglobal that the operational constellation would now be the 22, the first four satellites launched in 2010 and the two Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element (GIOVE) test satellites already in orbit. The original plan had been to have 30 in orbit, not counting GIOVE A and B.

The Commission did not comment on whether the reduced spacecraft numbers is an attempt to stave off potential cost increases for Galileo, which has had an unchanged
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-10-28 13:17 | 显示全部楼层
7年呀7年,实验星和后续卫星中间隔了7年。。。。。。
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