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[专题专项] 欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统:ESA向OHB订购第三批12颗伽利略卫星

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cmj9808 发表于 2009-10-28 17:00 | 显示全部楼层
每个轨道平面六颗加一颗备份,这是否是最低配置要求?
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-11-14 09:23 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-11-14 09:26 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”卫星导航系统终于上路了

Page last updated at 11:24 GMT, Thursday, 12 November 2009

Galileo 'pathfinders' take shape  




By Jonathan Amos
Science reporter, BBC News  

The Galileo satellite-navigation system is coming.

After all the wrangling, the delays and the furore over cost, Europe's version of GPS is finally starting to take shape.

In an industrial cleanroom in southern England, engineers are reaching key milestones in their preparation of four satellites.

It will be these In-Orbit Validation (IOV) models which will prove the Galileo concept.

Due for launch in pairs in late 2010 and early-2011, the "pathfinders" will form a mini-constellation in the sky.

They will transmit the navigation signals that demonstrate the European system can become a reality.

The rest of the network should then follow soon afterwards. Galileo will eventually comprise some 30 satellites, to inform and guide users the world over.

"Even with just a few Galileo spacecraft in orbit - if you had a GPS and Galileo-compatible receiver, you would begin to see a difference, simply by virtue of having more satellites in the sky," explained Dr Mike Healy from EADS Astrium.

The company's Portsmouth cleanroom is responsible for assembling the IOV payloads.

Its engineers have been sent sat-nav components from across Europe. These equipments are being installed in 1.5m-by-1.5m-by-3m boxes.

On a level

The critical elements of an IOV include its two passive hydrogen-maser atomic clocks, the ultra-precise time-pieces on which Galileo's performance depends.

"The main thing is maintaining their accuracy," said Peter Hollands, the payload project manager.

"You have to protect them from magnetic fields, from shock and vibration, and from thermal excursions. So the variation in temperature of the clocks on the IOVs is controlled to within about a degree [Celsius] to keep them stable."

The payloads must also carry signal generation units. These complex processing centres take the "ticks" from the clocks and turn them into the all-important navigation signal. That signal then goes through amplifiers before being transmitted to users on the ground via an antenna.

All of these elements have to be integrated and tested.

The first complete payload is due to go out the door in a matter of weeks.

The box will be sent to Thales Alenia Space in Rome, Italy, where it will be attached to the main spacecraft bus, incorporating a propulsion system, avionics and solar panels, etc, before being shipped to Europe's spaceport in French Guiana.

A Russian Soyuz rocket has been entrusted with the deployment in orbit.

Difficult project

Galileo will work alongside GPS. It is expected to improve substantially the availability and accuracy of timing and navigation signals delivered from space.

Users should get quicker, more reliable fixes and be able to locate their positions with an error of one metre compared with the current GPS-only error of several metres.

Of course, Europe's single biggest space services project should have been operational by now.

Political and financial uncertainty have hindered progress; the collapse in 2007 of the private consortium invited to build and run the network came very close to delivering a knock-out punch.

But there have been technical challenges, also. European industry has had to develop some novel equipments for Galileo, and getting them all to interact seamlessly and robustly at a systems level has taken time.

That there had been slippage on such a major endeavour should not have been a surprise, argued Dr Healy.

"When we make telecoms satellites, they are essentially a variation on a theme and we can now do them to a very consistent timescale," he explained.

"But when we have to do significant developments, as in the case of Galileo, these spacecraft are bound to take longer and there will be a degree of uncertainty on timescales.

"Remember, Europe has never done navigation before."

Contract awards

This week sees the deadline for the consortia competing to build the remaining Galileo satellites to submit their final prices to the project's leaders, the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (Esa).

Contracts for up to 22 Full Operational Capability (FOC) spacecraft are expected to be awarded before the year's end.

EADS Astrium and Thales Alenia Space may have built the IOVs but they are not guaranteed to get the next batch. Certainly, not all of them.

There has been wide speculation in Europe that the EC and Esa will hand some of the FOC order to a rival consortium led by OHB of Germany.

Whatever the outcome, payload integration will be undertaken in the UK - if not in Astrium's Portsmouth cleanroom then at Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) in Guildford.

SSTL is a key partner in the OHB consortium.


BBC原文链接还有视频:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8351457.stm
heito 发表于 2009-11-21 18:19 | 显示全部楼层

伽利略计划库鲁地面站正式落成

伽利略计划库鲁地面站正式落成  
2009年11月21日 14:29:40  来源:新华网  


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    新华网巴黎11月20日电(记者 李学梅)欧洲航天局20日说,欧洲伽利略全球卫星导航系统(简称伽利略计划)在法属圭亚那库鲁航天中心的地面站已于19日正式落成,它标志着该计划又向前迈进了一步。

    欧航局当天发表公报说,库鲁地面站的落成是伽利略计划在轨验证阶段的重要一步。在落成仪式上,伽利略计划负责人勒内·奥斯特林克说,地面站建设与伽利略的卫星网络建设具有同等重要的作用,现在人们可以共同期待2010年年底首颗卫星的发射了。

    库鲁地面站由法国国家航天研究中心负责建设,它包括1个遥感、跟踪和指令站、1个感应站和2个传输站。遥感、跟踪和指令站将被用来监控伽利略计划的卫星;感应站主要用于接收系统卫星发出的信号;传输站用来向卫星传输导航指令。

    欧航局说,伽利略计划在轨验证阶段一共需要18个感应站、5个传输站及2个遥感、跟踪和指令站。此外,欧航局还将在意大利的富奇诺和德国的上普法芬霍芬建立2个控制中心。届时,感应站会将收集到的数据源源不断地传回控制中心,控制中心随后通过传输站向卫星发出导航指令。

    伽利略计划共包括30颗正式卫星,第一颗将在2010年底由一枚俄罗斯火箭发射升空。

    伽利略计划对于欧盟具有关键意义,它不仅能使人们的生活更加方便,还将为欧盟的工业和商业带来可观的经济效益。更重要的是,欧盟将从此拥有自己的全球卫星导航系统,有助于打破美国GPS导航系统的垄断地位,从而在全球高科技竞争浪潮中获取有利位置,并为将来建设欧洲独立防务创造条件。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-12-5 11:34 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”导航卫星工程模型的平台整合测试完成

Galileo satellite engineering model platform integration tests completed



3 December 2009

The platform-level integration tests on the engineering model of the Galileo in-orbit validation satellites have been completed at the Thales Alenia Space facility in Rome. The platform is currently undergoing functional testing. Delivery of the engineering model payload from Astrium UK is expected in December.

These tests are an important step in the process of building and launching the first four Galileo satellites. Integration testing is carried out to verify the correctness of the interfaces between the unit or subsystem under test and the larger system into which it has been integrated. The scope of functional testing is to demonstrate that the integrated units or subsystems are compliant with their design specification.  

The purpose of the engineering model of the Galileo In-Orbit Verification (IOV) satellites is to mitigate the design risks associated with the proto-flight model and the three flight model satellites, by performing an early verification of the electrical functionality and interfaces of the spacecraft and the performance of the payload before the test campaign for the proto-flight model starts. The engineering model is also used to debug the functional test environment and the test procedures that will be used for the flight models. Using an engineering model also has the advantages of verifying the electrical ground support equipment interfaces and functionality as well as the satellite’s compatibility with the Galileo ground segment.

The engineering model is representative of the flight models in form, fit and function, but does not possess the complete redundancy of its flight counterparts. As the individual units of the engineering model do not have to undergo the lengthy and expensive environmental test campaigns needed for the flight models, it can be built far in advance of them, at a fraction of the cost.

Four in-orbit verification satellites

The Galileo IOV phase aims to perform an in-orbit validation of the Galileo system design using a reduced constellation of four satellites (the minimum number required to guarantee the provision of exact positioning and timing at the test locations), along with a small number of ground stations.

The proto-flight and flight model satellites will also integrated and tested at Thales Alenia Space in Rome. They will be carried into orbit in pairs by Soyuz ST-B / Fregat MT launchers lifting off from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana. The first launch is scheduled for late 2010 and the second for early in 2011.

The proto-flight satellite is currently under construction and starting its integration tests, using the actual flight hardware and software configurations. The on-ground verification program for the proto-flight model is intended to qualify the satellite design – that is, to demonstrate its ability to meet all the environmental and functional requirements in the design specification.

The verification program for the flight model satellites is shorter and simpler, as it only has to demonstrate the correctness and quality of their construction.

The definition phase and the development and In-Orbit Validation phase of the Galileo programme were carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA) and co-funded by ESA and the European Community.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-12-5 11:36 | 显示全部楼层

Galileo卫星的天线

Antennas_01.jpg
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-12-5 11:51 | 显示全部楼层

据说头8颗Galileo卫星的研制合同已归属德国OHB Technology公司

12/4/09 01:14 PM ET

First Eight Galileo Spacecraft Said to Go to Germany’s OHB Technology


By Peter B. de Selding

PARIS — The European Commission has selected OHB Technology of Germany to build at least eight Galileo navigation and positioning satellites for about 350 million euros ($525 million) in a decision that postpones any award to competitor Astrium Satellites pending further negotiations with Astrium, industry officials said.

The commission is expected to inform European Union member states of its decision the week of Dec. 9, officials said.

One industry official said the decision, which was not expected, already has provoked a strong negative reaction in southern Germany, where Astrium had planned to perform much of its Galileo work, and that political pressure will be applied to reverse the ruling in the coming days.

The OHB- and Astrium-led consortia have been negotiating with the commission and its technical adviser, the European Space Agency (ESA), for some 15 months on the Galileo contract. The commission had set a contract ceiling of 840 million euros to build 28 Galileo satellites before deciding recently to limit the total order to 22 satellites.

The commission and ESA asked the two consortia each to submit priced bids for eight, 14 and 22 satellites. The widely held assumption among European government and industry officials was that the OHB-led consortium, which includes small-satellite specialist Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. of Britain, did not have the industrial depth to build all 22 satellites. But a strong predisposition at the commission to maintain competition in the Galileo program would make it difficult to select the Astrium consortium to build all 22 satellites, they said.

Government and industry officials had said the most likely outcome was for OHB to win eight satellites and the Astrium team, which includes Thales Alenia Space, to be given the order for 14 satellites. The two would then battle for the next Galileo order expected in a couple of years to complete the constellation.

Industry officials said they still view that scenario as the most probable outcome, and that the situation remained confused as of Dec. 4. But they said they were surprised to learn that the commission had decided to withhold any award to Astrium for what two officials said was Astrium’s noncompliance with the commission’s bidding guidelines.

These officials said committing to remain within the price ceilings for the three potential order sizes — around 400 million euros for eight satellites, 650 million euros for 14 satellites and 840 million euros for all 22 spacecraft — was viewed as indispensable by the commission. Any caveats or qualifiers to the bid price could be considered as noncompliant, they said.

The chief executives of Astrium and Thales Alenia Space on Dec. 4 declined to address the status of their Galileo bid. But at a conference here organized by the French Aeronautics and Astronautics Association (AAAF), they questioned whether the competitive procedure organized for Galileo was in the best interests of taxpayers.

“If we are going to be in a competitive situation, it should begin at the start of a program and not in the middle,” Thales Alenia Space Chief Executive Reynald Seznec said. “The jury is still out” on whether the Galileo selection process ultimately will be viewed as a valuable undertaking, he said. “I believe the competition has added not much value. At any rate, it’s debatable.”

Astrium Chief Executive François Auque, in what he described as “an understatement,” said: “When we look at the results, I am not sure the  

Galileo program should be held up as an example to be followed. As far as the outcome — we’ll see in 2020.”

Fritz Merkle, a member of the executive board of OHB, addressed the same issue differently: “It has been good for the taxpayers,” Merkle told the conference, referring to the Galileo competition.

Under current planning, the Galileo system is expected to be at least partially operational by 2014.

Astrium and Thales Alenia Space both invested in Galileo plant and equipment several years ago when their companies had been given sole charge of the program by ESA and the European Commission. It was a period during which Galileo’s commercial potential was viewed as so promising that a private-sector operator would invest in the system in return for a concession to operate Galileo as a business.

That business model subsequently collapsed as Galileo’s risks were viewed as too high for the private sector to invest. The consortium of Europe’s biggest space-hardware builders that had been given the early Galileo work was broken up by European governments unhappy with the consortium’s early work and hungry to reintroduce competition into what had become a more conventional government procurement.

Astrium and Thales Alenia Space officials say some of the investments they made in early Galileo development were financed on the assumption of a contract to build the full constellation.
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-5 21:42 | 显示全部楼层
合同没给EAS、阿斯特里姆?
lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-7 15:10 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略卫星平台正在测试中(组图)  

新闻发布时间:2009-12-04


  [据欧空局网站2009年12月3日报道]   首颗伽利略卫星的工程模型已经完成平台集成测试,目前正在进行功能测试。Astrium英国公司交付工程模型平台的工作有望在12月进行。
  
  这些测试工作是迈向建造发射并首批四颗伽利略卫星的重要一步。集成测试验证的是分系统单元和大型集成系统单元之间的界面。功能测试验证的是集成的元件满足设计规范。
  
  伽利略在轨验证卫星(IOV)的工程模型能在样机飞行模型和飞行模型建造前降低设计风险。还能纠正测试程序中的问题,验证卫星与伽利略地面系统的兼容性。
  
  四颗在轨验证卫星
  
  伽利略在轨验证阶段将使用四星构成的小规模星座和小数量的地面站验证系统设计。一颗样机飞行模型卫星与三颗飞行模型卫星将被集成并接受测试。它们将分别于2010年和2011年由“联盟”火箭从法属圭亚那发射。

  样机飞行卫星正在组装,开始集成测试。在地面的验证程序旨在检查卫星设计质量。飞行模型卫星的验证程序相对简短,因为只需验证其结构的正确性与质量。(中国航天工程咨询中心  许红英  侯丹)
lixianghua 发表于 2009-12-7 15:15 | 显示全部楼层
正在进行集成的有效载荷工程模型.jpg 工程模型天线.jpg 卫星平台工程模型.jpg 有效载荷工程模型接受测试.jpg
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-10 09:41 | 显示全部楼层
首批8颗伽利略卫星据称将由德国OHB科技公司建造  

新闻发布时间:2009-12-07


[据美国太空新闻网2009年12月4日报道] 工业部门的官员称,在一项决议中欧洲委员会已经选定德国OHB技术公司建造至少8颗伽利略导航与定位卫星,这些卫星大约价值5.25亿美元。延期授予阿斯特里姆卫星公司合同。欧洲委员会将在12月9日将该决议通知欧盟成员国。  

责任编辑:
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-10 18:37 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略在轨验证(IOV)卫星进入功能测试阶段  

新闻发布时间:2009-12-10


[据航空周刊2009年12月8日报道] 伽利略在轨验证(IOV)卫星的平台工程模型已经开始功能测试。IOV卫星准备演示欧洲伽利略导航系统的性能,并为接下来的最终运行能力(FOC)卫星提供一个蓝图。IOV卫星预计将在2010年晚期到2011年,使用联盟火箭发射。  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_谢慧敏
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-10 18:38 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略这进度太拖了。。。。。。
35786km 发表于 2009-12-10 20:47 | 显示全部楼层


工艺确实比我们的好
Nighthawk 发表于 2009-12-10 21:30 | 显示全部楼层
有无问题容易解决,做到高水平得日积月累,不容易呀。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2009-12-31 18:15 | 显示全部楼层

今年7月、8月GIOVE-A逐步提升轨道,以为2013年发射的业务星座让出轨道

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2009-12-31 18:17 编辑

SSTL celebrates 4th anniversary of first Galileo satellite launch



2009-12-28

Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) is today celebrating the 4th anniversary of the launch of its historic GIOVE-A satellite - the first step in Europe's visionary Galileo satellite navigation programme - on December 28th 2005. During the past 4 years, SSTL and GIOVE-A have contributed significantly to the testing and validation of technologies vital to the now imminent operational constellation of satellites. The 660 kg GIOVE-A satellite was built by SSTL for ESA in just 30 months at a cost of just 28m Euros.

SSTL CEO Dr. Matt Perkins commented, "SSTL is proud of its involvement with the Galileo programme and the continuing success of GIOVE-A. This mission has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of SSTL’s small satellite approach for the delivery of operational missions.”

GIOVE-A was the first part of the in-orbit validation programme for Galileo, broadcasting the first signal to successfully secure the critical Galileo frequency filing with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) at 17:25 GMT on the 12th January 2006. This was a significant achievement for SSTL having commissioned the necessary systems to achieve this broadcast in just 3 weeks.

On the 2nd May 2007 GIOVE-A successfully transmitted the first Galileo navigation message from space, containing the information needed by users' receivers to calculate their position using the future Galileo satellite navigation service. These signals have since been used for signal quality testing and for equipment manufacturers and the scientific community to validate prototype Galileo receivers.

Throughout the past 4 years, the satellite has provided valuable data about the Medium Earth Orbit which the Galileo constellation will occupy, helping to characterise the radiation environment and validating subsystems such as an atomic clock and the Galileo signal broadcasting payload.

In July and August this year, GIOVE-A was gradually moved to a higher orbit to ensure that it does not cross the operational Galileo constellation’s orbits when the first operation satellites are launched in 2012. The satellite has been in orbit for 21 months beyond its original 27 month mission design life and continues to provide critical data to all of the ground users experimenting with Galileo navigation signals

SSTL, together with its partner OHB-System of Bremen, Germany form the core team of one of the two consortia bidding for the operational satellites. The final proposal was delivered to ESA in November and the outcome of the evaluation process is awaited. To help improve the overall schedule the team was authorised by the EC and ESA to initiate the procurement of long lead items for the full system earlier this year. The British space pioneer looks forward to continued success supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) and the EC with the expertise it has gained and its cost effective and reliable approach to satellite and subsystem design and manufacture.
shaolin1254 发表于 2009-12-31 20:29 | 显示全部楼层
13年发射业务星,用得着现在就把轨道让出来么。。。。。。
heito 发表于 2010-1-4 10:26 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略系统转机 卫星制造合同即将出炉http://digi.QQ.com  2010年01月04日07:51   中关村在线     [中关村在线GPS频道]伽利略项目合同的获得者将在1月7号或8号出现,经过了一段平静期之后,欧洲航天局(ESA)推荐OHBSystem公司/萨里卫星技术有限公司(SSTL)的小组进行8颗全天候卫星制造。




  OHBSystem公司德国OHB-System公司是一家专门从事小卫星系统、分系统研制工作的企业,在小型商业卫星、小型研究卫星及相关分系统的研制、制造和操作方面具有丰富的经验。


  萨里卫星技术有限公司(SSTL)是由英国萨里大学组建的一家私营卫星制造公司,成立于1985年,旨在对该大学小卫星工程研究成果进行商业开发。


  前竞争对手ThalesAleniaSpace、意大利、Logica、荷兰据说镜联合参与1号工作包,包括系统与空间信号工程的相关系统支持。出于技术方面的考虑,OHB/SSTL两家公司还不知道是否能获得8颗卫星以外的工程项目。欧洲航空局还决定被异议的EADSAstrium公司,欧洲最大的航空航天/国防制造商,建立四颗伽利略在轨验证文星,并于2010年间发射。


  据知情者称,EADSAstrium公司的竞标价格高于欧盟委员会制定的范围,并且不符合信号功率的技术要求,而继续寻求制造相同的在轨验证卫星。
Nighthawk 发表于 2010-1-4 10:54 | 显示全部楼层
不是吧,ThalesAleniaSpace,EADSAstrium这样上万人规模的大企业搞不过几百人的小企业
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-4 12:01 | 显示全部楼层
好像有报道是因为某些原因首批才选的OHB
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