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[专题专项] 欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统:ESA向OHB订购第三批12颗伽利略卫星

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 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-7 22:16 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”头两颗业务星需在2012年10月做好发射准备

Page last updated at 11:31 GMT, Thursday, 7 January 2010

EU awards Galileo satellite-navigation contracts


By Jonathan Amos
Science correspondent, BBC News  

A German/UK consortium has been asked to supply the first operational spacecraft for Europe's Galileo satellite-navigation system.

OHB System and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) will build 14 satellites in a contract valued at 566m euros ($811m; £510m).

The contract was announced by the European Commission in Brussels.

Galileo is intended as an EU version of the US Global Positioning System (GPS), but with significant improvements.

Its more advanced technology should give users quicker, more reliable fixes, and enable them to locate their positions with an error of one metre compared with the current GPS error of several metres.

European Commission vice-president with responsibility for transport, Antonio Tajani, also announced contracts to purchase the rockets on which to launch the satellites, and system management to oversee the Galileo project implementation.

"With this and the upcoming awards for the remaining procurement packages, we are concluding a critical phase of the Galileo programme," he said.

"We can now focus on the actual roll-out and demonstrate to European citizens that Europe's own satellite-navigation system is firmly underway."

Flight pairs

The total value of the contracts announced on Thursday is just over one billion euros. The contracts mean Galileo, which has been much delayed, should finally become operational in early 2014.

"Our schedule has the satellites rolling off the end of the production line in the second half of 2012," said Phil Davies from SSTL.

"We then fall into a steady state where we produce a satellite every six weeks or so. The first two will be ready for launch in October 2012," he told BBC News.

Arianespace of France will launch the spacecraft. The value of its contract amounts to 397m euros ($569m; £358m).

Arianespace will use Russian-built Soyuz rockets initially to send up the spacecraft in batches of two.

By early 2014, it is thought there could be up to 16 spacecraft in the Galileo network, enough to make a significant difference to sat-nav users with Galileo and GPS-enabled receivers.

Thales Alenia Space of Italy has been asked to provide the system support to pull the whole project together. Its contract is valued at 85m euros ($122m; £77m).

Long road

Galileo should have been operational by now but the project has run into myriad technical, commercial and political obstacles, including early objections from the Americans who thought a rival system to GPS might be used to attack its armed forces.

The venture came very close to being abandoned in 2007 when the public-private development-and-business model set up to build and run the system collapsed.

To keep Galileo alive, EU member-states had to agree to fund the entire project from the public purse. What should have cost European taxpayers no more than 1.8bn euros will now probably cost them in excess of 5bn euros.

The EU's continued commitment to the project despite severe budgetary and management failings is based on the belief that huge returns to the European economy will accrue from the investment.

Already, GPS is said to have spawned global markets that are worth several tens of billions of euros annually.

The new European constellation is expected to deepen and extend those markets as sat-nav functionality becomes ubiquitous in consumer devices such as mobile phones.

Thursday's contracts are just the start of operational roll-out of Galileo. More satellites and rocket will be needed.

There are also outstanding work packages that need to be awarded, for the ground control segments of Galileo.

The three major contracts in this area should be awarded by mid-2010.
heito 发表于 2010-1-8 07:45 | 显示全部楼层
欧盟伽利略卫星导航系统2014年运营http://www.sina.com.cn  2010年01月08日01:31  国际在线
  国际在线消息(记者金力):欧盟委员会7日说,欧盟的伽利略卫星导航系统将从2014年起投入运营。

  欧盟委员会当天宣布了伽利略卫星导航系统项目中3份合同的归属。其中,德国OHB空间技术公司获得为该系统制造第一批14颗卫星的合同,合同金额达5.66亿欧元;意大利泰利斯阿莱尼亚航天公司获得为该项目提供系统支持的合同,金额为8500万欧元;而法国阿丽亚娜太空公司则获得了发射卫星的合同,金额为3.97亿欧元。上述合同将在几周内由欧洲航天局与上述3家公司签署。

  欧盟委员会副主席塔亚尼在宣布上述决定时表示,无论从经济还是安全角度来说,伽利略卫星导航系统对欧洲十分重要,它将确保欧洲的“政治独立”。他说,该系统在技术上优于美国的全球定位系统,将为人们的出行提供更精确的定位,它在高原地区和高楼林立的城区的优势尤其明显。

  欧盟于1999年首次公布伽利略卫星导航系统计划,其目的是摆脱欧洲对美国全球定位系统的依赖,打破其垄断。该项目总共将发射32颗卫星,总投入达34亿欧元。因各成员国存在分歧,计划已几经推迟。
Nighthawk 发表于 2010-1-8 08:09 | 显示全部楼层
伽利略的部署速度可以很快,一旦开始大规模发射组网,进度会很快把北斗超过去。欧洲扯皮多,咱们毛病多,都差不多
ganjp201 发表于 2010-1-8 09:35 | 显示全部楼层
他们才打了几颗星啊?没开始用也不知道毛病多少吧
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 09:54 | 显示全部楼层
14颗卫星需要7发Soyuz-ST,3.97亿欧元约合5.6亿美元(当前汇率约1:1.4),每次发射费用8000万美元,每颗卫星造价5800万美元
lixianghua 发表于 2010-1-8 12:26 | 显示全部楼层
欧洲“伽利略”卫星导航系统
lixianghua 发表于 2010-1-8 12:48 | 显示全部楼层
欧委会授出三份伽利略合同 欧导航系统将在2014年开始运行  

新闻发布时间:2010-01-08


  [据欧洲委员会2009年1月7日报道]  欧洲委员会在1月7日宣布,授出6份中的3份伽利略初始运行能力采购合同。系统支持服务合同授予意大利泰利斯阿莱尼亚太空公司;前14颗卫星的建造合同授予给德国OHB公司;发射服务合同授予给法国阿里安太空公司。这意味着被屡次推迟的伽利略卫星导航系统将在2014年完成初步部署并具备初始运行能力。
  
  泰利斯阿莱尼亚太空公司获得的系统支持服务合同价值8500万欧元,包括支持欧空局整合和校验伽利略系统的工业服务。
  
  OHB公司赢得了14颗卫星的首份订单,合同价值5.66亿欧元。剩下的卫星将按照后面的工作订单采购。后续合同授予OHB公司还是EADS公司将取决于谁能提供最有利的报价。欧洲委员会准备采用双源策略,特别依据于他们的交付时间表,来降低风险并增加灵活性。
  
  阿里安太空公司赢得的合同包括5枚联盟火箭的发射,每次发射将携带2颗卫星。首次发射计划在2012年10月进行。合同价值3.97亿欧元。
  
  欧空局将代表欧洲委员会在未来几周与选中的公司签署这些合同。欧洲委员会现在能够更好的规划伽利略提供不同服务的时间。其中公开服务、公共管理服务和搜索与营救服务最早将从2014年开始提供。生命安全服务和商业服务将从2014年开始测试,并在伽利略系统星座拥有30颗卫星、具备全面运行能力时提供。
  
  剩下的三份采购合同包括:地面任务基础设施合同、地面控制基础设施合同和运行合同,它们将在2010年年中授出。



 背景资料
  
  采购程序
  
  伽利略全面运行能力的采购被分为六个工作一揽子合同:系统支持服务;卫星;将卫星送入轨道的发射服务;确保服务供应的地面任务基础设施;用于管理卫星的地面控制基础设施;运行。
  
  欧空局代表欧洲委员会从2008年7月开始采购工作。在广泛的对话之后,初步入选公司被邀请提交最佳和最终报价。所有的合同都依据“最合算”原则授出。
  
  对于部分工作一揽子合同,既要签署框架合同也要签署特定合同。框架合同为特定合同将要进行的明确任务单设定了条件,但是并没有关于授予这些特定合同的任何承诺。
  
  系统支持服务
  
  尽管框架合同时间从2010年持续到2016年,但首个任务单的特定合同被授予泰利斯阿莱尼亚太空公司。这个任务单特定合同时间从2010年到持续2014年,包括下面几项服务:
  
  系统工程
  系统性能工程
  空间信号工程
  安全性工程
  地面段工程
  系统装配、集成与校验
  产品保险
  
  卫星
  
  这部分框架合同同时与OHB公司和EADS公司签署,时间从2010年持续到2015年,包括提供最多32颗卫星。包含14颗卫星的首份任务单的特定合同授予了OHB公司,首颗卫星将在2012年7月交付。之后每隔1个半月交付一颗卫星,最后一颗卫星计划在2014年3月交付。
  
  发射服务
  
  发射服务合同被授予给阿里安太空公司,阿里安公司将从法属圭亚那库鲁发射5枚联盟火箭,每枚火箭将携带两颗卫星。首次发射预计在2012年10月进行,之后将每年进行4到5次发射。合同还包含另外两次联盟火箭的发射(每次两颗卫星)或者另外一次阿里安5火箭发射(携带4颗卫星)的可选合同。
  
  计划的阶段划分
  
  伽利略计划被分为两个阶段:
  
  在轨校验(IOV)阶段包括测试并运行四颗卫星以及它们相关的地面基础设施。这个阶段正在进行中。前两颗IOV卫星计划在2010年11月末发射,另外两颗IOV卫星计划在2011年4月发射。
  
  全面运行能力(FOC)阶段包括剩余地面和太空基础设施的部署。它包含18颗运行卫星的初始运行能力阶段。全系统将拥有30颗卫星、位于欧洲的控制中心和遍及全球的传感器网络站与上行链路站。(中国航天工程咨询中心  谢慧敏 曲佳)
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 14:14 | 显示全部楼层
用Soyuz-ST发射反而比用Ariane V贵?还是我算错了?
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-8 20:31 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 21:34 | 显示全部楼层
我也觉得很奇怪。但是按照66#的计算,Soyuz-ST单次发射费用是8000万USD,比Proton还要贵,而一枚Ariane V的发射量相当于两枚Soyuz-ST。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-16 23:10 | 显示全部楼层

ILS推销“质子”来发射Galileo卫星,“质子”发射成本仅为“联盟”1/3

01/15/10 06:04 PM ET

ILS May Pitch Proton as Cost-saver Over Soyuz for Galileo Satellites


By Peter B. de Selding

PARIS — The U.S. company that markets Russia’s Proton heavy-lift rocket says it can launch Europe’s Galileo satellites for one-third the cost of what the European Commission has agreed to pay to launch the navigation craft aboard the European version of Russia’s Soyuz rocket.

Reston, Va.-based International Launch Services (ILS) is weighing whether to pitch its Proton offer to the commission as part of a broader strategy that includes adapting the rocket to carry two mid-size telecommunications satellites into geostationary-transfer orbit at the same time.

ILS President Frank McKenna said that on a per-kilogram basis, ILS is able to offer owners of smaller telecommunications satellites a 20 percent savings over launches as solo passengers on the European Soyuz or as co-passengers on Europe’s heavy-lift Ariane 5 rocket, both of which are operated by Europe’s Arianespace launch consortium.

In a Jan. 13 interview, McKenna said ILS, which has not been shy about going after contracts that were considered a shoo-in for Arianespace, committed an error in not making an aggressive Proton offer for the Galileo work.

“We miscalculated by not taking this on,” McKenna said. “We saw protectionist policies being put into place” for Galileo, leading ILS to conclude that a closely matched price competition would automatically turn in Arianespace’s favor.

That was before the commission announced Jan. 7 that it has agreed to pay 79.4 million euros, or some $114 million, per launch. The deal calls for five Soyuz launches, each carrying two Galileo satellites.

“Amazingly, a dedicated Proton launch has become competitive with a Soyuz launch,” McKenna said. “We can offer a three-fold decrease” in launch costs per Galileo satellite by using Proton rockets to carry six Galileo spacecraft at a time.

McKenna declined to discuss prices, but one industry official said that while ILS has increased some of its prices in recent months, dedicated Proton launches today are selling for less than $110 million. This official added that Proton would need special payload adapters and dispensers to carry six Galileo satellites, and that these would add to the cost.

“I think the commission can eat its cake and have it, too,” McKenna said, adding that European government authorities also could use the Proton offer as a backup for Soyuz.

European Commission officials would have had trouble accepting an ILS bid because of a declared policy that all Galileo launches should occur from European territory — a policy similar to the one the U.S. government follows for its satellites. Russia’s Soyuz rocket is being modified for use at Europe’s Guiana Space Center spaceport in French Guiana and is scheduled to make its inaugural flight from there in mid-2010.

The five Soyuz launches of Galileo satellites agreed to so far are scheduled to occur at three-month intervals beginning in late 2012.

The commission has said it wants to have at least two vehicles in the Galileo launcher mix to reduce risk. It has negotiated firm prices, but as yet has agreed to no contracts, for Ariane 5 rockets. Arianespace’s Ariane 5 offer for Galileo involves carrying four Galileo satellites per launch.

To launch Galileo, the Ariane 5 ES variant will need to undergo modifications to its upper stage that are expected to cost about 50 million euros.

McKenna said ILS’s new commercial posture is a result of two factors: the Russian ruble’s decline against the U.S. dollar and the euro, and the reorganization of Proton rocket production under the management of ILS’s owner, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center of Moscow.

Over the past 18 months, the ruble has moved up and down, sometimes dramatically, with a sharp downward trend in early 2009 that enabled ILS to reduce prices and win customers. As of Jan. 7, 100 rubles were valued at $3.30, down about 19 percent from two years earlier.

The resulting upward trend in prices for Soyuz rockets launched from Europe’s spaceport, when measured in U.S. dollars, has led some telecommunications satellite owners to ask ILS to consider a Proton configuration in which two mid-size satellites are launched into geostationary transfer orbit on a single mission.

ILS and Orbital Sciences Corp. of Dulles, Va., have been working on what they call an ILS/Proton Duo design that would carry two Orbital-built spacecraft. Orbital Chief Executive David W. Thompson said in a Jan. 12 interview that the company is ready to invest in the development of Proton Duo, once a customer has been found, as a way of offering satellite owners a broader choice of launchers beyond Ariane 5 and Soyuz.

Proton has long been used to launch three Russian Glonass navigation and timing satellites at a time into medium Earth orbit, and it has also launched two Russian-built satellites into geostationary orbit in a single mission.

McKenna said ILS and Orbital are already offering Proton Duo launches to customers, and that a first launch — once a pairing of two owners of Orbital-built satellites has been found — could be conducted in 2012.

He said ILS plans a 2011 launch of an Orbital-built satellite paired with the Khrunichev-built KazSat-2 telecommunications satellite under construction for the government of Kazakhstan.

Five of the ILS contracts signed in 2009 were for satellites weighing less than 4,000 kilograms. Orbital’s commercial telecommunications satellite products typically weigh 3,200 kilograms or less.

“What we are doing is diversifying — creating more opportunities for that end of the market in response to customers who have requested us to compete,” McKenna said.
月影挽歌 发表于 2010-1-17 03:31 | 显示全部楼层
虽然现在天上一颗伽利略的星都没有

但是欧盟真要部署的话,北斗未必能比他快
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-17 13:19 | 显示全部楼层
01/15/10 06:04 PM ET

ILS May Pitch Proton as Cost-saver Over Soyuz for Galileo Satellites

By P ...
jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-16 23:10


看来不是我算错了,8000万美元的联盟,无论是比ArianeV还是质子,发射费用更贵且布网更慢,欧空局到底怎么想的
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:39 | 显示全部楼层
ILS称用质子火箭发射伽利略卫星的花费仅为联盟火箭的1/3  

新闻发布时间:2010-01-19


[据美国太空新闻网近日报道]   运营俄罗斯质子重型火箭的美国公司国际发射服务(ILS)公司称,它发射欧洲伽利略卫星的成本仅为欧委会同意支付给欧洲型联盟火箭费用的三分之一。ILS公司总裁麦肯纳称,伽利略计划采取了贸易保护主义。  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_谢慧敏
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:40 | 显示全部楼层
质子发射一次不到3000万美刀。。。。。。
头像被屏蔽
a123s 发表于 2010-1-21 13:22 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 18:43 | 显示全部楼层
质子发射一次不到3000万美刀。。。。。。
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:40

不是。
质子一次发射的卫星数是联盟的三倍(6颗 vs 2颗),所需费用却相仿。
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 18:49 | 显示全部楼层
不是。
质子一次发射的卫星数是联盟的三倍(6颗 vs 2颗),所需费用却相仿。
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 18:43



    首先,谢cmj9808兄解惑。

    其次,如果发射费用相仿而质子只是运力大能够一次发射6颗所带来的单颗星费用降低,这就不实际了。这类导航卫星俄罗斯一箭发射三颗,美国现在是1箭1颗,真要是一箭六星发射这个效率上去了,总发射费用降下来了,但是发射风险可是太高了。。。。。。发射成功了,一切都好说,如果一次失败这要耽误一年甚至几年的进度呀。。。。。。
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 19:01 | 显示全部楼层
shaolin兄客气了。欧空局选择联盟也许正是出于安全性的考虑,因为按照现在的费用看,联盟、质子和Ariane 5中最不经济的就是联盟。
美国一箭一星是因为补网发射,实际上近年来质子的成功率也比较高,不亚于联盟。
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-23 11:33 | 显示全部楼层
萨瑞卫星技术有限公司为战略发展重组业务结构  

新闻发布时间:2010-01-22


  [据澳大利亚每日航天网站2010年1月21日报道]  萨瑞卫星技术有限公司(SSTL)已重新调整业务结构,新建立了两个业务部门以管理持续增长的地球观测和科学电信任务。

   电信与导航业务部由曾负责欧洲伽利略导航卫星项目首颗卫星GIOVE-A和SSTL静地通信卫星计划的约翰·帕菲特博士管理。1月初,OHB系统公司授予SSTL一份为伽利略导航计划供应14个航天器的合同。近期,SSTL还将开始与斯里兰卡电信管理局合作研发一颗通信卫星,并建立斯里兰卡航天局。

   地球观测与科学业务部将由目前任职于销售业务部的主管保罗·布鲁克斯负责管理。不久,SSTL将承接一项哈萨克斯坦遥感任务,并在2010年晚些时候发射尼日利亚卫星-2(NigeriaSat-2)和NX卫星。(中国航天工程咨询中心 陈菲 侯丹)  

责任编辑:中国航天工程咨询中心_陈菲
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