楼主: jingyan66

[专题专项] 欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统:ESA向OHB订购第三批12颗伽利略卫星

 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-7 22:16 | 显示全部楼层


Page last updated at 11:31 GMT, Thursday, 7 January 2010

EU awards Galileo satellite-navigation contracts

By Jonathan Amos
Science correspondent, BBC News  

A German/UK consortium has been asked to supply the first operational spacecraft for Europe's Galileo satellite-navigation system.

OHB System and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) will build 14 satellites in a contract valued at 566m euros ($811m; £510m).

The contract was announced by the European Commission in Brussels.

Galileo is intended as an EU version of the US Global Positioning System (GPS), but with significant improvements.

Its more advanced technology should give users quicker, more reliable fixes, and enable them to locate their positions with an error of one metre compared with the current GPS error of several metres.

European Commission vice-president with responsibility for transport, Antonio Tajani, also announced contracts to purchase the rockets on which to launch the satellites, and system management to oversee the Galileo project implementation.

"With this and the upcoming awards for the remaining procurement packages, we are concluding a critical phase of the Galileo programme," he said.

"We can now focus on the actual roll-out and demonstrate to European citizens that Europe's own satellite-navigation system is firmly underway."

Flight pairs

The total value of the contracts announced on Thursday is just over one billion euros. The contracts mean Galileo, which has been much delayed, should finally become operational in early 2014.

"Our schedule has the satellites rolling off the end of the production line in the second half of 2012," said Phil Davies from SSTL.

"We then fall into a steady state where we produce a satellite every six weeks or so. The first two will be ready for launch in October 2012," he told BBC News.

Arianespace of France will launch the spacecraft. The value of its contract amounts to 397m euros ($569m; £358m).

Arianespace will use Russian-built Soyuz rockets initially to send up the spacecraft in batches of two.

By early 2014, it is thought there could be up to 16 spacecraft in the Galileo network, enough to make a significant difference to sat-nav users with Galileo and GPS-enabled receivers.

Thales Alenia Space of Italy has been asked to provide the system support to pull the whole project together. Its contract is valued at 85m euros ($122m; £77m).

Long road

Galileo should have been operational by now but the project has run into myriad technical, commercial and political obstacles, including early objections from the Americans who thought a rival system to GPS might be used to attack its armed forces.

The venture came very close to being abandoned in 2007 when the public-private development-and-business model set up to build and run the system collapsed.

To keep Galileo alive, EU member-states had to agree to fund the entire project from the public purse. What should have cost European taxpayers no more than 1.8bn euros will now probably cost them in excess of 5bn euros.

The EU's continued commitment to the project despite severe budgetary and management failings is based on the belief that huge returns to the European economy will accrue from the investment.

Already, GPS is said to have spawned global markets that are worth several tens of billions of euros annually.

The new European constellation is expected to deepen and extend those markets as sat-nav functionality becomes ubiquitous in consumer devices such as mobile phones.

Thursday's contracts are just the start of operational roll-out of Galileo. More satellites and rocket will be needed.

There are also outstanding work packages that need to be awarded, for the ground control segments of Galileo.

The three major contracts in this area should be awarded by mid-2010.
heito 发表于 2010-1-8 07:45 | 显示全部楼层
欧盟伽利略卫星导航系统2014年运营http://www.sina.com.cn  2010年01月08日01:31  国际在线



Nighthawk 发表于 2010-1-8 08:09 | 显示全部楼层
ganjp201 发表于 2010-1-8 09:35 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 09:54 | 显示全部楼层
lixianghua 发表于 2010-1-8 12:26 | 显示全部楼层
lixianghua 发表于 2010-1-8 12:48 | 显示全部楼层
欧委会授出三份伽利略合同 欧导航系统将在2014年开始运行  


  [据欧洲委员会2009年1月7日报道]  欧洲委员会在1月7日宣布,授出6份中的3份伽利略初始运行能力采购合同。系统支持服务合同授予意大利泰利斯阿莱尼亚太空公司;前14颗卫星的建造合同授予给德国OHB公司;发射服务合同授予给法国阿里安太空公司。这意味着被屡次推迟的伽利略卫星导航系统将在2014年完成初步部署并具备初始运行能力。

  全面运行能力(FOC)阶段包括剩余地面和太空基础设施的部署。它包含18颗运行卫星的初始运行能力阶段。全系统将拥有30颗卫星、位于欧洲的控制中心和遍及全球的传感器网络站与上行链路站。(中国航天工程咨询中心  谢慧敏 曲佳)
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 14:14 | 显示全部楼层
用Soyuz-ST发射反而比用Ariane V贵?还是我算错了?
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-8 20:31 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-8 21:34 | 显示全部楼层
我也觉得很奇怪。但是按照66#的计算,Soyuz-ST单次发射费用是8000万USD,比Proton还要贵,而一枚Ariane V的发射量相当于两枚Soyuz-ST。
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-16 23:10 | 显示全部楼层


01/15/10 06:04 PM ET

ILS May Pitch Proton as Cost-saver Over Soyuz for Galileo Satellites

By Peter B. de Selding

PARIS — The U.S. company that markets Russia’s Proton heavy-lift rocket says it can launch Europe’s Galileo satellites for one-third the cost of what the European Commission has agreed to pay to launch the navigation craft aboard the European version of Russia’s Soyuz rocket.

Reston, Va.-based International Launch Services (ILS) is weighing whether to pitch its Proton offer to the commission as part of a broader strategy that includes adapting the rocket to carry two mid-size telecommunications satellites into geostationary-transfer orbit at the same time.

ILS President Frank McKenna said that on a per-kilogram basis, ILS is able to offer owners of smaller telecommunications satellites a 20 percent savings over launches as solo passengers on the European Soyuz or as co-passengers on Europe’s heavy-lift Ariane 5 rocket, both of which are operated by Europe’s Arianespace launch consortium.

In a Jan. 13 interview, McKenna said ILS, which has not been shy about going after contracts that were considered a shoo-in for Arianespace, committed an error in not making an aggressive Proton offer for the Galileo work.

“We miscalculated by not taking this on,” McKenna said. “We saw protectionist policies being put into place” for Galileo, leading ILS to conclude that a closely matched price competition would automatically turn in Arianespace’s favor.

That was before the commission announced Jan. 7 that it has agreed to pay 79.4 million euros, or some $114 million, per launch. The deal calls for five Soyuz launches, each carrying two Galileo satellites.

“Amazingly, a dedicated Proton launch has become competitive with a Soyuz launch,” McKenna said. “We can offer a three-fold decrease” in launch costs per Galileo satellite by using Proton rockets to carry six Galileo spacecraft at a time.

McKenna declined to discuss prices, but one industry official said that while ILS has increased some of its prices in recent months, dedicated Proton launches today are selling for less than $110 million. This official added that Proton would need special payload adapters and dispensers to carry six Galileo satellites, and that these would add to the cost.

“I think the commission can eat its cake and have it, too,” McKenna said, adding that European government authorities also could use the Proton offer as a backup for Soyuz.

European Commission officials would have had trouble accepting an ILS bid because of a declared policy that all Galileo launches should occur from European territory — a policy similar to the one the U.S. government follows for its satellites. Russia’s Soyuz rocket is being modified for use at Europe’s Guiana Space Center spaceport in French Guiana and is scheduled to make its inaugural flight from there in mid-2010.

The five Soyuz launches of Galileo satellites agreed to so far are scheduled to occur at three-month intervals beginning in late 2012.

The commission has said it wants to have at least two vehicles in the Galileo launcher mix to reduce risk. It has negotiated firm prices, but as yet has agreed to no contracts, for Ariane 5 rockets. Arianespace’s Ariane 5 offer for Galileo involves carrying four Galileo satellites per launch.

To launch Galileo, the Ariane 5 ES variant will need to undergo modifications to its upper stage that are expected to cost about 50 million euros.

McKenna said ILS’s new commercial posture is a result of two factors: the Russian ruble’s decline against the U.S. dollar and the euro, and the reorganization of Proton rocket production under the management of ILS’s owner, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center of Moscow.

Over the past 18 months, the ruble has moved up and down, sometimes dramatically, with a sharp downward trend in early 2009 that enabled ILS to reduce prices and win customers. As of Jan. 7, 100 rubles were valued at $3.30, down about 19 percent from two years earlier.

The resulting upward trend in prices for Soyuz rockets launched from Europe’s spaceport, when measured in U.S. dollars, has led some telecommunications satellite owners to ask ILS to consider a Proton configuration in which two mid-size satellites are launched into geostationary transfer orbit on a single mission.

ILS and Orbital Sciences Corp. of Dulles, Va., have been working on what they call an ILS/Proton Duo design that would carry two Orbital-built spacecraft. Orbital Chief Executive David W. Thompson said in a Jan. 12 interview that the company is ready to invest in the development of Proton Duo, once a customer has been found, as a way of offering satellite owners a broader choice of launchers beyond Ariane 5 and Soyuz.

Proton has long been used to launch three Russian Glonass navigation and timing satellites at a time into medium Earth orbit, and it has also launched two Russian-built satellites into geostationary orbit in a single mission.

McKenna said ILS and Orbital are already offering Proton Duo launches to customers, and that a first launch — once a pairing of two owners of Orbital-built satellites has been found — could be conducted in 2012.

He said ILS plans a 2011 launch of an Orbital-built satellite paired with the Khrunichev-built KazSat-2 telecommunications satellite under construction for the government of Kazakhstan.

Five of the ILS contracts signed in 2009 were for satellites weighing less than 4,000 kilograms. Orbital’s commercial telecommunications satellite products typically weigh 3,200 kilograms or less.

“What we are doing is diversifying — creating more opportunities for that end of the market in response to customers who have requested us to compete,” McKenna said.
月影挽歌 发表于 2010-1-17 03:31 | 显示全部楼层

cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-17 13:19 | 显示全部楼层
01/15/10 06:04 PM ET

ILS May Pitch Proton as Cost-saver Over Soyuz for Galileo Satellites

By P ...
jingyan66 发表于 2010-1-16 23:10

shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:39 | 显示全部楼层


[据美国太空新闻网近日报道]   运营俄罗斯质子重型火箭的美国公司国际发射服务(ILS)公司称,它发射欧洲伽利略卫星的成本仅为欧委会同意支付给欧洲型联盟火箭费用的三分之一。ILS公司总裁麦肯纳称,伽利略计划采取了贸易保护主义。  

shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:40 | 显示全部楼层
a123s 发表于 2010-1-21 13:22 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 18:43 | 显示全部楼层
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 12:40

质子一次发射的卫星数是联盟的三倍(6颗 vs 2颗),所需费用却相仿。
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-21 18:49 | 显示全部楼层
质子一次发射的卫星数是联盟的三倍(6颗 vs 2颗),所需费用却相仿。
cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 18:43


cmj9808 发表于 2010-1-21 19:01 | 显示全部楼层
shaolin兄客气了。欧空局选择联盟也许正是出于安全性的考虑,因为按照现在的费用看,联盟、质子和Ariane 5中最不经济的就是联盟。
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-1-23 11:33 | 显示全部楼层


  [据澳大利亚每日航天网站2010年1月21日报道]  萨瑞卫星技术有限公司(SSTL)已重新调整业务结构,新建立了两个业务部门以管理持续增长的地球观测和科学电信任务。


   地球观测与科学业务部将由目前任职于销售业务部的主管保罗·布鲁克斯负责管理。不久,SSTL将承接一项哈萨克斯坦遥感任务,并在2010年晚些时候发射尼日利亚卫星-2(NigeriaSat-2)和NX卫星。(中国航天工程咨询中心 陈菲 侯丹)  

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