航空航天港

 找回密码
 注册会员

QQ登录

只需一步,快速开始

返回列表
楼主: jingyan66
收起左侧

[专题专项] 欧空局“伽利略”卫星导航系统:ESA向OHB订购第三批12颗伽利略卫星

  [复制链接]
绿林好汉 发表于 2010-3-12 09:51 | 显示全部楼层
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-13 09:28 | 显示全部楼层
“伽利略”导航卫星上有我们的载荷?
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-13 09:34 | 显示全部楼层

欧洲委员会计划从“伽利略”导航卫星上撤掉中国制造的星上搜救载荷系统

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2010-3-13 09:36 编辑

03/12/10 05:33 PM ET

European Officials Poised To Remove Chinese Payloads From Galileo Sats



By Peter B. de Selding

MUNICH, Germany — The European Commission appears set to order the builders of the initial four Galileo navigation satellites, now in final assembly, to remove their Chinese-built search-and-rescue payloads as part of an evolving security and technology-independence policy, European government and industry officials said.

Similar motivations will prevent the builders of the full 30-satellite Galileo constellation from purchasing search-and-rescue terminals from Canada’s Com Dev despite Canada’s status as an associate member of the 18-nation European Space Agency and Com Dev’s acknowledged expertise in the technology, officials said.

Galileo program managers, anticipating a commission ruling they say they still have not received, have begun designing replacement hardware that would have the same weight as the Chinese gear and would not further delay delivery of the four Galileo In-Orbit Validation spacecraft.

The four satellites are in final assembly and test by a manufacturing consortium led by Astrium Satellites and Thales Alenia Space. Their launch date has recently slipped to early 2011 for the first two, and mid-2011 for the remaining pair.

A European Union decision to offload the Chinese-built hardware could serve as a metaphor for the European Commission’s relations with China in the Galileo program.

When Galileo was viewed as a private-sector development with public-sector financial participation, European Commission program managers sought Chinese participation in pursuit of Chinese cash in the short term and privileged access to China’s market for positioning and timing applications in the longer term.

That business model collapsed, however, and Galileo was transformed into a 100 percent taxpayer-financed project. Galileo’s managers also became aware of the security considerations implicit in the construction of a global positioning, navigation and timing satellite network.

China was, in effect, disinvited from Galileo, a decision that was reinforced by China’s move to build its own global system,  called Beidou/Compass.

At the Munich Satellite Navigation Summit here March 10, a Chinese government official bluntly asked the European Commission why it no longer wanted to work with China, and when China’s cash investment in Galileo would be returned.

Paul Verhoef, the European Commission’s satellite navigation program manager, sought to explain.

Europe’s decision to invite China to invest in Galileo, Verhoef said, “was with a number of purposes in mind, and in a different context. Some nations [outside Europe] wanted to participate in the construction of the system as part of a public-private partnership. But Galileo subsequently was made into a public procurement with public-procurement rules.”

Verhoef added: “China’s ambitions also had changed. China originally said it was designing is own smaller, regional system for military use. Then China moved to a global civil system. It is one thing to work together in one context. It is quite another in another context. But our two systems can still cooperate.”

The former Galileo partners are now embroiled in a dispute over the radio frequencies their separate navigation constellations will use for their encrypted, quasi-military service, which for Galileo is called the Public Regulated Service (PRS). Chinese officials refer to their PRS equivalent simply as the Authorized Service.

Satellite navigation system sponsors would like to be able to locate their government-only service on radio spectrum not used by any other navigation system. That way, they can jam all other navigation signals in a conflict zone or during an emergency while retaining the use of their own service.

“For the authorized service, spectral separation is beneficial,” said Jiao Wenhai of the China Satellite Navigation Office in Beijing during a March 10 presentation here. “But due to the limits of the spectrum, it is difficult to achieve.”

China has begun deploying its Beidou/Compass satellites. The full system is designed to include five geostationary-orbit satellites, three satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit for northern coverage and 27 satellites operating in medium Earth orbit. An initial capacity to serve Asia is expected to be in place by 2012, with full system deployment by 2020, Jiao said.

In an interview, Jiao said that despite some two years of negotiations with Europe and the United States to find separate spectrum slices for the U.S. GPS military code, Europe’s PRS and the Chinese Authorized Service, no solution has been found because of the physical limits of available radio spectrum.

Europe and the United States agreed on the locations of their encrypted services in 2004. Verhoef said Europe and Russia — whose Glonass constellation is nearing full in-orbit operational status — are “well advanced” on the issue. “We’re still in discussions with China,” he said.
 楼主| jingyan66 发表于 2010-3-13 09:44 | 显示全部楼层

“伽利略”30星座首批2颗卫星要到2011年2月后才会做好准备发射

本帖最后由 jingyan66 于 2010-3-13 10:10 编辑

Delays Continue to Plague Europe's Galileo GNSS Program

March 11, 2010

At this week’s (March 9–11) Munich Satellite Navigation Summit, Galileo program officials — public and private — acknowledged that it faces delays at both ends of its latest schedule.

At the near end, the lead contractor for the Galileo in-orbit validation (IOV) satellites that it is building with a consortium of companies said the first IOV will not launch in 2010 as per the most recent schedule. Instead, said Mike Healy, director of navigation for EADS Astrium, the satellite will not be ready for launch until probably February 2011.

Even then, a question remains as to whether a Soyuz launcher will be available at the new Arianespace facilities in Kourou, French Guiana. First launch from the Soyuz site at Kourou is currently scheduled for August, but the date may slip, according to various sources.

At the other end of the Galileo program schedule, full operational capability (FOC) — including a 27-satellite constellation — has been pushed back to the 2016–18 timeframe, according to Paul Verhoef, GNSS programs director for the European Commission (EC).

The key factor in the latter range of dates depends on if and how quickly the EC and the European Space Agency (ESA) can convince their funding sources to commit additional financial investment in Galileo.

The EC had promised not to ask for additional funding before 2012 above the 3.4 billion allocated to build the system. However, late last year the EC acknowledged that those funds would not be enough to complete the system due to overruns in the IOV phases and higher than expected launcher costs. Instead, a smaller number of spacecraft (16) would be launched by 2013.

Sources close to the project indicate that the size of the shortfall to reach FOC is about 1 billion. Moreover, the annual costs to operate, replenish/sustain, and refresh the Galileo technology are now projected at about 600 million for Galileo itself, and another 100 million for the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS).
shuchunyong 发表于 2010-3-13 10:03 | 显示全部楼层
为何取消中国载荷?是竞争的结果吗?
cmj9808 发表于 2010-3-13 12:31 | 显示全部楼层
是政策关系,“an evolving security and technology-independence policy”,把中国和加拿大生产的部件全部换成欧空局成员国生产的相应部件
spacedog 发表于 2010-3-13 14:03 | 显示全部楼层
那土鳖的投资和研发开销怎么办?今后土鳖还能使用伽利略吗?
Nighthawk 发表于 2010-3-13 15:04 | 显示全部楼层
好啊,清理门户了!
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-3-13 15:15 | 显示全部楼层
清理门户后,伽利略还有脸面说是国际合作了么
ganjp201 发表于 2010-3-13 18:38 | 显示全部楼层
好唉,兔子需要敲打才能变流氓兔,那就铁了心搞自家北斗了
shuchunyong 发表于 2010-3-13 18:46 | 显示全部楼层
只有靠自己,自力更生一心搞BD了。
ymryrh 发表于 2010-3-13 23:22 | 显示全部楼层
好像我们给了1.5亿欧元啊,这个钱能拿回来不?还是欧州佬吞了?
着急上火1 发表于 2010-3-13 23:56 | 显示全部楼层
清理门户后,伽利略还有脸面说是国际合作了么
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-3-13 15:15

肯定还是‘国际合作’,英法德.....等都是‘国’啊。
donnie88 发表于 2010-3-15 15:48 | 显示全部楼层
好像我们给了1.5亿欧元啊,这个钱能拿回来不?还是欧州佬吞了?
ymryrh 发表于 2010-3-13 23:22


看合同条款了,一般都会有安排的,因为连一般的销售合同中都有的。就是没有也可以再协商。

    2004年中欧正式签署技术合作协议,中方承诺投入2.3亿欧元的巨额资金,第一笔7000万欧元的款项很快就打到欧方账户上
delta4heavy 发表于 2010-3-15 17:47 | 显示全部楼层
全球贸易保护主义浪潮下的正常举动
站长 发表于 2010-3-15 17:54 | 显示全部楼层
新一期太空探索也在讨论此问题,把中欧的导航卫星计划比作“龟兔赛跑”,欧洲的内讧给中国提供了时间,我们就是要利用先到先得的原则,把现有的频率抢下来。
bluety 发表于 2010-3-18 22:09 | 显示全部楼层
俄国试图说服欧盟用质子火箭一箭六星发射伽利略。 俄国已经拿到了5枚欧洲版联盟火箭发射10颗伽利略的合同,但是伽利略的发射费用还是超支,俄国试图说服欧盟,想要让预算平衡的唯一办法就是用质子火箭来一箭六星。

http://www.spacenews.com/civil/100317-ils-bid-galileo-launches-touts-savings.html

ILS To Bid on Galileo Launches, Touts Cost Savings                                                
      

                               
登录/注册后可看大图
                                         By Peter B. de Selding                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

WASHINGTON— The U.S. company that markets Russia’s Protonrocket will submit a bidthis spring to the European Commission to launch 18Galileo navigationsatellites on three Proton rockets in what the firm says maybe thecommission’s only hope for staying within its Galileo budget.

Reston,Va.-based International Launch Services (ILS) isprepared to tellEuropean authorities that three Proton launches carrying sixGalileosatellites each, combined with the five Soyuz rockets alreadypurchasedto launch Galileo satellites two at a time, will allow Galileomanagers to staywithin their launch budget of 700 million euros ($1billion).

TheEuropean Commission in January contracted for fiveEuropeanized versionsof Russia’sSoyuz rocket for 397 million euros — far higher than whathad been budgeted.The higher-than-expected launch charge is one factorthat is forcing theGalileo program to slow the purchase of satellites.

Fourteen satellites have been ordered for a constellationthat is supposed to be 30 satellites.

“Wecan help them close the business case,” ILS PresidentFrank McKenna saidMarch 16 here during the Satellite 2010 conference. “We havetaken aclose look at this and a mix of the Soyuz vehicles and the Protonwillcome in beneath the 700 million-euro ceiling.”

McKennasaid the ILS bid should not be viewed as a responseto a formal requestfor proposals from the commission. Galileo projectofficials have longsaid they would not consider from launches outside EuropeanUnionterritory. The European version of Russia’sSoyuz will be launched fromEurope’s GuianaSpace Centerin French Guiana.

ButMcKenna said the commission has encouraged ILS to submita bid, butprovided no guarantees as to whether it would be accepted.

Galileoprogram managers have given no indication that theyare willing toconsider vehicles other than the Europeanized Soyuz and Europe’sownAriane 5 heavy-lift rocket, which can carry four Galileo spacecraft atatime. But with no fresh financing in sight, they are under pressure tofindunorthodox solutions to put the full constellation into service.

bluety 发表于 2010-3-18 22:14 | 显示全部楼层
回复  Nighthawk


  要是能获得伽利略的发射合同再组批生产火箭就成了

  话说回来现在北斗和长 ...
shaolin1254 发表于 2010-3-11 12:39



    搞个团购。
RenBright 发表于 2010-3-19 07:51 | 显示全部楼层
质子号一箭六星发射加利略,欧空局还没有这个胆,毕竟风险太大了。
tomluter 发表于 2010-3-19 17:10 | 显示全部楼层
北斗来不及,或者长3火箭不稳定的话,也可以叫毛子帮忙发射.  就怕卫星产量小.
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册会员

本版积分规则

QQ|申请友链|旗下论坛|小黑屋|手机版|航空航天港 ( 豫ICP备12024513号 )

GMT+8, 2018-11-15 19:22 , Processed in 0.710262 second(s), 18 queries , Gzip On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表