楼主: hkhtg090201

[专题专项] SpaceX可重复使用航天器愿景开发进程-大幅降低运营成本与大众航天的关键途径

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-3 10:15 | 显示全部楼层

"We now believe we have all the piecesof the puzzle," Musk said on the press call. "If you take theGrasshopper tests, where we were able to do a precision takeoff and landing ofa Falcon 9 first stage, and you combine it with the results from this flightwhere we were able to successfullytransition from vacuum through hypersonic, through supersonic, throughtransonic, and light the engines all the way and control the stage all the waythrough—we have all the pieces necessary to achieve a full recovery of theboost stage."
“现在,我们相信我们拥有了所有的拼图块,” 穆斯克对记者的提问说。“如果你拿草蜢测试(看),我们能够做到猎鹰9 第一级精确的起飞和降落,并且你结合这次飞行的结果,我们能够成功地从真空过渡到高超声速,穿过超音速,穿过跨音速,并且在所有的方式上点燃发动机,同时通过所有的方式来控制这个级段,  我们已经有了所有的必须的片段,去实现该助推段的全面回收。“
The first stage booster on Sunday's flightsurvived for a second relight, this time just of the center engine, as planned.At that point, however, the booster was spinning so fast it pushed propellantaway from the fuel lines, shutting the engine down prematurely. Consequently,the booster came down harder than expected and broke up on impact with the Pacific Ocean. Musk said that had the booster on Sunday'sflight had the landing legs of the Grasshopper used in flight tests at McGregor,the legs would have stabilized the rocket enough to keep the engine runninglonger, potentially enabling the booster to remain intact.
该第一级助力器周日的飞行生存的第二个重新点燃,这只是时间的中心引擎,按计划进行。在这一点上,但是,助推器自旋 这么快推推进剂燃料线远离,过早关闭发动机。所以,助推器下来比预期的更难,分手与太平洋的影响。穆斯克说,有助力器 周日的飞行着陆腿蚱蜢用于飞行试验在麦格雷戈,该腿会使火箭稳定,足以保持发动机运行更长的时间,有可能使该助推器保持不动。

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-4 21:10 | 显示全部楼层
Musk lays out plans for reusability of theFalcon 9 rocket
October 3, 2013 by Yves-A. Grondin
SpaceX CEO and Chief Designer Elon Musk haslaid out his plans for recovery and reusability of the first stage of theFalcon 9. The debut mission to launch the Cassiope satellite into orbitincluded a number of events that should help SpaceX recover and possibly evenreuse the first stage of the Falcon 9 in2014.
SpaceX首席执行官和首席设计师伊隆穆斯克已经勾画了他的猎鹰9第一级回收和可重用计划 。发射CASSIOPE的亮相任务卫星送入轨道包括一些事件,应该帮助SpaceX回收、甚至在2014年有可能重复使用猎鹰9号的第一级。
Twocritical recovery burns achieved during the Cassiope mission:
SpaceX have been advancing their ambitionsto create a fully reusable launch system since Musk announced his intentions in2009, prior to expanding on his plans early last year.
The weekend debutof the Falcon 9 v1.1 – also known as the F9-R – providing the first real “spacetest” of this technology, providing vital data for the forward path.
周末亮相的“猎鹰9 V1.1  - 在F9- R也被称为  - 第一个真正的“空间试验” 在此技术中,提供重要的数据的转发路径。
Recovery of the firststage of the Falcon 9 involves a supersonic retro-propulsion with three enginesand a second burn involving the center engine that allows the stage to do aprecise and controlled landing. These two critical burns for recovery wereinitiated during the recent mission that lofted the Cassiope satellite intoorbit.
第一级猎鹰9回收涉及三个引擎超音速复古推进和第二燃烧涉及的中心引擎,允许在火箭级段上做一个精确和可控制降落。在最近的任务,这两个严重点火的回收启动 推升(把...送入太空) ED的CASSIOPE卫星送入预定轨道。
All three engineswere fired during the first descent burn and the first stage survived re-entryinto the atmosphere.
所有三个发动机 在第一次下降点火和点火 第一级幸存 再入到大气中。
Musk explained at the post flight pressconference that this achievement was significant, given that previouslySpaceX’s “first stages always essentially exploded upon re-entering theatmosphere due to the extreme forces they encountered.”
The second burn, involving the centerengine, was also initiated during the Cassiope mission and was also successful.
However, despite both descent burns beingsuccessful, the stage did not achieve a controlled landing. Because the firststage did not have landing gear on this flight to help stabilize it, the stageended up spinning to a degree that was greater than what could be controlledwith the gas thrusters.
Musk explained that the landing gear on theupgraded Falcon 9 does more than just land the first stage, it also acts tostabilize the stage upon descent much like fins do on an aircraft. The spinningof the first stage centrifuged the propellant and caused the stage to run outof propellant before hitting the water.
穆斯克解释说, 起落架升级的猎鹰9号并不仅仅是第一级着陆,它也起到稳定阶段后下降鳍很像飞机上做。纺 第一级离心推进剂,并导致阶段运行前的推进剂碰水。
The firststage hit the water relatively hard,” noted Musk. Despite the impact, SpaceXstill managed to recover portions of the first stage which includes accordingto preliminary reports, the inter-stage, a number of the components from theengine bay, and some of the composite overwrap pressure vessels.
“第一级撞击水面相对比较猛烈,“ 穆斯克指出。尽管该撞击,SpaceX仍然设法回收部分 第一级根据初步报告,其中包括,级间,一个从引擎室的部件个数,和一些复合外包装压力容器。
Although the landing of the first stagewasn’t entirely successful, Musk was still thrilled with the results of therecovery attempt.
The most important thing isthat we now believe we have all the pieces of the puzzle (for recovery). If youtake the Grasshopper tests, where we were able to do a precision takeoff andlanding of a Falcon 9 first stage and you combine it with the results from thisflight where we were able to successfully transition from vacuum to hypersonic,through supersonic, through transonic and light the engines all the way throughand control the stage all the way through.
“最重要的事情是,我们现在相信,我们拥有所有的拼图块(回收)。如果你把草蜢测试,我们能够做一个精确的起飞和降落的一架猎鹰9 第一级和你结合的结果,我们能够成功转型,从真空到高超音速飞行,通过超音速,通过跨音速和光引擎,一路过关斩将,并控制火箭级段,一路过关斩将。
We have all the pieces necessary to achievea full recovery of the boost stage.”
Nextrecovery attempt on the CRS-3 flight:
下一次回收尝试在CRS - 3飞行时:
Musk indicated that SpaceX would notattempt to recover the first stage for the SES and Thaicom flights, instead“(for) the next two launches, we are going to gather data from the first stagebut we are not going to attempt to recover it because we’ve committed to givethe customers on the next two flights maximum performance of the rocket. Thenext recovery attempt for the first stage will be the fourth flight (CRS-3) ofthis version.”
穆斯克表示,在 SES和Thaicom飞行任务中 ,SpaceX不会尝试回收第一级,代替的是,“(对于)接下来两次发射,我们要收集第一级的数据 ,但我们不会试图回收它,因为我们致力于给下一次火箭飞行的客户最大的性能。下一次回收尝试这个版本的第一级将是第四次飞行( CRS-3 )。“
Musk indicated that SpaceX would like tohave the landing legs on the CRS-3 flight, although they would not postpone theflight for this design change.
穆斯克表示, 在CRS – 3飞行中SpaceX 想有一个着陆支腿,尽管他们不会为这种设计的变化推迟飞行。
If landinglegs end up being delayed for any reason then we won’t hold up the (CRS-3)flight for that,” Musk added. “The schedule for that mission is mostly governedby upgrades to the Dragon spacecraft.”
“如果着陆腿最终因任何原因被推迟,那么我们将无法为此托起( CRS - 3 )的飞行。” 穆斯克补充说“这一任务的时间表多半是受升级到龙航天器的支配。“
With Musk indicating the next CRS flightwill probably be sometime in February, he also indicated that SpaceX is stilldebating whether the first stage on CRS-3 “will land with landing legs in theocean or land with landing legs on land. (But) either way, we do want it tohave the landing legs on.”
同时穆斯克表示下一次CRS飞行可能会在2月的某个时候,他还表示,SpaceX仍在争论 CRS-3的第一级是否“会凭借着陆腿降落在海洋中,或者凭借着陆腿降落在陆地上。但是无论哪种方式,我们希望它有着陆腿。
SpaceX will attempt the recovery of morefirst stages after the CRS-3 flight, with Musk indicating that SpaceX’s goal is“to recover the first stage on all CRS flights and really on most flights. Thenext two flights are somewhat of an exception.
SpaceX将在 CRS -3的飞行后尝试更多的第一级回收,同时穆斯克表示,SpaceX的目标是“在所有的CRS飞行上 事实上的大多数飞行上 回收第一级。下两次飞行稍微有有些不一样。
When wenegotiated these deals (with SES and Thaicom), we didn’t have much bargainingpower. It was before we had obviously flown this version of the Falcon 9successfully. So we kind of agreed to give up all performance on the rocket andnot reserve anything for reusability. But going into the future, with futurecontracts, with a few exceptions, we have reserved enough performance torecover the stage.
It’s not justthe CRS flights, it should be most flights after these next two (flights).”
Musk explained that the actual reuse of arecovered first stage could happen as early at the end of 2014 but that itdepends on a number of factors.
In terms ofwhen we actually re-fly the stage, it’s going to depend on what condition thestage is in and obviously getting customers comfortable with that (i.e., withreusing the first stage). So it’s difficult to say when would actually re-flyit. If things go super well then we would be able to re-fly a Falcon 9 stagebefore the end of next year. That’s our aspiration.”
Performancehit for reusable rockets:
Musk also addressed the performance hitthat results from reserving propellant for landing the first stage.
穆斯克还讨论了 来自着陆第一级储备的推进剂  对性能的影响 的结果。
If we do anocean landing (for testing purposes), the performance hit is actually quitesmall, maybe in the order of 15 percent. If we do a return to launch sitelanding, it’s probably double that, it’s more like a 30 percent hit (i.e., 30percent of payload lost).”
Click here for more SpaceX News Articles:http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/tag/spacex/
“如果我们做一个海上着陆(用于测试目的),(推进剂?)对性能的影响实际上是相当小,也许大约在15%。如果我们做一次在发射场登陆,它可能是两倍的,它更像是一个30 %的影响(即,有效载荷丢失30
Musk believes that the most revolutionaryaspect of the new Falcon 9 is the potential reuse of the first stage “which isalmost three-quarters of the cost of the rocket.”
Returnto launch site landing – safety and location:
返回发射现场着陆  - 安全和定位:
Although a “return to site” landing of thefirst stage could happen as early as the CRS-3 flight in February, Muskcautioned that SpaceX would only attempt it if it is perfectly safe to do so.
虽然第一级着陆“回到现场”,尽早可能在2月飞行CRS- 3时发生,穆斯克告诫说SpaceX将仅仅是尝试它,(前提是)如果它这样做是绝对安全的。
Citing safety as part of the reason whythey first wanted to land in the ocean, SpaceX wants to make sure thateverything is working properly in the first instance before attempting to landwith legs on land. Musk noted that if a return to launch site recovery is made,it would be done over an unpopulated area.
For anylanding area that we would have, the landing ellipse, the sort of error thatthe stage could encounter would be an unpopulated region,” Musk added. “So wewould aim to have a landing site that’s unpopulated with a radius of a coupleof miles.”
“对于任何我们将有的着陆区,一个着陆椭圆,排序阶段可能会遇到的错误,会是一个无人居住的地区, “ 穆斯克补充说“因此,我们将瞄准有一个着陆点,那是一个 2英里半径的无人居住 。”
He also explained that this could beachieved in certain areas at Cape Canaveraland at Vandenberg.
We haveactually been working with Air Force Range Safety and the FAA (Federal AviationAdministration) to identify landing locations at Cape Canaveral and we haveidentified a few. I don’t think that we are quite ready to say what thoselocations are but they are kind of out on the tip, on the eastern (part) ofCape Canaveral.”
“我们实际上一直在与空军射程安全(部门)和FAA(美国联邦航空管理局)一起工作,以确定卡纳维拉尔角的着陆地点,我们已经确定了一些。我不认为我们完全准备说那些地方是什么,但他们种出来的尖端,在卡纳维拉尔角东部(部分)。 “
Noting that both the Air Force Range Safetyand the FAA which have been quite supportive of their return to launch sitelanding efforts, Musk added that SpaceX expects to get the required FAA licensefor a return to site landing. He also explained that the Falcon Heavy willeventually also be able to do return to launch site landings.
注意到空军射程安全范围(部门)和FAA已经相当支持他们返回到发射场的着陆努力,穆斯克补充说SpaceX预计将获得返回现场着陆 所需的FAA执照。他还解释说重型猎鹰最终也将能够做到返回发射现场着陆。
The FalconHeavy is essentially the Falcon 9 with two additional boost stages as strap onboosters.” For the Falcon Heavy, he added. “once the three boost stages willseparate, they will come back and land individually and they will behave justlike the Falcon 9 boost stage.
“重型猎鹰基本上是猎鹰9号附加两个额外的助推段作为助推器。 ” 对于重型猎鹰,他补充说“一旦三个助推动段分离,他们会回来,分别着陆,他们会表现得就像猎鹰9的助推段。
All three ofthem will come back hopefully and land on three separate pads and we’ll jointhem back together for future flight launches.”
Although not specifically mentioned by Muskduring the press conference, the testing in Spaceport America of theF9R-1 – the next phase of the Grasshopper program – could have an impact on howsoon the return to launch site landing is attempted on an actual flight.
穆斯克在新闻发布会上虽然没有具体提到F9R -1在美国太空港的测试  - 蝈蝈程序的下一个阶段  - 可能会影响如何 尽快回收 发射现场试图着陆上的实际飞行
SpaceX intends to test the final phases ofthe recovery of the first stage of Falcon 9 at Spaceport America athigher altitude than those that have been achieved under the currentGrasshopper program (i.e., more than 250m).
SpaceX打算 美国太空港测试“猎鹰9 第一级最后的回收阶段 ,比那些已经实现根据目前的草蜢计划(即在高海拔,超过250
As mentioned previously byNASASpaceflight.com on September 25, the F9R-1 test stage was recentlyundergoing Octaweb Integration operations ahead of engine installation.
正如前面在9月25日NASASpaceflight.com上提到的,F9R - 1测试段最近正在接受Octaweb在安装发动机前 集成操作。

rhZhao 发表于 2013-10-13 06:28 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 rhZhao 于 2013-10-13 08:40 编辑

SpaceX 进行744m 飞行试验

On Monday, October 7th, Grasshopper completed its highest leap to date, rising to 744m altitude. The view above is taken from a single camera hexacopter, getting closer to the stage than in any previous flight.

Grasshopper is a 10-story Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing (VTVL) vehicle designed to test the technologies needed to return a rocket back to Earth intact. While most rockets are designed to burn up on atmosphere reentry, SpaceX rockets are being designed not only to withstand reentry, but also to return to the launch pad for a vertical landing. The Grasshopper VTVL vehicle represents a critical step towards this goal.

Grasshopper consists of a Falcon 9 rocket first stage tank, Merlin 1D engine, four steel and aluminum landing legs with hydraulic dampers, and a steel support structure.


原来是用遥控直升机拍的  发表于 2013-10-14 11:51
真牛皮啊,神舟不知道能开发个降落支架不。。  发表于 2013-10-13 16:17
7号的测试,SpaceX12日才公布。  发表于 2013-10-13 09:03


参与人数 1积分 +5 收起 理由
hkhtg090201 + 5 谢谢...


 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 07:30 | 显示全部楼层
rhZhao 发表于 2013-10-13 06:28
SpaceX F9R 进行744m 飞行试验

1.  744米,比曾经最高的320米高不少。
2.  严格地说,这个不应该叫F9R,不说蚱蜢名称,起码只是第一级。
3.  这个是在那里测试的,德州的老地方还是莫哈韦的新测试场?
4.  期待视频.
5.  2个多月一次,这种测试频次感觉够快。
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 08:22 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 hkhtg090201 于 2013-10-13 08:32 编辑
hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 07:30
1.  744米,比曾经最高的320米高不少。
2.  严格地说,这个不应该叫F9R,不说蚱蜢名称,起码只是第一级。 ...

1. 看来还是在老地方,老地方的许可证限制是2500英尺,744米≈2480英尺。
2. 78秒,比320米的68秒多有限。
3. 2张对比图:  



 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 08:51 | 显示全部楼层
SpaceX Facebook:

"This was the last scheduled test for the Grasshopper rig; next up will be low altitude tests
  of the Falcon 9 Reusable (F9R) development vehicle in Texas followed by high altitude testing in New Mexico."

        “这是草蜢机最后预定的测试;下一次升起将是猎鹰9号可重用(F9R)开发运载器在得克萨斯州 (的)低空测试,其次是在新墨西哥州的高海拔测试。”


PS: 开发运载器是什么?整箭?整箭有必要一起进行低海拔测试吗?

cmj9808 发表于 2013-10-13 10:40 | 显示全部楼层
hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 08:51
SpaceX Facebook:

"This was the last scheduled test for the Grasshopper rig; next up will be low a ...

下面这个网址最后两张图里左起第二个就是F9R development vehicle,拍照时已安装两台引擎,现在估计已在Mcgregor
 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2013-10-13 11:10 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2013-10-13 10:40
就是F9R的模拟一级,箭体来自v1.1的结构测试用箭体,装有三台引擎和四个着陆支架,先在Mcgregor进行试飞, ...



值得期待  发表于 2013-10-13 20:09
是的,就是之前看到的伸缩式支架。  发表于 2013-10-13 19:04
神级猎鹰 发表于 2013-10-13 11:30 | 显示全部楼层
着急上火1 发表于 2013-10-13 14:00 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 着急上火1 于 2013-10-13 14:02 编辑



pockn 发表于 2013-10-13 18:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 pockn 于 2013-10-13 18:24 编辑



这是谁拍的?能否提供个链接?  发表于 2013-10-13 21:51
有点像反导拦截器的感觉,如果此为真,那么F9用的应该不光是以前有人提到的冷气姿控。那我前面的担心有点多余了。  发表于 2013-10-13 20:59
如果是真的,确实惊奇。估计SpaceX有私家真货。  发表于 2013-10-13 20:14
pockn 发表于 2013-10-13 22:16 | 显示全部楼层
pockn 发表于 2013-10-13 18:07
今天翻看之前下载的一些视频时,发现上个月F9v1.1的发射,有人拍到了一级分离,疑似RCS调姿的震撼画面!!不 ...

是真得!是发射的现场视频 1080pi ~正在上传到优酷!
pockn 发表于 2013-10-13 22:37 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 pockn 于 2013-10-13 22:39 编辑






cmj9808 发表于 2013-10-17 12:05 | 显示全部楼层
Grasshopper 2.0(正式名称是F9R development vehicle)将于年底(或明年年初)在美洲航天港开始飞行测试。

http://www.lcsun-news.com/las_cr ... port-america-launch
wsl2005 发表于 2013-10-18 19:39 | 显示全部楼层
cmj9808 发表于 2013-10-17 12:05
Grasshopper 2.0(正式名称是F9R development vehicle)将于年底(或明年年初)在美洲航天港开始飞行测试。

SpaceX could launch rocket from NM site this year

LAS CRUCES, N.M. (AP) — Space Explorations Technologies Corp. says it could launch its first test flight from Spaceport America by late December.
The Las Cruces Sun-News (http://bit.ly/1aPixT9 ) reports that SpaceX President and CEO Gwynne Shotwell addressed a space symposium in Las Cruces Wednesday.
She said about 25 of SpaceX's more than 3,000 employees will be based temporarily at New Mexico at the spaceport near Truth or Consequences for the test work on the company's Grasshopper rocket.
The 10-story rocket had its final Texas test flight earlier this month.
Shotwell said the New Mexico site is well laid out and that it allows forms of testing that can't be done elsewhere.

a123s 发表于 2013-10-20 22:34 | 显示全部楼层
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东方流水 发表于 2013-10-21 11:00 | 显示全部楼层
liyue1997 发表于 2013-10-21 13:04 | 显示全部楼层
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cmj9808 发表于 2014-1-19 14:26 | 显示全部楼层
Grasshopper 2(前景)在Mcgregor测试场

 楼主| hkhtg090201 发表于 2014-2-3 10:52 | 显示全部楼层



PS: 是静态测试吗?都熏黑了。要飞起来看来还要等一段时间。


GH2没法"拴"在地上,只有发射场或是测试台上才有牵引装置,GH2只能通过加注燃料使总重超过三台引擎的推力来把箭体压在地上。  发表于 2014-2-3 22:59
另外有个问题,所谓静态测试是指栓在地面长时间点火么?这么长时间熏,箭体和起落架还能用么。。。  发表于 2014-2-3 12:03
这貌似就是完全版的起落架,首见,赞!  发表于 2014-2-3 12:02
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